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date: 28 February 2020

(p. 481) Index

(p. 481) Index

Figures and tables are indicate by "f" and "t" following page numbers.

Abbeys and monasteries, 216
Abrantes, Anibal H., 461
Abu Dhabi, 196n6
Academic capitalism, 255
Academic engagement, 255
Academic policy, 225–230. See also Universities
Accelerate Long Island (New York), 314, 317–318
Accountability and transparency, 28, 168, 193, 196, 206, 212, 246, 416, 443, 444, 473, 474
Acs, Zoltan J., 7, 55n2, 220, 224, 225, 268
Adair, Franklin, 435
Adjacent possible, 466
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 19
Advanced technology. See also Biotechnology; Nanotechnology
need to focus on, 333
trade deficit in, 328
Aerospace industry, 73n29
Agglomeration economies, 329, 331, 385, 465
Agrawal, A. K., 256, 257, 261
Ahlin, Lina, 176, 176n26
Ahlstrom, D., 225
Air conditioning, 105
Akron (Ohio), 132
Albany Small Business Development Center, 414, 416–417
Albouy, David, 44
Alexeev, M., 194
Algeria, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Almeida, P., 223
al-Qaeda, 199n10
Alto Livenza's furniture industry, 114–119
education system and, 114–115
financial system and, 115–116
globally fragmented production and, 115
internationalization drive and, 116
local government policies and, 115
product chain and, 117–119
specialized suppliers and, 119
Altruism, 15, 272, 364
Ambition, 288, 292, 293
Amenities of place, 43–44
"Anatomy of Detroit's Decline" (New York Times), 145
Ancient Greece, education in, 216
Andersson, Åke E., 42
Andersson, Martin, 7, 145, 176, 176n26, 178, 179
Andersson, Thomas, 191
Angel investors and networks, 65n24, 88, 93, 161, 248, 294, 295, 308, 314, 317, 318, 357, 362, 408, 409, 430, 436
Animal Health Corridor (Kansas), 403
Appalachian Regional Commission, 321
Apple, 261
Apsley, Norman, 432
Arab Gulf natural resources, 198–207
Arab Spring and, 198–201, 200t
curse of, 192–195
disparate outcomes, 195–198, 198n8
future recommendations for, 207
Oman and, 201–206
overview, 191–192
Arab League of Nations, 198, 198n8
Arab Spring, 7, 191–192, 198–206, 200t
Aristotle, 216
Armington, Catherine, 55n2
Arrow, K., 218
Artifact complexity, 60–61
Aspen Institute, 55
Aspen Network of Development Entrepreneurs, 55
Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), 257
Atkinson, Robert D., 8, 320, 431–432
Atlanta (Georgia), funding of universities in. See University research funding, impact of economic crisis of 2008 on
Atlantic Century II report (ITIF), 333
Attachment to place, 36, 45
Audretsch, David B., 6, 13, 14, 27, 31, 55n2, 65, 155, 220, 224, 229, 291, 358n1
Auerswald, Philip E., 6, 54, 59–60, 62n15, 63, 66n24
Augmentation Research Center (ARC), 92
Austin (Texas), 23, 291
Australia
competition in, 273n3
natural resources in, 195
Austria, innovation strategy of Lower Austria region, 471, 474–475
Autio, E., 300
Automobile industry, 105, 129
Axel Co-transformation patents, 257
Ayyagari, Meghana, 68f, 69
Bacolod, Marigee, 41
Bae, J., 229
Bahrain, Arab Spring in, 200
"Balance Agriculture with Industry" program (Mississippi), 320–321
Balanced Scorecard methodology to monitor regional innovation, 474–475
Balkans, off-shore furniture production in, 117
Banche di Credito Cooperativo, 115
Barcelona Activa (Spain), 476
Barnett, Richard, 435
Basque region, business environment in, 355–372
ancient entrepreneurial values from whaling industry, 357–358
business angel networks, 362
contemporary entrepreneurial social capital, 358–364, 359t, 361t, 362–363f
CRECER+ support platform, 370
crisis of entrepreneurial values and, 356
entrepreneurial ecosystem, 360, 361t, 363, 363f
foreign direct investment (FDI), 362
government budget to promote, 363
performance of local entrepreneurial activity, 365–367f, 365–369
recessionary period, 355–356
regulatory frameworks, 363n3
SGECR (government private equity firm), 362
social capital, 364, 370
Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) rate, 365–367, 366f, 368f
unemployment rate, 364, 364f
Bathelt, H., 134
Battelle, 342, 343, 410
Baumol, William J., 154, 155
Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, 221, 226, 251, 258, 264, 389n9, 430
Beck, Thorsten, 68f, 69
Becker, Gary, 37
Beckman, A., 262
Beckman Instruments, 262
Behrens, V., 247
Bekar, C. T., 127
Belgium
cluster policies in, 297
Top Technology Region/Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (TTR-ELAt), 476–477
Bell Laboratories, 261
Belmont Forum, 241
Benefit gap of cluster strategies, 405
Ben Franklin Partnership program (Pennsylvania), 323
Ben Franklin Technology Collaborative (Pennsylvania), 313
Bercovitz, J., 297
Berger, S., 121, 464
Berkeley (California), 137
Berkeley Software Development Unix (BSD Unix), 261–262, 264
Berlin Wall, 270
Bertrand, Marianne, 168
Berwick, Donald, 74, 76
Bettencourt, L. M., 133
Bhidé, Amar, 177
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. See Gates Foundation
(p. 483) Billionaire entrepreneurs, 149n5, 151, 152f, 176. See also Entrepreneurs
Binks, Martin, 8, 345
BIO (US biotechnology industry association), 410–411
BioCrossroads (Indiana), 408, 409–411
BioEnterprise (Cleveland), 403
BioGenerator (St. Louis), 403
Biopharmaceutical model, 257. See also Biotechnology
Bio STL (St. Louis), 402
Biotechnology, 127, 128, 136–137, 223–224, 227, 228, 404–405, 409–411
model, description of, 256, 257–259, 258f, 260, 264
Birdseye, C., 130
Birdzell, L. E. J., 105
Bishop, P., 229
Blake, A. D., 351
Bloch, F., 262
Bloomberg, Michael, 276
Blue Ocean Strategy, 349
Blum, Bernardo S., 41
BMW, 248
Bologna (Italy), 173, 217
Bologna University, 214, 216
Boschma, R., 131
Bosma, Niels, 7, 172, 286
Boston, 5, 151, 332–333. See also Route 128
Boston University, 264
BP, 202
Brain drain, 214, 229
Branscomb, Lewis, 66n24
Braunerhjelm, Pontus, 131, 220, 224
Breast cancer gene (BRCA), 258
Brenner, Sydney, 77
Bresnahan, T., 25
Brewer, Marylin, 223
Breznitz, Dan, 6, 102, 104, 109
Breznitz, Shiri M., 9, 445
Briar-Lawson, Katharine, 9, 414
Britain. See United Kingdom
British National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts (NESTA), 286
Brokers. See Innovation brokers
Brown, J., 128
Brownsville, Texas, 322
Brun, Lukas C., 385
Brundle, Tim, 435
Bruton, G. D., 225
Buciuni, Giulio, 6, 102, 109
Buffalo, New York, 322, 332–333
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 239
Bureaucracy. See Regulations
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 38
Burrell, G., 128
Burt, Ronald S., 63, 64
Bush, Vannevar, 257
Business accelerator programs (BAPs)
for high-growth firms, 291, 295–296
location-based, 295–296
virtual, 295
Business climate
entrepreneurship and, 66–67
people climate and, 45–46
Business incubator programs. See Business accelerator programs
Business model innovation, 105
Business schools, 8, 345–354
developing locally useful knowledge within, 348–349
developing students' capabilities to deploy locally useful knowledge, 350–351
economic impact of, 347–348
historical role of, 345–347
knowledge development within, 348–349
opportunity to engage locally, 347–348
opportunity to engage with local economy, 351–352
overview, 345–347
student development in, 350–351
California
defense contracts in, 73n28
entrepreneurs in, 151, 174
Gold Rush, 135
Callon, M., 133
Caltech, 262
Cambodia, 250
Cambridge (Massachusetts), 43, 136–137, 278
Cambridge (UK), 237
Cambridge University, 217, 278, 279
(p. 484) Canada
business schools' role in, 352
competition in, 273n3
natural resources in, 195
underdevelopment of high-tech industry in, 298
"Can Detroit Find the Road Forward?" (Glaeser), 174–175
Capital, access to, 25, 116, 135, 313–314
Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Piketty), 270, 271n2, 272
Capitalism
evolution and history of, 34, 171n16, 268–269
laws of, 270–271, 271n2
philanthropy and, 270–274
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (Schumpeter), 268, 269, 270, 273
Carlaw, K., 127
Carnegie Mellon, 251
Carrier branches, 127
Caseaux, Pierre Hyacinte, 461
Casson, Mark C., 148n4
Castilla, Emilio J., 65
Caught in the Middle (Longworth), 402
Caves, Richard E., 42
Census of Marine Life, 249
Center for Innovation (North Dakota), 314–315
Central Indiana Corporate Partnership (CICP), 406–413
BioCrossroads initiative and, 408, 409–411, 412
