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date: 12 November 2019

(p. 484) (p. 485) Index

(p. 484) (p. 485) Index

A
abstract cognitive abilities, 320
abstraction. See also policy abstraction
hierarchical learning and, 308–311
learning and generalization, 309–310
relational integration, 306
temporal, 305–306
abstract rules, 320
abstract thought, 320
acetycholine, 402t
action intention, mirror neurons, 248–249
action tendencies, 34
activation likelihood estimation (ALE), 191
adaptation, conflict monitoring, 282–283
addictions, 95
adolescence, 123
brain maturation, 122–123
conduct disorder, 237–238
development, 129–130
emotion, 123–125
reward and cake gambling task, 125f
reward processing, 123–125
risk-taking, 123–125
self-regulation, 123, 130
Social Information Processing Network (SIPN), 126–127
social reasoning, 125–129
Trust Game, 129
Ultimatum Game, 127–129
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 437
affect, 40
Affective Expectancy Model (AEM), Wilson, 365, 370
affective neuroscience, 230, 478
affective node, Social Information Processing Network (SIPN), 126–127
affective processing
anticipatory expectancy effects, 363–365
expectancy effects on affective
experience, 365–366, 371–374
expectancy effects on stages of, 364f
retrospective expectancy effects, 366–367
role of expectancy, 363–367
affective significance
behavioral performance and brain, 83, 84f
executive control and competition, 84f, 86f
affect programs, 32, 34
aging, emotion regulation in, 64–65
algorithm level, cognitive neuroscience, 2
alpha power, executive task demand, 24
altruistic giving, social interactions, 218–219
Alzheimer’s disease, 403, 406, 409
attention, 411
category learning, 351–352
American Psychiatric Association (APA), 434
amnesia, responses to people’s faces, 197
amnesic patient H. M., 4
ampakine compound (CX717), 408–410
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor
recognition memory, 407–408
working memory, 408
amygdala
affective experience, 371
anatomical subdivisions, 153
associative learning, 21
attentional blink, 15–17
challenging view as automatic threat detector, 19–20
emotional memory, 16
emotional modulation of visual processing, 81f, 84f
emotion processing, 100–101
extinction, 452
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 453–454
impression formation, 192t, 194–195
meta-analyses of emotions, 35, 36t
motivated attention, 26
negative reinforcement learning, 237
nonverbal cues, 152
perception and attention, 26–27
perceptual processing, 17–19
pleasure, 215, 216f
reappraisal, 59–60
responses to emotional faces, 82
social information processing network, 126f
social phobia (SP), 456
threat-detector, 17–19
voxel-based morphometry (VBM), 103–104
Williams syndrome (WS), 100f
anger category
brain activation differences, 38t
meta-analysis, 35, 36t
anger superiority effect, Williams syndrome, 98
angry faces, neural responses to, 191
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
affective significance, 85
conflict monitoring, 277–278
contrasting theories of ACC function, 288–289
controlled processing, 337
dissociable forms of conflict, 284–285
executive network, 324
meta-analyses of emotions, 35, 36t
shared perception of pain, 234
anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), reappraisal, 59
anterior insula
pain network, 216
shared perception of pain, 234–235
anterior temporal cortex, social information processing network, 126f
anticipatory expectancy, affective processing, 363–365
anxiety disorders, emotion regulation, 67–68
appraisal approach, 32
appraisal models, 46n.3
arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A), 105
Aristotle, 353
Arnold, Magda, 34
Asperger’s syndrome, 258
assimilation, 365
association cortex, 137
associative learning, amygdala, 21
atomoxetine, 413
ATRIUM model, category learning, 351
attachment, love and, 221–223
attention. See also motivated attention
beyond influence of emotion, 25
emotional, 452–453
emotional expression production, 21–23
emotion and cognition, 80–82
executive cognition, 411–412
insula, 116
psychological construction, 43–44
subtypes, 478
attentional blink, emotional stimuli, 14–17
attentional blink paradigm, 80
(p. 486) attentional capture, models of, 12–13
attentional control, executive control and competition, 86f
attentional control site, modulatory mechanism, 85
attentional deployment, emotion regulation, 53f, 54, 62
attentional filtering, top-down and bottom-up, 12–13
attentional network, 87–88
