- The Oxford Handbook of Freedom
- Self-Ownership as a Form of Ownership
- Positive Freedom and the General Will
- Moralized Conceptions of Liberty
- On the Conflict Between Liberty and Equality
- Freedom and Equality
- The Point of Self-Ownership
- Platonic Freedom
- Aristotelian Freedom
- Freedom in the Scholastic Tradition
- Freedom, Slavery, and Identity in Renaissance Florence: The Faces of Leon Battista Alberti
- Freedom and Enlightenment
- Adam Smith’s Libertarian Paternalism
- Market Failure, the Tragedy of the Commons, and Default Libertarianism in Contemporary Economics and Policy
- Planning, Freedom, and the Rule of Law
- Freedom, Regulation, and Public Policy
- Boundaries, Subjection to Laws, and Affected Interests
- Democracy and Freedom
- Can Constitutions Limit Government?
- Freedom and Religion
- Freedom and Influence in Formative Education
- Freedom and the (Posthumous) Harm Principle
- Exploitation and Freedom
- Voluntariness, Coercion, Self-ownership
- The Impartial Spectator and the Moral Teachings of Markets
- Disciplinary Specialization and Thinking for Yourself
- Free Will as a Psychological Accomplishment
- Prisoners of Misbelief: The Epistemic Conditions of Freedom
Abstract and Keywords
Plato’s term eleutheria may be translated as “freedom” because it signifies the same triadic relation as the English term—freedom of an agent from impediments to a goal. While it is generally recognized that Plato rejects the democratic idea of personal freedom, it is often overlooked that he offers in its place an alternative, “aristocratic,” conception of freedom, originating in the moral psychology of Socrates and reflecting a popular view of freedom as opposed to slavery. In the Republic Plato describes aristocratic freedom as the rule of reason over the soul unimpeded by desires. In the Laws aristocratic freedom entails “willing enslavement to the laws,” which represents a due measure between extreme slavery and extreme freedom. Though different from the modern liberal concept of liberty, Plato’s conception leads to important innovations. Plato’s ideal of aristocratic freedom was shared and developed further by Aristotle.
Fred D. Miller Jr. is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy and Executive Director of the Social Philosophy and Policy Center at Bowling Green State University.
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