Conexus Indiana initiative and, 408, 411–412
overview, 406–408
Centre for Amsterdam Schools of Entrepreneurship, 476
Centro Studi FederLegnoArredo, 116
Champalov, I., 246
Charitable foundations
endowments of, 280–282, 281–282t
grand challenges and, 240t, 241, 242t, 247
philanthropy and, 272
Chatterji, Aaron, 75
Cheng, S., 229
Chile, Startup Chile program in, 55
China
entrepreneurship in, 74
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology certification, 111
UPS production in, 108. See also Dongguan's UPS industry
Chinese Academy of Science, 109
Christensen, Clayton, 346, 353
Cities. See also specific cities by name
agglomeration economies and, 133
central role as production hub, 41–43. See also Talent
college graduates moving to, 176
consumer cities, attractiveness of, 180
creativity and, 42, 44, 47
diversity and, 27, 65
economic inequality correlated to metro size, 46–47
entrepreneurs and. See Entrepreneurship
knowledge spillovers and, 38, 55n2
quality of place, 43–45, 46. See also Place
regulations. See Regulations
tolerance of diversity and, 44–45
zoning. See Zoning regulations
Clark, Terry N., 44
Clayton, Paige A., 9, 445
Clean Energy Alliance Partnership, 390
Climate change, 265
Cluster initiatives, 94
Clusters, 84–101, 401–406
benefit gap, 405, 410
Central Indiana Corporate Partnership (CICP), 406–413
characteristics of, 86–87
cluster commons, 6, 84–101
construction of a commons, 91–92
credible claims challenge, 404–405
dynamic cluster, 89, 89f
entrepreneurship and, 173, 296–297
free riders and, 96–97
grand challenges and, 247
incentives for construction, 94
industrial cluster genesis, 131–132
innovation-addition problem, 403
innovation and, 85–87
job metrics and, 404, 410
(p. 485) knowledge spillovers and, 84–88, 90, 97
manufacturing districts and, 103, 110
as meeting place, 87–88, 87f
Midwestern states, 401–403
model of seven cluster gaps, 88–91
new industries and, 135
opportunities presented by, 401–403
organized construction of, 94–96, 96f
overview, 84–85, 401
policy role, 97–98
self-help strategies of, 402
Silicon Valley, 25, 92–93
spatial inequality and, 46–48
spatial structure and, 25
static cluster with internal gaps, 91, 91f
talent and, 42–43
universities and, 226–227
Cluster theory, 35–36
Coase, Ronald, 63
Coasean theory of the firm, 59, 63–64
Codified knowledge, 219, 223
Cohen, W. M., 224, 259
Cohen-Boyer rDNA technique, 127, 257
Cold War, 23
Collaboration
among states, 331
clusters and, 88, 89, 91–95, 97
Dongguan and Alto Livenza local institutions, 113, 120
innovation and, 136, 307, 312, 317
local officials with industry leaders, 104
microenterprise development and, 414, 426
natural resources management, 194, 195n3, 202, 205
in Northern Ireland's economic development, 436, 438, 442–444
R & D initiatives and, 238–239, 241, 243–248, 251, 462
regional innovation clusters and, 402, 407
of small firms, 464
universities with industries, 223, 225, 226, 262, 396, 409
Collaborative Economics, 306–307
College of Philadelphia, 275
Colombia, entrepreneurship in, 74
Columbia University, 274
CommerceNet, 93
Commodity prices of natural resources, 196, 196n7
Communism, 269, 273
Community venture capital funds, 314
Competition/competitiveness
cities. See Cities
clusters, effect of. See Clusters
creativity as essential for competitive advantage, 23–24, 34, 377
enablers and barriers to regional competitiveness, 4–5
entrepreneurs and. See Entrepreneurship
globalization's effect. See Globalization
linkage of competition and competitiveness, 1
look of success, 5
monopoly power. See Monopoly
national economic competitiveness. See National economic competitiveness
new industries, role of. See New industries
regional. See Regional development
universities' role in. See Universities
university funding, economy's effect on. See University research funding, impact of economic crisis of 2008 on
university research parks as spur to. See University research parks
zero-sum competition, 331
The Competitive Advantage of Nations (Porter), 25
Complete production chain, 109
Computer science in research universities, 261–262
Conexus Indiana, 408, 411–412
Confederation of British Industry, 347
Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (CSE), 168–170, 169n14, 170f
CONNECT program
San Diego, 314, 429–430, 432–434
(p. 486) Conrad, R., 194
Consultants, 295, 308, 313, 398, 412
Copublication, 239
Cotton garment industry, 129
Cotton gin invention, 135
Council for Regional Engagement and Economic Development (CREED), 22
Courtial, J., 133
Cowhey, P., 104
Cox, S., 347
Creative-class workers, 23, 24, 27, 30, 36, 37f, 38–40, 47
Creative destruction, 103n1, 125, 272, 346
Creativity. See also Creative-class workers
diversity and, 134
entrepreneurship and, 67, 126
essential for competitive advantage, 23–24, 34, 377
new industries and, 44, 47, 126, 131
occupational, 38–40
open-innovation techniques and platforms and, 248
place and, 23–24
social conditions conducive to, 67
universities and research institutes and, 243, 351
Credible claims challenge, 404–405
Credit pools, 110n6
CREED (Council for Regional Engagement and Economic Development), 22
Crowd sourcing, 248
Cuellar Mejia, Maricol, 166
Culture
capitalism and, 272
entrepreneurship and, 147, 170–174, 171n16, 296, 297, 317, 360, 363
grand challenges and, 245
innovation economy and, 307, 311, 314, 369
natural resources and, 194
in Oman, 202n11, 204
philanthropy as part of US culture, 272
quality of place and, 43–45
Curse of Arab Gulf natural resources, 192–195. See also Arab Gulf natural resources
Darby, Michael R., 223
Darwin, Charles, 1
Data General, 332
Deal-flow of entrepreneurship, 68–74
De alio firms, 128
Deeside (UK), 146
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 241, 250–251
Degroof, J. J., 297
Delgado, M., 25
Demand-pull factors, 132
Demirguc-Kunt, Asli, 68f, 69
Democracy
history of, 268–269
philanthropy and, 270–273
Deng Xiaoping, 74
Denmark
social insurance policy and entrepreneurship in, 161
user-drive innovation in, 476
De novo firms, 128
De Otazu, A., 359
Department of Energy's Clean Energy Alliance Partnership, 390
Department of Housing and Urban Development (US), 321
De Silva, D. G., 221
de Solla Price, D. J., 238
Destructive entrepreneurship, 54–55
Detroit
decline of, 145
entrepreneurship in, 174–175
Diamond, Jared, 213, 215
Diamond, Rebecca, 47
Díaz de Durana, J. R., 359
Diffusion of ideas. See also Knowledge spillovers
GPTs and, 127–128
new industries and, 126
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), 332
Disembodied knowledge, 219
Disk drive industry, 128n2
Disruption, 73
Diversification, 129–134, 195, 201, 349, 360, 371, 415, 444, 461, 466. See also New industries
Diversity
entrepreneurship and, 65, 65n22, 68–74, 145
new industries and, 134
tolerance of, 44–45
(p. 487) universities and, 229
"Divided We Stand: Three Psychological Regions of the United States and their Political, Economic, Social and Health Correlates" (Rentfrow), 29
Dohse, D., 229
Dongguan's UPS industry, 107–114
innovation and, 108–109
labor market and, 111–113
local government and, 111–113
overcapacity and, 113–114
social capital and, 110n6
universities and, 113
Dot-com firms, 128
Dual use, 136
Dubai, 196n6
Duranton, G., 130
Dynamism, 68–74, 161. See also Entrepreneurship
East Asia, natural resources in, 195, 195n5
East Company, 108, 113
East Germany, entrepreneurship in, 174
Ecohai case study (Japan), 380
École Spéciale de Commerce et d'Industrie (École Supérieure de Commerce de Paris), 345
Economic crisis of 2008, 74, 324, 327
Dubai and, 196n6
Ecosystem
Basque country's entrepreneurial ecosystem, 360, 361t, 363, 363f
entrepreneurship compared to. See Entrepreneurship
innovation. See Innovation ecosystem
manufacturing districts and, 106, 116
Edquist, C., 136
Education. See also Business schools; Universities
Alto Livenza's furniture industry and, 114–115
creative-class workers and, 39–40
GCC countries, future recommendations for, 406–407
high-growth firms and, 292
human capital and, 38
natural resources management and, 193, 194
in Oman, 202, 203
philanthropy and. See Philanthropy
Egypt, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Electrical engineering, 261–262, 261n3
Eli Lilly and Company, 404
Elings, V., 262
Embodied knowledge, 219