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 95, 410, 413, 421, 428–429
brain maturation, 423
developmental trajectories, 423
functional imaging of, with cognitive challenge, 424–425
functional imaging of, without cognitive challenge, 425
future directions, 429
neuroanatomical basis of, 422–426
neurochemical basis of, 426–427
neurogenetics of, 427–428
neuropsychological profile of, 421–422
nondevelopmental studies, 423–424
structural imaging of, 422–424
attractiveness, impression formation, 190–194
auditory cues, social interaction, 151
auditory face, 151
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 95, 257–258
face-selective deficits, 172–173, 178–179
nonverbal social cues, 156–157
social-emotional behavior, 95, 106–107
automatic processing, decision making, 336
B
Baboon Metaphysics, Cheney and Seyfarth, 188
balance, visceroception and, 119
basal ganglia
activation with sadness, 38
meta-analyses of emotions, 35, 36t
basic emotion approach, 32
basketball, 345
bed nucleus of stria terminalis, social information processing network, 126f
Beecher, Henry, 361
behavior, association between faces and, 196
biasing competition
attention, 12
model, 83
motivated attention, 13–21
bilateral facial paralysis, empathy, 235
biological motion, detection and interpretation, 263–264
biological motion movies, 149
biological motion stimuli, nonverbal cues, 149–150
biological relevance detector, 20
blood level oxygen-dependent (BOLD) signal, 103
bodily self, visceroception and, 118–119
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), 465
body motion, nonverbal cues, 150
body representation, awareness, 115–116
borderline personality disorder (BPD), emotion regulation, 66
Botox injections, 154, 231
Bottom-up processing
attentional capture, 12–13
dual competition model, 83, 84f, 85
brain. See also theory of mind (ToM)
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 422–426
development of numerical-magnitude representations, 390–392
emotion and cognition, 80, 90
emotion categories, 32–33, 38–39
functional networks, 42f
interactive specialization (IS), 258–259
maturation in adolescence, 122–123
number processing, 385f
numerical magnitudes in, 383–385
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 466f, 467f
pain matrix, 210
social information processing network, 126f
symbolic and nonsymbolic representations of number, 384f, 388–389
systems involved in cognitive control of emotion, 56t, 57t
theory of mind tasks, 206f
thinking people’s thoughts, 205–209
visceroception, 114–115
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
mood disorder, 105–106
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 435
brain lesions, empathy, 235–236
brain mapping, 3
brain maps, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 468f
brainstorming, creative thinking, 325–326
braking signal, conflict, 284
Brodmann’s area 10, 137
Brodmann’s area 34, 38
Bush, George W., 139, 140, 141
C
cake gambling task, neural activation, 125f
canonical neurons, grasping actions, 246–247
CANTAB test battery, 412
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
cognition, 24
dopamine catabolism, 104
categorization
human behavior, 342, 353–354
psychological construction, 43
category learning, 342–343
brain basis of, 351–353
clustering models, 349–350
exemplar-based models, 347–349
future directions, 354
medial temporal lobe (MTL), 353
models of, 343–351
multiple systems models, 350–351
posterior occipital cortex, 351–352
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 352
prototype-based models, 345–347
rule-based models, 343–345
striatum and midbrain dopaminergic areas, 352–353
Chaplin, Charlie, 149
chemosensory signaling, nonverbal cues, 152
Chinese Buddhists, 140
choice behavior, adolescence, 123–125
cholecystokinin, 402t
cingulate cortex, Williams syndrome (WS), 100f
classification, rule-based models, 343–345
clustering models, category learning, 349–350
CLUSTER model, 351
cognition. See also emotion and cognition
emotion and, 79–80
influence of emotion on, 11–12
cognition-emotion amalgams, 11–12
Cognitive Appraisal of Risk Activities Scale, 124
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 440
cognitive change, emotion regulation, 53f, 54
cognitive control, 301. See also policy abstraction
decision trees, 302, 303f
emotion, 52, 53f
flexibility of behavior, 300
frontoparietal control system, 307
hierarchies, 300–301
policy abstraction, 301–302
policy abstraction and rostrocaudal axis of frontal cortex, 302–305
relational integration, 306