Embryonic stem cells, 258
Emory University, 449–454, 450f, 453f
Employment Invention Act 2002 (Germany), 221
Endeavor (global organization), 70
Endocyte, 404
The End of History and the Last Man (Fukuyama), 270
Endowments of universities, 276–277t, 276–279, 279–280t, 282, 282–283n5, 283t. See also Philanthropy
Energy Systems Network (Indiana), 408
Enlightenment, 238, 269
Entrepreneurial commercialization, 262
Entrepreneurial discovery, 460–463
discovery and collective experimentation process, 468
discovery vs. innovation, 467
guarding against principal-agent model, 468
importance in design of regional innovation and development strategies, 467–468
locus of, 464–465
policy role and, 468–469
preceding stage of innovation, 465
smart specialization and, 460–461, 464–465, 467–468
Entrepreneurial knowledge, 463–464
Entrepreneurship, 6, 7, 8, 54–83, 145–190. See also Entrepreneurial discovery
academic, 227–228
Arab Spring and, 200, 201
business climate and, 66–67
clusters and, 296–297
complexity and, 60–63
creativity and, 39, 67, 126
(p. 488) definition of, 148–152
diversity, dynamism, and deal-flow of, 68–74
ecosystem of, 54, 56–58, 60, 62–63, 67, 71–73, 73f, 75–76
further research on, 182–183
high-growth firms and, 70, 287, 293, 299–301, 300t
importance of local institutions for, 56, 78, 145, 162–165
informal institutions, 170–174
innovation and, 55–56, 55n2, 67
institutions at national level, 155–156
knowledge spillovers and, 26, 55n2, 62
labor market institutions, 158–160
local institutional framework for, 164–165, 165f, 174–181
local policy, 162–181
local regulations, 167–170, 168n13, 169n14, 170f
local taxes, 165–167
market failures and, 63–66
missing middle and, 68–69
national policy, 155–162
national taxes, 156–158
new combinations as, 59–60
Oman and, 204–205
overview, 54–59, 145–148
philanthropy and, 273–274
political stability and, 67
rainforest, compared to, 69, 70f, 72
randomized controlled trial (RCT) and, 74–77
rule of law and property rights protection, 156
SMEs vs., 68–69, 68f, 152–154, 153f
social insurance system, 160–161
spatial proximity and, 18
strategic management and, 72
supply and direction of, 154–155
sustainable development and, 355–372. See also Basque region, business environment in
universities and, 292
Environmental sustainability, 119
Escalator regions, 176–177
e-science, 195, 195n3
Eshun, J. P., 291
E-Square, 377
Etzioni, Amitai, 171
Eurasia, environmental advantages in, 215
European Cancer Patient's Bill of Rights, 441
European Commission Directorate responsible for research and innovation, 471
European Space Agency, 245
European Structural Funds, 298
European Union
Cohesion Policy, 9, 21, 458–460, 469–473
creative-class workers in, 40
labor market regulations in, 159–160
Smart Specialization Policy. See Smart specialization
Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (Hirschman), 15
Ex post bias with new industries, 130
Extremadura (Spain), 471, 473–474
Fairchild electronics, 19–20, 93, 173
Fallick, B., 294
Family businesses, 350
FAST (Federal and State Technology Partnership) program, 390
Featherman, D. L., 288
Federal and State Technology Partnership (FAST) program, 390
Feld, Brad, 431
Feldman, Maryann P., 6, 27, 65, 125, 127, 128, 129, 131, 136, 224, 229, 297, 355, 369
Ferguson, R., 338
Feser, Edward, 41
Fielding, Tony, 177
Finance and Private Sector Development Network, 55
Financial advisors, 313
Finland
entrepreneurs and R & D spending in, 462
natural resources in, 195, 195n4
(p. 489) Firm incubators, 255
Firm stage-specialization, 114–115
Flat world effect, 212
Fleischman, C. A., 294
Flexible business models, 104
Florida, Richard L., 6, 14, 23–24, 29, 34, 36, 38–39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 65n22, 224
Footwear industry in Portugal, 463–464
Foray, Dominique, 9, 458
Forbes, D. P., 128
Forbes on billionaires, 151
Ford
capitalism and, 36
manufacturing districts model and, 102, 105, 106
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
in Basque region, 362
in Northern Ireland, 440
in United States, 325–326
Foshan (China), UPS production in, 108. See also Dongguan's UPS industry
Foster, Arlene, 436
Foundations. See Charitable foundations
4Potentials, 177n28
FP Corporation case study (Japan), 379–380
France
labor market regulations in, 160
regulations for entrepreneurship in, 168
universities in, 217
wine industry in, 260
Francis, J., 297
Franklin, Benjamin, 274, 275
Frauenhoffer Institutes, 24
Freeman, Christopher, 125, 127, 128
Free riders, 96–97
Fresno State University, 316
Friedman, Thomas L., 31, 41
Fritsch, Michael, 172, 174
From Seed to Harvest: The Growth of Research Triangle Park (Link), 29
Fukao, Kyoji, 375
Fukugawa, N., 338
Fukuyama, F., 270
Furniture industry
Alto Livenza, 114–118
Uno Contract, 118
Valcucine, 119
Gabe, Todd M., 39–40, 41
Galaxy Zoo, 249, 249n6
Gallup-Knight survey, 45
Gambardella, A., 25
Gans, Joshua S., 156
Garicano, L., 160
Gassler, H., 224
Gates, Bill, 39, 180n31
Gates Foundation, 238, 241, 242t, 245, 247, 271
Geertz, Clifford, 68
Gene-culture-evolution, 216
General Dynamics, 73n29
General purpose technology (GPT), 127–128, 133, 136
A Generosity of Spirit: The Early History of the Research Triangle Park (Link), 29–30
Genetic distance, 215
Genuth, J., 246
Geographic factors. See Place
Geography of innovation, 387
Georgia Institute of Technology, 244, 248, 449–454, 450–451f, 453f
Georgia Research Alliance, 24
Georgia State University, 449–455, 450–453f
Germany
brain drain in, 229
entrepreneurship in, 172, 172n17
Industrial Revolution in, 211
innovation vouchers in, 476
legal mandate for economic performance in, 21–22
manufacturing clusters in, 105
national-local programs for entrepreneurs in, 298
Top Technology Region/Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (TTR-ELAt), 476–477
universities in, 7, 217
Gertler, M. S., 297
Gilbert, B. A., 291
Gilead Sciences, 250
Gillings, D., 263
"The Giving Pledge" (Bloomberg), 276
Glaeser, E. L., 13, 26, 27, 43, 65, 75, 174–175, 222, 227
(p. 490) Global Entrepreneurship Congress (2014), 68
Global Entrepreneurship Index, 273n3
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), 55n2
experts' survey, 363, 363n2
Global Innovation Index, 204
Globalization
cities' roles in, 35, 41–42
economic competitiveness and, 324, 327
grand challenge and, 249–250
industrial, 34, 102–104
knowledge and, 225
philanthropy and, 269, 284
pressures of, 2, 3, 31, 145, 225
regional effect of, 212, 213
universities and, 212, 230
Globally fragmented production, 106–107, 106n2
Alto Livenza furniture industry and, 115, 115n12
Global pipelines, 134
Gnosjö spirit, 173
González-Pernía, José L., 8, 355
Google, 177
Google Campus (London), 295
Gottlieb, J. D., 13
Grameen Bank, 415, 416
Grand challenge model, 7, 239–250
conceptualization of, 243
definition of, 239–241, 240t
evaluating and communicating impact of, 246–247
global scale and regional focus of, 249–250
model of, 239–243, 240t, 242t
new sources of knowledge and, 248–249
private-sector engagement, 247–248
project governance of, 245–246
solution orientation of, 244–245
strategic focus of, 243–244
Grand Challenges Canada, 241, 251
Grand Challenges in Global Health program, 241
Great Depression, 273
Great Recession. See Economic crisis of 2008
Gregson, Peter, 434
Gribskov, Alena, 351
Griliches, Z., 128, 221, 227, 259
Grilo, I., 155
Grimm, H., 298
Gross, M., 247
Guan, J., 133
Guerrero, Maribel, 8, 355
Gulden, Tim, 41
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries
Arab Spring in, 201
countries participating in, 191n1
future recommendations for, 206–207
natural resources in, 191, 191n1, 192, 195–196
Halo (angel network), 436
Haltiwanger, John, 151
Hardin, John, 385
Harvard University, 276, 277, 278
Hassink, R., 128
Hatchuel, A., 346
Hausmann, Ricardo, 64, 65, 65n21, 66, 76, 463, 467
Hawaii's High Technology Development Corporation, 390
Hayter, Christopher S., 7, 237
Headhunters, 313
Health insurance, 161
Hedonic price functions, 221
Hegemony in industrial capitalism, 35–36
Heidelberg University, 279
Henderson, R., 223, 261
Hendry, C., 128
Henrekson, Magnus, 7, 145, 150, 151, 155, 296, 297
Henton, Doug, 8, 306
Herb, M., 194
Hesiod, 216
Hess, Jack, 14
Hidalgo, César A., 64, 65, 65n21, 66
Hierarchy of needs (Maslow), 45