rules governing rules, 301–302
second–order policy structure, 301f
studies of brain systems involved in, 56t, 57t
temporal abstraction, 305–306
cognitive flexibility, executive cognition, 412
cognitive/motor group, 42f
cognitive neuropsychology, 2
cognitive neuroscience, 477–478
approach, 2–5
conflict and control, 275–276
constraints and convergence, 3–5
emotion generation, 34–40
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 453–455
(p. 487) linking levels of analysis, 478–479
looking toward the future, 479–482
modeling relationships, 480–481
multiple levels of analysis, 2
new methods, 480
new topics, 479–480
numbers, 382–383
psychological construction, 42–44
and self, 137–138
social phobia (SP), 455–458
term, 1, 477, 482
themes and trends, 477–479
theory of mind (ToM), 205
thinking, 318–319
translation, 481–482
use of multiple methods, 2–3
cognitive-regulation node, Social Information Processing Network (SIPN), 126–127
common-pool resources, 86
communication, nonverbal cues, 155
competitive interactions, conflict and, 276–277
complete composite paradigm, 169
computational level, cognitive neuroscience, 2
computational models, conflict monitoring, 278–280
conditioned response, fear conditioning, 451–452
conditioned stimulus (CS), fear conditioning, 451–452
conditioning
expectancies, 367
fear, 362, 451–452
vs. expectancy, 360–361
conduct disorder (CD), adolescents, 237–238
confident, 138
conflict adaptation, conflict monitoring, 282–283
conflict monitoring
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 277–278
computations models of, 278–280
conflict adaptation, 282–283
conflict and competitive interactions, 276–277
conflict and error processing, 281–282
context, 286–289
contrasting theories of ACC function, 288–289
current research directions, 280–286
dissociable forms of conflict, 284–285
future directions, 290–291
meta-analysis of conflict-related activations, 277f
model architecture, predictions and empirical test, 279f
neural basis of, 280–281
neuropsychology of, 285–286
nonhuman primates, 286–287
regulatory feedback loop, 276f
reinforcement and reward-guided decision-making, 287–288
theoretical foundations, 276–280
uses of conflict signals, 283–284
conflict signals
equation, 279
use of, 283–284
congenital insensitivity to pain, 235
CONLERN, mechanism for face recognition, 179
Connor’s Impulsivity Scale, 124
consciousness
visceroception, 114, 120
visceroception and bodily self, 118–119
CONSPEC, mechanism for face recognition, 179
constraints, cognitive neuroscience, 3–5
context task, policy abstraction, 303f, 305
contextual cues, Williams syndrome, 97–98
contrast, 365, 366
control, prefrontal cortex (PFC), 275–276
controlled processing, decision making, 336–337
convergence, cognitive neuroscience, 3–5
cooperation, social interactions, 218
core affect, psychological construction, 42–43
core limbic group, 42f
correct-response negativity (CRN), 282
cortical body state representation, 115–116
cortical midline structures (CMS)
self and neuroscience, 137, 138, 141
self-knowledge, 141–142
cortical motor system, studying macaques, 245–246
cortical processing, expressions of disgust, 18
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 437
cortisol, 153–154, 437
creative thinking, 324–326
creative generation and evaluation, 325–326
hemispheric contributions and interactions, 324–325
network contributions, 325
creative thought, 319
cultures, expression of emotions, 155
Cyberball, virtual ball-tossing game, 220
cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein gene (CREB1), 104–105
D
Damasio, Antonio, 116
Darwin, Charles, 22, 32, 33, 34
daydreaming, 318
Dean, James, 52
deception detection, nonverbal cues, 154–156
decision making, 334–336, 340
conflict monitoring, 287–288
controlled-automatic distinction, 336–337
framing effects, 338–339
intertemporal choices, 337–338
modulating expectancy, 370
rational approach to, 334–336
Ultimatum Game, 339–340
undermining rationality, 337–340
visceroception and, 116–117
depression
dopamine, 104
subthalamic nucleus (STN), 39
detection node, Social Information Processing Network (SIPN), 126–127
developmental dyscalculia (DD), neuronal basis, 392–394
Dewey, John, 34
dexamethasone suppression test (DST), 438
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 3rd Edition, 434
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM–IV)
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 421
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 450