High-growth firms, 7–8, 286–305
business accelerator programs for, 295–296
definition of, 286, 287–288
education policy and, 292
entrepreneurship and, 150–151
entrepreneurship policy and, 70, 287, 293, 299–301, 300t
industrial organization and, 296–297
(p. 491) labor market policy and, 292–294
local policies and, 289–301
multilevel policy, 297–299, 298t
overview, 286–287
stages toward, 288–289, 289f
targeted local policies and, 294–296
High-impact entrepreneurship, 147, 151–152, 173, 173n21, 177, 181
Highway system, effect of, 321, 322
Hilbert, D., 239
Hilbert's Problems, 239–240
Hirai, Kayo, 8, 373
Hirschman, A. O., 15, 67
Hirshleifer, J., 463, 465
HIV/AIDS, 247, 249–250
Holst Centre (joint Dutch-Flemish research infrastructure), 477
Homebrew Computer Club, 93
Home region, entrepreneurship and, 176, 176n24, 180n31
Hommen, L., 136
Hopkins, Johns, 275
Horizontal priorities, 314, 468, 469
Horn, Chris, 439
Horowitt, Greg, 432, 435
Howkins, John, 42
HSK Power, 108
Huawei (China), 113
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 113
Hukou regulations (China), 112–113, 112n7, 112n8
Human capital
high-growth firms and, 292
innovation and, 194, 214
natural resource curse and, 193
place, strategic management of, 27–30
talent and, 37, 39–40, 42
universities and, 216, 223–224, 229
Human Genome Project, 247
Humboldt University, 275
Hybrid corn, 126, 128
Hydrocarbon sector in Oman, 201–202
IBM, 93, 106, 248
Identity and image, 29
iHubs (California), 306
Ikeuchi Towel case study (Japan), 378–379
Illinois' Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, 391
Immigration, 44, 111, 112–113, 112n7, 112n8
Imperial College London, 278
"Inc. 500," 177
Incentives
Alto Livenza's furniture industry and, 115
for construction of cluster commons, 94
to deflect firm relocation, 331
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 110–113
Missouri's Technology Incentive Program, 390
Incremental and process innovation (I & P), 105, 109
Incumbent firms, 69–71, 177–180, 177n29, 182, 221
India
entrepreneurship in, 77
grand challenges in, 245
Indiana
Central Indiana Corporate Partnership (CICP), 9, 406–413
Food and Agricultural Innovation Initiative, 408
21st Century Fund, 390
Indiana University, 22
Industrial Age, 34
Industrial cluster genesis, 131–132
Industrial organization. See also Clusters
entrepreneurship and, 59, 61
high-growth firms and, 296–297
manufacturing districts and, 102–103
Industrial Revolution, 125, 126, 127, 211, 217, 269
Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan), 244
Industrial working class, 36, 38
Industry and Growth Forum, 390
Industry life cycles, 131, 134
Inequality dynamics, 270–271, 271n2
Informal institutions
entrepreneurship and, 170–174, 182
universities and, 216
(p. 492) Information and communication technologies (ICT), 102, 106, 196, 197f, 199
in Dongguan, China. See Dongguan's UPS industry
Information Technology and Innovation Foundation's (ITIF's) Atlantic Century II report, 333
Inglehart, Ronald, 44
Ingram, P., 291
Innocentive, 249
Innovate Indiana Network, 22
Innovation. See also Creativity; Research and development (R & D)
Alto Livenza's furniture industry and, 117–118
brokers and. See Innovation brokers
citizen science and, 249
clusters and, 85–87
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 108–109
economic development relying on innovation-based strategies, 332–333
entrepreneurship and, 55–56, 55n2, 67, 146
firm size and, 273
GCC countries, future recommendation for, 206
geography of, 387
GPTs and, 127–128
grand challenges and, 248
human capital and, 194
incremental and process, types of, 105
knowledge filters and, 220
manufacturing districts and, 103n1, 104–107, 121
new industries and, 125, 127, 129, 130, 134
Oman and, 204–205
open-innovation techniques and platforms, 248
philanthropy and, 273
procurement and, 136
smart specialization and, 474–475
universities and, 214, 217–218, 222–223, 225–226, 275
Innovation-addition problem of cluster strategies, 403–404
Innovation brokers, 8, 306–319
Accelerate Long Island (New York), 317–318
agenda of, 311–312
capital and, 313–314
definition of, 307, 308f
economic resiliency and, 318
economy and, 309–311
existing companies and, 315
fostering innovation ecosystem, 314–315
increasing economic resiliency, 318
International Center for Water Technology (Fresno, California), 315–317
networking opportunities and, 314–315
offering specialized services, 312–313
overview, 306–307
profiles of, 315–318
providing access to capital, 313–314
in regional economy, 309–311, 310f
regional innovation and, 307–309
role of, 307, 307t, 311–315
serving existing businesses, 315
Innovation chasing, 327
"Innovation Driven Economic Development Model" (Collaborative Economics), 306–307
Innovation economics, 333
Innovation ecosystem, 307, 308f, 314–315, 329
Innovation mercantilism, 327
Innovation Partnership Zones (Washington), 306
Innovation vouchers, 476
Innovation Works (Pittsburgh), 314, 315
Integrated circuits, 129
Intel, 19, 93
International Center for Water Technology (Fresno, California), 315–317
International Congress of Mathematicians, 239
International Exhibition of Components, Semi-finished Products and Accessories for the Furniture Industry, 116n13
Internationalization drive, 116
International technology roadmap for semiconductors, 245
International Year of Microcredit (2005), 426
Internet (dot-com) firms, 128
Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (Belgium), 244
Intrapreneurship, 149–150
Inward Investment Report 2013/14 (UKTI), 440
Italy
(p. 493) Alto Livenza's furniture industry in, 114
brain drain in, 229
labor market regulations in, 160
universities in, 217
Jacobian externality, 131, 134
Jacobs, J., 26, 27, 42, 65, 134, 226–227
Jaffe, A. B., 218, 220, 222, 223
Japan, business environment in, 8, 373–384
agricultural sector, 377
assembly-type industries, 374
Ecohai case study, 380
FP Corporation case study, 379–380
Ikeuchi Towel case study, 378–379
Kaiho Sangyo case study, 381
My Farm case study, 381–382
overview, 373–375
small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), 374–378, 377n4
Jarmin, Ron S., 151
Jefferson, Thomas, 274
Jihad, 199n10
Job creation, 158–159, 159f
high-growth firms and, 287, 290
postrecession, 401
SEED and, 425
Jobs elimination, 73, 73n29
Johansson, Dan, 150, 296, 297
Johns Hopkins Medical Center, 278
Johns Hopkins University, 276, 278
Johnson, David Lawther, 9, 401
Johnson, Lyndon B., 321
Johnston, Patrick, 441
Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network, 93
Judaism, 171n16
Kaiho Sangyo case study (Japan), 381
Kansas Bioscience Authority, 391
Katz, J. A., 352
Kauffman, Stuart, 59, 60, 62n15, 65
Keilbach, M. C., 220, 224, 358n1
Kennedy, John F., 321
Kenney, Martin, 7, 223, 224, 255
Kentucky's SBIR/STTR Matching Funds program, 391
Kenya, user-generated innovation in, 248
Kerr, W., 75
Kewang, 113
Keynes, John Maynard, 268, 270
Kickstarter, 248
King's College, 274, 275
Kirch, D. A., 128
Kirkham, Paul, 8, 345
Kirzner, Israel M., 148, 351
Klepper, S., 19–20, 128–129, 173, 174, 178, 179
Knowledge, types of, 219, 229
Knowledge assets, 250
Knowledge development and production. See also Knowledge spillovers
business schools and, 348–349
grand challenges and, 243
natural resources and, 194
universities and, 212, 213–214, 216–217, 218–221, 226
Knowledge diversity, 229
Knowledge ecology, 471
Knowledge Economy Index, 437, 439–440, 440t
Knowledge filters, 220, 224–225
Knowledge gaps, 90–91
Knowledge production function, 237
Knowledge relatedness, 229
Knowledge spillovers
clusters and, 84–88, 90, 97
entrepreneurial discovery and, 465
entrepreneurs and, 26, 55n2, 62, 62–63n17
grand challenge and, 248–249
new industries and, 132, 133–134
smart specialization and, 465
spatial proximity and, 18
state-level R&D and, 385
universities and, 24, 216–225
university research parks and, 337
Knowledge workers, 36, 38
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 280
Koch, G., 263
Kogler, D. F., 129
Kogut, B., 219, 223
Kolko, Jed, 166
Koo, J., 229
Kovalainen, A., 300
Kramarz, Francis, 168
Kresge Foundation, 280
Kronlund, M., 300
(p. 494) Krugman, Paul, 1–2, 219–220
Kurlansky, M., 130
Kuznets, S., 348
Labor market. See also Creative-class workers
Alto Livenza's furniture industry and, 111–112
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 115
entrepreneurship and, 65n23, 158–160, 159–160, 159f, 164, 164n11
high-growth firms and, 292–294
institutional framework and, 176–177, 176n26, 177n29
in Oman, 203–205
regulations, 294
skilled vs. unskilled labor, 23
Lanahan, Lauren, 385
Lancaster University Management School (UK), 349
Landry C., 42
Lapsley, J. T., 260
Latin America's natural resources, 195, 195n5
Laville, F., 133
Law to Support Entrepreneurs and Their Internationalization (Spain), 364
Leadership, 29–30
Basque Country's entrepreneurial leadership, 360, 370
grand challenge model and, 241, 244
of innovation brokers, 311–312
regional investment in innovation assets and, 318
sunk costs and, 16
Leading Enterprise And Development (LEAD) program, 349
Lederman, D., 194
LED lighting production, 108
Lee, Chong-Moon, 307
Lehmann, Erik E., 7, 211, 220, 224
LeLarge, C., 160
Lendel, I., 128
Lesko, Mark, 314
Levin, Simon, 60
Levi Strauss, 135
Li, H.-L., 225, 229
Libya, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Life cycle model of industries, 131–132
Lilly Corporation, 16
Lilly Endowment, 280, 407
Lindelöf, P., 338
Link, Albert N., 8, 15, 29–30, 337–344
Linux, 261
Lioulias, Panos, 434
Lipsey, R. G., 127
Lisbon Agenda, 298
Litan, Robert E., 155
Loans for microenterprise lending. See Small Enterprise Economic Development Program (SEED)
Lobo, Jose, 59, 62n15
Local buzz, 134
Local institutions. See also Cities; Regional development
capitalism and, 272
culture and, 147
entrepreneurship and, 146–147, 164–165, 165f, 174–183
in Oman, 204
philanthropy and, 273
Location. See Place
Locational tournaments, 299
Location paradox, 41
Löfsten, H., 338
London
as education center, 278
escalator region of, 177, 177n27
London School of Economics and Political Science, 278
Longworth, Richard, 402
Louisiana's SBIR/STTR Phase Zero Part I program, 390
Lowe, N., 136
Lucas, Robert E., 42, 175n23
Luntz, F., 246
Luo, J., 291
Magis, role in furniture industry, 117–118
"Making Sense of the Competitiveness Debate" (Krugman), 1
Malaria, 247
Malecki, E. J., 223
Malmberg, A., 134
Maloney, W., 194
Malopolska Capital Investment Fund (Poland), 476
(p. 495) Manski, C., 224
Manufacturing districts, 6, 102–124
Alto Livenza's furniture industry, 114–118
Dongguan's UPS industry, 107–114
literature review, 105–107
Magis, role in furniture industry, 117
overview, 102–105
Uno Contract, role in furniture industry, 118
Valcucine, role in furniture industry, 119
Manufacturing Extension Partnership, 332
Manufacturing sector. See also Manufacturing districts; specific countries
relocation and job loss in, 321–322, 325, 326f, 402
Mao Zedong, 74
Maré, David C., 43
Marine biology, 249
Marinha Grande cluster, 461–462
Market failures
entrepreneurship and, 58, 63–66
globalization and, 107
high-growth firms and, 290
localization and, 17–20
targeted subsidies or tax breaks to fix, 153
UK incentivization of business schools and, 347
Marshak, Jacob, 61
Marshall, Alfred, 35–37, 77, 77n30, 103–104, 103n1, 109, 126, 131, 134, 177n27, 211, 217, 226–227
Marshall-Arrow-Romer model, 25–26, 84
Martin, B. R., 348, 349
Martin, R., 346, 352
Marx, Karl, 268, 270, 271n2
Maskell, P., 134
Maslow, A. H., 45
Massachusetts, entrepreneurs in, 151
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 256, 261, 278, 332
Deshpande Center, 248
Production in the Innovation Economy Taskforce, 315
Matched pairs firms, 338–339
performance measures of, 339–341, 340t
Matera (North Carolina), furniture industry in, 117
Mazzucato, M., 136
McCann, Philip, 9, 458
McCanny, John, 432
McComb, R., 221
McCormack, Gerry, 434–435
McDougall, P. P., 291
McGranahan, David, 40
Meeting places, cluster commons as, 87–88, 87f
Megadeals, 324
Mellander, Charlotta, 6, 34, 40, 41, 43, 47
Michelacci, Claudio, 55n2
Microenterprise development program. See Small Enterprise Economic Development Program (SEED)
Microsoft, 177, 180n31
Middle East, 191, 195, 195n5, 197, 198n8. See also Arab Gulf natural resources
Midwestern states
clusters, 401–406
local competitiveness of. See Indiana
Miesing, Paul, 9, 414
Migrant labor, 111–112
Mill, John Stuart, 268
Mincer, Jacob, 38
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (China) certification, 111
Minniti, Maria, 171, 172
Miranda, Javier, 151
Missing middle, 68–69
Mississippi's FAST Program, 390
Missouri's Technology Incentive Program, 390
Mobility, 88, 89, 294
Model of seven cluster gaps, 88–91. See also Clusters
Model T, 105
Modernization, 360, 461, 462, 466
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation (UAE), 280
Molecular biology, 256
Monopoly, 25–26, 227, 272, 273, 274–275
Moore, Gordon, 19, 178n30
Moore's Law, 178n30
(p. 496) Moral capital
philanthropy and, 269, 271–272
universities and, 279, 282–283n5, 282–284, 283t
Moretti, Enrico, 401
Morocco, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Morrill, Justin Smith, 275
Morrill Federal Land-Grant Act of 1862, 275
Moscow protests, 198n8
Mosey, Simon, 8, 345
Motoki, Hiro, 8, 373
Motoyama, Yasuyuki, 71
Multilevel policy of high-growth firms, 297–299
Multinational corporations (MNCs)
business school programs and, 345, 346
entrepreneurship and, 177, 178
globalization and, 35
manufacturing districts and, 103
Oman and, 202
radical structural and technological changes and, 466
technology transfer and, 264
Multiplier effects, 180, 182
Murphree, M., 104
My Farm case study (Japan), 381–382
Nanotechnology, 133, 333, 362, 387, 405, 462, 466, 467
Napa Valley, 259–260, 264
National Academy of Engineering, 241, 251
National Academy of Sciences, 393
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 93, 245
Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program (SATOP), 390
National Cooperative Research Act of 1984, 389n9
National Defense Highway System, 321
National economic competitiveness, 8, 320–334
causes of weaker supply, 327–329
implications for economic development policy, 329–330
loss of manufacturing jobs, 325, 326f
megadeals and, 324
recent state economic performance, 323–324
recommendations to form partnerships, 332
shifting from negative-sum to positive-sum activities, 330–332
southern economic development, 321–322
National Governors Association (NGA), 331, 386
National Institutes of Health, 241
Niche Assessment Program, 390
National Institutes of Standards and Technology's "Nanofab" Lab, 390
National Research Council of National Academy of Sciences, 393
National Semiconductor, 19
Natural resource curse, 192–195
Natural resources. See Arab Gulf natural resources
Navarra (Spain), 475
Navarro, M., 360
Nelson, Richard R., 56, 127, 259
Neoclassical economics, 237
Neoclassical theory of production, 59
Neoeconomics, 129
Neolithic Revolution, 215
Neo-Schumpeterian theory, 59
Netherlands
Centre for Amsterdam Schools of Entrepreneurship, 476
creative-class and, 40
labor market regulations in, 159
natural resources and, 193
Top Technology Region / Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (TTR-ELAt), 476–477
universities in, 217
Networks and linkages, 28. See also Angel investors and networks; Collaboration
entrepreneurship and, 65, 65n24
innovation brokers and, 314–315
relational networks and universities, 224
sunk costs and, 16
Neumark, David, 166
New England Governors' Conference, 331
The New Geography of Jobs (Moretti), 401
New growth theory, 220
(p. 497) New Hampshire's NH Inspires Innovation program, 390
New industries, 6, 125–141
emergence of, 128–130
empirical challenges of, 129–130
future trends, 137
overview, 125–126
regional context for, 132–137
regional-specific push factors for, 133–134
technology-pull factors for, 134–137
theoretical challenges of, 130–132
transformative potential of, 126–129
value to place and, 18
New York (state)
defense contracts in, 73n28
Empire State Development Corporation, 414
Energy Research and Development Authority Proof of Concept Center (NYSERDA PoCC), 248
NYSTAR program, 391
New York City, escalator region of, 177
New York University, 244, 251
NH Inspires Innovation program, 390
Niche supplier firms, 109
Niebuhr, A., 229
Nielsen, M., 249
Nine-sigma, 249
Noncompete agreements, 174, 293, 298, 331
Nonentrepreneurship, 149–150, 149f
Nonexcludable, 62, 62n15
Nonpecuniary spillover. See Knowledge spillovers
Nonprofit organizations. See also Charitable foundations