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 464
social phobia (SP), 450
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 153
dimension task, policy abstraction, 303f, 305
discounted utility, decision making, 335
disgust category
brain activation differences, 38t
meta-analysis, 35, 36t
mirroring mechanism, 251
processing, 18
visceroception and disgust perception, 117–118
dissociation, cognitive and emotional conflict, 284–285
distancing
emotion regulation, 54
reappraisal, 58
distraction, emotion regulation, 54
divide-and-conquer approach, hierarchies of options, 300–301
dopamine, 337, 402t, 403
dopaminergic areas, category learning, 352–353
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)
emotion regulation, 58
grief, 221
pain network, 216, 216f, 224n.2
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
abstraction, 320
attention and working memory, 57–58
decision making, 338
goal-directed thinking, 319–321
emotional expression, modulating attention perception, 21–23
emotional modulation, visual processing, 81f, 84f
emotional-salience networks, 13, 25–26
emotion and cognition, 79–80. See also dual competition model
emotional modulation, 81f
executive functions, 82–83
future directions, 90
interaction between, 80–83
perception and attention, 80–82
emotion-cognition debate, 80
emotion generation
absolute differences in brain activation, 38t
cognitive neuroscience evidence, 34–40
concept, 33–40
future directions, 44
hypotheses, 33–34
meta-analytic findings, 35, 36t, 46n.5
process model of, 52–53
emotion regulation
in aging, 64–65
anxiety disorders, 67–68
attentional deployment, 53f, 54, 62
borderline personality disorder (BPD), 66
development of, 63–64
extending neurocognitive model, 61–63
future directions, 68–69
implementation of reappraisal, 55–59
major depressive disorder, 66–67
neural bases, 53f, 55–61
phobias, 67–68
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 67–68
process model of, 53–55
psychopathology, 65–68
reappraisal as paradigm case, 55
response modulation, 53f, 54, 62–63
situation selection and modification, 53f, 54, 62
translational findings, 68
empathy, 228–229, 229, 238–239
associated phenomena, 229
brain structures and systems, 229
components of, 229–230
effect of brain lesions on, 235–236
out-of-body experience, 156
and psychopathy, 236–238
shared neural circuits between self and other, 231–233
sharing emotions of others, 230–231
witnessing others in pain, 233–235
entorhinal cortex, activation with emotion, 38, 39
epilepsy, 4, 170
episodic memory, self, 139
error processing, conflict monitoring, 281–282
error-related negativity (ERN), 278, 282
event-related potentials (ERPs)
autism spectrum disorders, 172
biological motion stimuli, 149–150
face processing, 172, 177–178
face recognition, 167
face selectivity, 171
gaze, 261
grasping actions, 265
impression formation, 189, 198
infants’ face processing, 260
numerical cognition, 384
reappraisal, 69
social development, 259
temperamental anxiety, 21
executive cognition, 410
attention, 411–412
cognitive flexibility, 412
response inhibition, 412–414
working memory, 410–411
executive control and competition, dual competition model, 83, 84f, 86–89
executive function
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 422
impact of emotion on cognition, 82–83
executive networks, 13, 324
exemplar-based models, category learning, 347–349
expectancies, 359–360, 374
Affective Expectancy Model (AEM), 365, 370
affective experience, 365–367, 371–374
affective processing, 363–367
anticipatory expectancy effects, 363–365
conditioning vs. expectancy, 360–361
contingency predictability, 361
emergence of, 367–368
fear conditioning, 362
general brain mechanisms of, 369f
maintenance, 368–369
mechanisms of, 367–371
modulating affective responses, 369–371
nonvolitional responses, 363
placebo treatment, 359, 361, 363
response, 361, 362f, 363
retrospective effects, 366–367
stimulus, 361, 362f
stimulus characteristics, 361, 362f
types of, 361–363
what-kind-of-event predictability, 361
expectations, 359–360
expected utility, decision making, 334–335
expertise account, face specialization, 174–178
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Darwin, 32, 33
expressive behavior, Darwinian principals, 22
extinction, 452
extrastriate body area (EBA), 150
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 440
eyes, nonverbal cues, 150–151
F
face
development of infants’ processing, 259–261
human interactions, 150–151
face patch, recognition, 169–170