strategic management of place, 22
Nonrival, 62, 62n15
NorTech Ohio, 315, 402
North, Douglass C., 146
North American Classification System (NAICS), 128, 129
North Carolina's One NC Small Business Program, 8–9, 391–398
additional funding received, 396–398, 397t
administered by North Carolina Board of Science & Technology (BST), 393
collaboration with institutions of higher education, 396
increased employment, 396, 397t
increased phase II award rate, 395
program impacts, 394–398, 394t, 395f, 396t
statutory guidelines, 392
survey and measurement of, 393, 393n25, 396n28
North Carolina State University, 263
Northern Ireland Knowledge Economy Index (KEI): Baseline Report, 437
Northern Ireland's economic transformation, 9, 429–444
context post-peace agreement (1998), 433
evidence of progress, 439–441, 440t
foreign direct investment in, 440
lessons learned, 442–444
NISP CONNECT 2.0, 437–441, 438t
Northern Ireland Science Park (NISP), 432, 434–439
Orr's role in, 433–434
overview, 431
pilot programs, 434–436
Norton, R. D., 323
Norway
grand challenges in, 241
natural resources in, 195
Nottingham University Business School (UK), 351
Novel-product innovation, 109
Noyce, Robert, 19
Nuclear magnetic resonance, 262
Obama, Barack, 237
Occupy Wall Street, 198n8
OECD countries
economic growth in, 270
globalization and, 225
high-growth firms and, 286, 287
innovation in, 133
smart specialization agenda and, 478
Oettinger, Jessie, 8, 306
Offshore production, 2, 102, 117, 402
Offshore tax havens, 158
Ohio Third Frontier programs, 248
Olofsson, C., 338
Olson, Mancur, 65n22, 66, 69
(p. 498) Oman
Arab Spring and, 201–206
competitiveness ranking of, 202t
Eighth Five-Year Plan of Oman, 203, 203t
natural resources and, 196
One NC Small Business Program, 392–398
impacts of, 394–398
overview, 392–393
Open windows of location opportunity, 131
Optics, as example of GPTs, 128
Optics Society of America, 128
Ordnungspolitik, 21
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. See OECD countries
Organizational reproduction and heredity, 129
Orkestra, 368n5
Orr, Steve, 9, 429, 430–434
Ortega-Argilés, Raquel, 9, 458
Osh Kosh Truck Company, 251
Otterson, Bill, 432
Overcapacity, 113
Owens, Nathan J., 311–312
Oxford University, 217, 278, 279
Page, Scott E., 44
Pandemics, 249–250
Papke, Leslie E., 166
Pareto efficiency, 63
Paris
escalator region of, 177
universities in, 217
Pasteur, Louis, 260
Patent-grant university model, 258–259, 264
Patent protection
history of, 217
importance for economic growth, 156
knowledge production and, 220–221
research universities and, 256–258, 261, 263–264
technological change and, 129–130
universities and, 222–223
Patton, D., 223
Pearl River Delta (PDR) cities, 108, 112, 113. See also Dongguan's UPS industry
Peña-Legazkue, Iñaki, 8, 355
Pension funds, 161
People climate, 46
Perez, Carlota, 127
Perkmann, M., 255
Persson, Lars, 156
Peters, M., 133
Pharmaceuticals, 256
Philanthropy, 7, 268–285
capitalism and, 270–273
overview, 268–269
Schumpeter and, 273–274
universities and, 274–283, 276–280t, 283t
Photonics Spectra, 128
Pigou, Arthur Cecil, 37
Piketty, T., 270, 271, 271n2, 272
Pisano, Gary, 62
Place, 2, 6, 9, 13–33
entrepreneurial discovery and, 464–465
human dimension, 27–30
importance of, 3, 16–20
long-term effects for universities, 214–216
mandate, 14–22
new industries and, 132, 133
overview, 3–4, 13–14
participants, 20–22
policy role, 30–31
quality of place, 43–46
resources and factors, 3–4, 22–24
short-term effects for universities, 216–218
spatial structure and organization, 25–27
Plato, 216
Plosila, Walter H., 387
Poland
innovation vouchers in, 476
Malopolska Capital Investment Fund, 476
Policy role
cluster commons, 97–98
economic development and, 329–330
entrepreneurial discovery and, 468–469
entrepreneurship and, 150
GCC countries, future recommendations for, 206
local entrepreneurship policy, 111–113, 115, 162–181, 163–164f, 163n10
national entrepreneurship policy, 155–162
natural resources and, 193
new industries and, 131, 136–137
Oman and, 202, 204–206, 204n12
place, strategic management of, 30–31
(p. 499) in radical structural and technological changes, 466
smart specialization and, 468–469
universities and, 225–230
Political stability, 67
Polymer research, 132
Pordenone (Italy), 116, 116n14
Porter, Michael E., 1, 25, 26, 41, 60, 227, 430
Portugal
footwear industry in, 463–464
labor market regulations in, 160
Poverty, 47, 56, 265, 321, 415, 417, 426
Powell, W. W., 258
Power and Prosperity (Olson), 66n25
Powers, Joshua B., 447
Principles of Economics (Marshall), 77n30
Private equity firms, 158
Private property rights, protection of, 156
Private sector
grand challenge and, 243, 247–248
Oman and, 205
Prize model of innovation, 248
Probe microscopy, 262
Procter and Gamble, 248
Procurement, 136
Product chain, 117–119, 257, 258f
"The Product Cycle and Decentralization of American Manufacturing" (Rees & Norton), 323
Product cycle theory, 35
Production recipes, 59–62, 62n16, 64–65
Productive entrepreneurship, 54–55, 150, 152, 156, 158, 161–162, 164–165, 167, 174, 178–179, 182
Project governance
grand challenge and, 245–246
grand challenge model and, 243
Property rights, protection of, 156. See also Patent protection
Protestant ethics, 171n16
Protor and Gamble, 248
Public-private partnerships in SEED program, 426
Puga, Diego, 130
Pull factors for new industries, 132–133, 134–137
Push factors for new industries, 126, 132, 133–134
Putnam, Robert D., 28–29, 171n16
Qatar, natural resources in, 196
Qingxi (China), UPS production in, 109
Quality of place, 43–45, 46
entrepreneurship and, 70
Quebec Seeks Solutions (QSS), 352
Quigley, John M., 65n22
Quintiles (data analysis firm), 263
Radical foundation, 466
Radner, Roy, 61
Rainforest, compared to entrepreneurship, 69, 70f, 72
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 74–77
Real time challenges of new industries, 129–130
Rebitzer, J. B., 294
Recombinant DNA technology, 127, 129
Rees, J., 323
Regional Advantage (Saxenian), 27–28
Regional development. See also specific locations
differences of place, 3–4
of high-growth firms, 289
innovation brokers in, 309–311
national economic competitiveness and, 320–334. See also National economic competitiveness
of new industries, 132–137
smart specialization and, 473–475
universities and, 7, 213–214, 255–267. See also Universities
Regional Innovation Acceleration Network (RIAN), 312n1
Regulations
entrepreneurship and, 147, 167–170, 168n13, 169n14, 170f
zoning, 167–168, 168n13, 180
Reinhart, Carmen M., 327
Relocation to southern states, 320–321
(p. 500) Rentfrow, P. J., 29
Rentier mentality, 204, 207
Rent-seeking, 193
Research and development (R & D), 237–254
Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, 251
big science and, 238–239
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 111, 113
financing, 247
grand challenge, 7, 239–250. See also Grand challenge model
manufacturing districts and, 104
Oman and, 205
overview, 237–238
regional implications of, 250–252
small science, 238
tax credit of 1981, 389n9
universities and, 221, 222–223, 224–225, 228
Research Triangle (North Carolina), 15, 29–30, 291
Research Triangle Park (RTP), 263, 402
Research universities. See Universities
Residency laws, 112–113, 112n7, 112n8
Resiliency
innovation brokers increasing, 318
of manufacturing clusters, 120
Saxenian's analysis of Silicon Valley and Route 128 and, 172
Review of UK Government's Science and Innovation Policies (Sainsbury), 434
Rhoten, D., 258
Ricardo, David, 22, 271n2
Rice Genome Project, 245
Rigby, David L., 129
RIS3 Platform, 473–475
The Rise of Creative Class (Florida), 23–24
Roback, Jennifer, 43
Roberts, E. B., 297
Robotics, 250, 333
Rockefeller, John, 275
Rockefeller Foundation, 280
Rockstart Accelerator (Amsterdam), 295
Rodrik, Dani, 71, 459, 463, 465, 467, 472
Rogers, E. M., 259
Rogoff, Kenneth, 327
Romer, Paul M., 42, 62, 220
Romer model, 26
Rosen, Sara Thomas, 43
Rosenberg, N., 105
Rotman School, 352
Route 128 (Boston), 27–28, 43, 147, 172–173, 173n19, 237
Rudolph, Frederick, 275
Rule of law, 156
Rural Outreach Program (ROP), 390
Ruttan, V., 136
Rwanda, entrepreneurship in, 74
Sachs, J., 194
Salone Internazionale dei Componenti, Semilavorati ed Accessori per l'industria del Mobile (SICAM), 116, 116n13
Salter, A. J., 348, 349
Samila, S., 298
Samuelson, Paul, 270
Sanandaji, Tino, 151
Sanders, M., 225
San Diego (California), 73n29
CONNECT program, 314, 429–430, 432–434
knowledge production function in, 237
San Francisco, 135
San Joaquin Valley Water Technology Cluster, 316
Santa Fe (New Mexico), 322
Sapolsky, Harvey M., 387
SAS (data analysis firm), 263
Saudi Arabia
Arab Spring and, 200, 201
natural resources in, 196
Saving Lives at Birth, 241
Saxenian, A., 27–28, 65, 65n23, 147, 172, 173n19
Say, Jean-Baptiste, 345
Schartinger, D., 224
Schibany, A., 224
Schmitz, J. A., Jr., 55n2
(p. 501) Schmookler, J. A., 126, 132
Schmookler's scissors, 126, 132
Schneider Electric's MGE, 108
Schramm, Carl J., 155
Schrank, A., 121
Schultz, Howard, 175–176
Schumpeter, Joseph A., 7, 55n2, 58, 59, 66, 69, 103n1, 104, 105, 125, 146, 148, 173, 180, 182, 268, 269, 273–274
Science. See also Biotechnology; Research and development (R & D)
big science, 238–239
citizen science, 249
small science, 238
Scientific instruments and research universities, 262
Scott, Allen J., 41
Scott, J. T., 337
Scuola Professionale del Mobile, 114, 115
Seattle, 177, 180n31
Second welfare theorem, 63
Self-employment
entrepreneurship and, 149–150, 149f, 152–153, 160, 182
taxes and, 158, 158n9, 166
Self-serving agents, 148
Semiconductor industry, 173
Semipublic goods, 103, 106, 106n2, 118, 120, 129
Sendmail, 261
Service class workers, 38
Shane, S., 287, 349
Shannon, Claude, 77
Shapiro, Jesse M., 44
Shapiro, Joshua D., 311–312
Shared production assets in manufacturing districts, 104
Shearman, C., 128
Shell, Karl, 59, 62n15
Shenzhen (China), UPS production and, 108. See also Dongguan's UPS industry
Shrum, W., 246
Shuen, Amy, 62
Shura, Majlis, 201
Siegel, Donald S., 9, 228, 414
Silicon Manufacturing Valley Group, 93
Silicon Valley, 5, 19–20, 23, 25, 27–28, 30–31, 43, 44, 65, 65n23, 73, 87, 89, 92–93, 97, 103, 125, 129, 147, 151, 172–174, 173n19, 177, 214, 237, 264, 278, 294, 299, 307–308, 308f, 314, 332
Simon, Herbert A., 61
Simonton, Dean Keith, 44
Sleeper, Sally, 178
Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 249
Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs)
Arab Spring and, 200, 201
clusters and, 89–90, 95
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 111
entrepreneurship vs, 68–69, 68f, 152–154, 153f
in Japan, 374–382
Oman and, 204–205
smart specialization initiatives to promote, 476
Small Business Administration (SBA)
Federal and State Technology Partnership (FAST), 390
Small Business Investment Company program, 332
Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, 388, 389n9
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, 9, 247–248, 291, 298, 332, 388–392, 388nn5–6, 430. See also North Carolina's One NC Small Business Program
federal and state partnerships, 390–391
federal programs, 390
grand challenges and, 247–248
state-level initiatives, 391, 391n21, 392f
Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program, 388n7, 391n21
Small Enterprise Economic Development Program (SEED), 9, 414–428
applicants' assessment, 421
applicants' characteristics, 419–421, 420t
applicants' survey, 424–425
character-based microlending and, 415–418
components of, 417
entrepreneurial assessment for, 421
evaluation of, 418–425
(p. 502) findings of study, 419–424
implications of, 424–425
interview and references of study protocol, 421–422
job creation and, 425
loan administration of, 417–418, 418f
loan repayment and sustained business operations, 423–424
local context of, 415
overview, 414–415
point of exit from, 422–423, 422f
social and business supports for, 416–417
support services for participants, 423
Small word networks, 65–66n24
Smart specialization, 9, 458–480
clustering phase of, 465
cross-country cooperation and, 476–477
decentralization and, 475–476
decentralization of entrepreneurial activities and, 475–476
entrepreneurial discovery and, 460–463, 467–468. See also Entrepreneurial discovery
entrepreneurial knowledge and, 463–464
entry as key in, 465
within EU Cohesion Policy, 469–473, 477
firm entry and, 465
implementation of, 473–477
initiatives to promote SMEs and, 476
innovation strategies of, 474–475
knowledge spillovers and, 465
large-scale questionnaire on regional innovation strategy, 475
locus of entrepreneurial discovery and, 464–465
overview, 458–460
policy role and, 468–469
private-sector actors' role, 470–471
at regional level, 473–475
RIS3 Platform, 473–475
S3 Platform, 472–473
stakeholder involvement and, 473–474
state aid scheme, 475
structural and industrial changes and, 461–463, 466
Smith, Adam, 1, 37, 42, 126, 268, 272
Smith College, 277
Smithsonian Institution, 241
Social capital
Basque Country regional development and, 358–364
in Basque region, 364, 370
definition of, 194
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 110, 110n6
entrepreneurship and, 171–172, 171n16
importance of, 194
place and, 28–30
Social embeddedness, 170–172
Social environment, 146
Social insurance system, 160–161
Socialism
history of, 268–269
philanthropy and, 270, 273–274
Social legitimacy, 7, 181
Socrates, 216
Solar panel industry, 130, 133
Solow model, 23, 26
Solution orientation, 244–245
Sölvell, Örjan, 6, 84
Sombart, W., 171n16
Sorenson, O., 298
Soskice, David, 271
South Africa, inequality in, 271n2
South Carolina's Phase 0 Program, 390
Southern economic development, 321–322
Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program (SATOP), 390
Spain. See also Basque region, business environment in
Barcelona Activa's entrepreneurship center, 476
Extremadura regional economic strategy, 471, 473–474
Law to Support Entrepreneurs and Their Internationalization, 364
Navarra regional economic strategy, 475
unemployment in, 21
universities in, 217
Spatial inequality as challenge, 46–48
Spatial sorting, 175
Spatial structure and organization, 25–27
(p. 503) Specialization, 27, 118, 119, 126, 134
Spencer, Herbert, 57
Spenner, K. I., 288
Spin-off processes, 114, 173–174, 177–179, 178n30, 179, 179f, 228
Spolaore, E., 214, 215
Stam, Erik, 7, 286
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes, 128, 129
Standortpolitik, 21
Stanford, Leland, 275
Stanford University, 92–93, 256, 262, 275, 276, 278, 350–351
Stangler, Dane, 74, 150
Starbucks, 175–176
Starkey, K., 346
Startup America (program), 55
Startup Chile (program), 55
Startup Communities (Feld), 431
Start-ups
entrepreneurship rates, 163–164, 163–164f, 163n10, 174, 178n30
grand challenges and, 247–248
hours of work, 349
research universities and, 258
sharing physical space and services, 313
universities and, 221
State-level science and technology policies, 8–9, 385–400
federal SBIR program and, 387–392
literature review, 387–388
One NC Small Business Program, 392–398. See also North Carolina's One NC Small Business Program
overview, 385–386
Stenholm, P., 225
Stenkula, Mikael, 155, 296, 297
Stephan, P. E., 224
Stern, S., 25
Sternberg, Robert, 39, 128
S3 Platform, 472–473
Stichting INGKA Foundation (Netherlands), 280
Sticky knowledge, 224
Stokes, D. E., 244
Stolarick, Kevin, 40, 43
Storey, David, 150n6
Strategic management
entrepreneurial ecosystems and, 61
as field of study, 1, 14
of place, 13–33. See also Place
Strumsky, D., 129
Student development in business schools, 350–351
Succession
entrepreneurship and, 72, 73f
and progressive change, 57
Sunk cost, 15–16
Sun Microsystems, 261
Sweden
creative-class workers in, 39
entrepreneurship in, 173
entrepreneurs in, 168–170, 169n14, 170f
inequality in, 271n2
local income taxes in, 166–167, 166n12
natural resources and, 195, 195n4
social insurance policy and entrepreneurship in, 161
spin-offs in, 179, 179f
start-up entrepreneurship rates in, 163–164, 163–164f
university graduates in, 176, 176nn25–26, 177n28
Swedish National Encyclopedia, 173
SWOT (strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, 474
Syracuse (New York), 322
Syria, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Tacit knowledge, 219, 221, 222, 256–257
Talent, 6, 34–53
from business climate to people climate, 45–46
central role of city, 41–43
clustering of, 42–43
education, 38
entrepreneurship and, 70, 154, 177, 179
from firms to talent, 36–37
hegemony in industrial capitalism, 35–36
(p. 504) human capital, 37
occupation, 38–40
overview, 34–35
people climate and, 46
quality of place, 43–45
skills, 41
spatial inequality as challenge, 46–48
Tangxia (China), UPS production in, 110
Tannenwald, Robert, 167, 168
Tansley, Arthur George, 54, 57, 65
Tavassoli, Sam M., 6, 125
Taxes
capitalism and, 270–271
entrepreneurship and, 156–158, 165–167, 166n12
offshore tax havens, 158
philanthropy and, 271–272
TechColumbus (Ohio), 314
Technical universities (TU), 211, 217
Techno-economic paradigm, 127
Techno-fetishism of novelty, 104
Technological regime, 127
Technology-licensing offices (TLOs), 258, 264
Technology transfer institutions, 256, 264–265
Technology transfer models, 7, 259–263
Technology transfer offices (TTOs), 228, 257
Technology transfer specialists, 313
TechPoint (Indiana), 408
Tech2020, 313
Teece, David J., 62
Tempest, S., 346
Tencent, 113
Tenofovoir, 250
Texas A&M, 264
Texas university system, 221, 276
Theory of Economic Development (Schumpeter), 274
Third Frontier (Ohio), 402
This Time It's Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Reinhart & Rogoff), 327
Thomas, Kenneth P., 324
Thomas Edison program (Ohio), 323
Thompson, Wilbur R., 38
Thulin, Per, 176, 176n26
Thurik, A. Roy, 148, 150n6, 155, 358n1
Tie industry, 129
Times Higher Education Survey, 278
Times Higher Education World University Rankings (2013–2014), 279
Tolerance of diversity, 44–45
Topspin Partners (New York), 318
Top Technology Region/Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (TTR-ELAt), 476–477
Top Trends in State Economic Development (National Governors Association), 386
Total factor productivity (TFP), 193, 193n2, 375
Toyota, 146
Tragedy of the commons, 6, 96, 97
Trajtenberg, M., 223
Transaction costs, 63–64
Transition, 466
Tsipouri, L. J., 136
Tuberculosis, 247
Tunisia, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Turbine manufacturers, 131–132
Twenty First Century Fund in Indiana, 24
Uninterruptable power supply production (UPS)
Chinese manufacturers of. See Dongguan's UPS industry
overview of, 107–108, 107–108n4, 108n5
United Arab Emirates (UAE), natural resources in, 196
United Kingdom
competition in, 273n3
Department for International Development (DFID), 241
gap between education and job skills in, 347
high-growth firms in, 286
Industrial Revolution in, 211
innovation vouchers in, 476
United States
competition in, 273n3
(p. 505) corporate tax variation across, 166
creative-class workers in, 39
diversity in, 229
foreign direct investment (FDI) in, 325–326
GPTs in, 136
high-growth firms and, 70
labor market regulations in, 159–160, 294
manufacturing districts in, 103
performance of a place in, 22
philanthropy in, 271–272
R&D spending in, 247
regulations in, 167
research universities and, 256, 264
Startup America, 55
trade deficit of, 327–328
TTOs in, 228
universities and, 255
Universities, 7, 211–236, 255–267. See also Business schools
academic policy of, 225–230
biotechnology model and, 257–259
clusters and, 89–90
Dongguan's UPS industry and, 113
economic crisis of 2008, impact on competitiveness of, 445–457. See also University research funding, impact of economic crisis of 2008 on
economic development and, 446–448
electrical engineering and computer science at, 261–262
entrepreneurship and, 151, 292
grand challenge model and, 241
history (US) of, 274–275
knowledge spillovers, 24, 218–225
long-term effects of geographic factors and, 214–216
mathematics and statistics at, 263
microlending development program. See Small Enterprise Economic Development Program (SEED)
mission statements of, 446
overview, 211–213, 255–256
patents and, 263–264
philanthropy and, 272, 274–283, 276–280t, 283t
regional development and, 7, 213–214, 255–267
research parks. See University research parks
science growth and, 238
scientific instruments and, 262
short-term effects of geographic factors and, 216–218
strategic management of place, 22
technology transfer institutions at, 264–265
as technology transfer models, 7, 259–262
wine industry and, 259–261
University at Albany School of Business and School of Social Welfare, 9, 414, 416, 426
University College London, 278
University of California, 7, 256
University of California, Berkeley, 261
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 261
University of California, Davis
University Extension, 260
wine industry and, 259–260
University of California, San Diego, 429
von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center, 248
University of California, Santa Barbara, 262
University of Helsinki, 279
University of Lund, 279
University of North Carolina, 263
University of Oslo, 279
University of Pennsylvania, 275
University of Porto, 464
University of Utah, 258
University of Vienna, 279
University of Wisconsin, 258
University research funding, impact of economic crisis of 2008 on, 9, 445–457
economic development and, 446–448
Emory University, 449–454, 450f, 453f
Georgia Institute of Technology, 449–454, 450–451f, 453f
Georgia State University, 449–455, 450–453f
methodology to assess, 448–449
overview, 445
results and discussion of study, 449–454
self-funding, 447
University research parks, 8, 337–344
benefits of, 342–343
definition of, 337
empirical findings of study, 341, 342t
(p. 506) matched pair analysis of, 338–339
matched pairs firms, 338–341, 340t
model for how university might assess benefits of, 342–343, 343f
overview, 337–338
performance measures of, 339–341
performance of, on-park vs. off-park, 341–342
R & D intensity of firms, 341
University spin-offs, 228. See also Spin-off processes
Unix, 261
Uno Contract, role in furniture industry, 118
Unproductive entrepreneurship, 54–55
"Unraveling the Cultural and Social Dynamics of Regional Innovation Systems" (Walshok, Shapiro, & Owens), 311–312
Urban economics, 38
Urbanization economies, 133
Urbano, D., 225
US Agency for International Development (USAID), 241
US Bureau of Labor Statistics O*NET database, 41
US Census of Manufacturers (1900), 126–127
"The Use and Abuse of Vegetational Concepts and Terms" (Tansley), 57
User-based innovation, 135
User-generated innovation, 248
US Patent and Trademark Office, 129–130
Vaccine development, 247
Valcucine, role in furniture industry, 119
Van der Knaap, G., 131
Van Hise, Charles, 275
Van Reenen, J., 160
van Stel, André, 150n6
Varga, A., 55n2
Varian Associates, 262
Veciana, J., 225
Venkataraman, S., 287
Venture capital firms, 158, 255
Venture capital funds, 314, 362, 362f
Vernon, Raymond, 35
Vertical place-based policies, 182
Vertical priorities, 314, 468, 469
Vinodrai, T., 297
von Hippel, E., 224
von Humboldt, Alexander, 24
Wacziarg, R., 214, 215
Wadhwa, Vivek, 44
Wallsten, S., 30–31
Walmart, 149n5
Walsh, J. P., 259
Walshok, Mary Lindenstein, 9, 73n29, 311–312, 429, 432, 435
Walton, Sam, 149n5
Wang, 332
Warner, A. M., 194
Warner, Mildred E., 324
Warning, S., 224
War on Poverty, 321
Wasta, 197
Water, Energy, Technology Center (WET Center, California), 316
Watts, Alan, 436
Watts, Brad, 9, 414
The Wealth of Nations (Smith), 37, 126
Weber, Max, 171n16, 272
Weinberg, A. M., 238
Weiner, Norbert, 77
Weitzman, Martin L., 55n2, 65
Wellcome Trust, 241, 280
Wennekers, Sander, 148
West Germany, entrepreneurship in, 174
Westhead, P., 228
Whaling and Basque economy, 357–358
Whitford, J., 121
Whitney, E., 135–136
Wietzman, M. L., 129
Williamson, Oliver E., 170
Wilson, Charles Erwin, 73, 73n28
Wilson, T., 347
Wine industry, 259–261, 264
Winter, Sidney G., 56, 59, 127
Wisconsin university system, 275
W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 280
Wojan, Timothy, 40
Wood, M., 128
Working classes, 38
(p. 507) World Bank, 28, 71, 192
Innovation, Technology, and Entrepreneurship Practice, 55
World Competitiveness Report, 196
World Economic Forum, 71
World War II, 238, 268
Wright, M., 228
Wright, Sewell, 60
Wuebker, R., 225
Wuhan University, 113
Wyrwich, Michal, 172
Xenophon, 216
X-prize, 248
Yale Entrepreneurial Institute, 351
Yale University, 276
Yamawaki, Hideki, 8, 373
Yemen, Arab Spring in, 200, 201
Yoon, J. W., 127
Yunus, Mohammad, 415
Zander, U., 219
Zero-sum competition, 331
Zhao, Q., 133
Zheng, Lingwen, 324
Zhicheng Champion, 108, 109, 113
Zhongshan (China), 108. See also Dongguan's UPS industry
Zipf distribution, 270
Zoldoske, David, 317
Zoning regulations, 167–168, 168n13, 180
Zucker, L., 223