face-place object selection task, stimulus from, 18f
face recognition, 165–166
behavioral assessments in literature, 166–169
behavioral evidence of expertise, 175–177
challenges in contemporary research, 178–180
challenges in modeling, 180
expertise account of face specialization, 174–178
face-selective deficits, 171–173
holistic processing, 167–169
link between neural markers and behavior, 178–179
linking infant findings to adult specialization, 179–180
neural evidence, 169–173, 177–178
neuroimaging in humans, 170–171
origins of, 173–178
Thatcher effect, 166, 167f, 173
face selectivity
deficits, 171–173
neuroimaging in humans, 170–171
facial electromyography (EMG), 40
emotional contagion, 158
empathy, 230–231
facial-emotion processing, Williams syndrome, 96–97
facial-emotion recognition, nonverbal cues, 157
facial expression, Darwinian principals, 22
facial expressions
Darwin’s proposal, 22
pain, 234
production of, 26
social interactions, 150–151
Williams syndrome and threatening, 98–99
facial feedback hypothesis, Tomkins, 34
fatty acid amid hydrolase gene (FAAH), 105
fear
conditioning, 362, 451–452
nonverbal cues, 153
fear category
brain activation differences, 38t
meta-analysis, 35–37, 36t
feature task, policy abstraction, 303f, 304
flanker task model, 280
flat set, response mappings, 309–310
flexibility, human behavior, 300
form, Darwinian principal of expressive behavior, 22
fractional anisotropy (FA), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 437
fragile-balance hypothesis, social reasoning, 125
framing effects, decision making, 338–339
frontal cortex
policy abstraction and rostrocaudal axis of, 302–305
processing hierarchy in, 306–308
frontoparietal control system, cognitive control, 307
frontotemporal dementia (FTD), empathy, 236
function, Darwinian principal of expressive behavior, 22
functional imaging, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 424–425
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 3
amygdala functioning and regulation, 100
anxiety disorders, 67–68
cognition, 79
conflict monitoring, 278
developmental dyscalculia (DD), 392–393
efficiency of perceptual processing, 16
emerging networks of social cognition, 266, 267
empathy, 232
expectancy effects, 372
face processing in autism spectrum disorders, 172
face recognition, 167
facial expressions, 17–18
gaze, 261
impression formation, 189, 195, 197–198
infant face-processing, 260
major depressive disorder (MDD), 103
mirror mechanism, 250
numerical magnitude, 384
olfactory stimuli, 20
oxytocin administration, 153
policy abstraction, 304f
processing of resources and threat, 88f
pupil sizes, 152
reward sensitivity, 124
self reference, 140
shared perception of pain, 233–234
social interactions, 215
visual processing, 13
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation (fMRA), 386
functional neuroimaging studies, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 438–440
fusiform face area (FFA)
connectivity to amygdala and prefrontal cortex, 101
face perception, 259–260
face selectivity, 170–171, 178–179
social information processing network, 126f
fusiform gyrus (FG), face processing, 195
G
GABA (γ-aminobutryric acid), 402t
gaze
joint attention, 263
social cognition development, 261
Gazzaniga, Michael, 1
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
clinical features, 451
cognitive neuroscience, 453–455
diagnosis, 450
emotional attention, 452–453
emotion regulation, 67–68
fear conditioning, 451–452
future directions, 458
threat processing, 451
General Recognition Theory, 344
genetics, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 427–428
genetics of emotion, 94–95, 107
genes, neuropeptides and socialemotional mechanisms, 106–107
imaging genetics and mood disorders, 106
mood disorder research, 102–106
neuropsychiatric disorders, 101–107
giving, altruistic, 218–219
glutamate, 402t, 408–410
goal-directed thinking, 319–321. See also thinking
hierarchical organization, 319
levels of abstraction, 319–320
relational reasoning, 320–321
goal-directed thought, 319
grasping actions
canonical neurons, 246–247
infants, 265
macaque monkeys, 245–246
mirror neurons, 248
gravity, visceral receptors, 119
great automaticity debate, amygdala, 17–19
grief, losing those we love, 221
gustatory information, 115
H
Hall, Stanley, 123
hand and mouth movements, macaques, 245–246
handbook overview, 5–6
happiness category
brain activation differences, 38t
meta-analysis, 35, 36t
happy faces, neural responses to, 191
Hebbian learning, 251
(p. 488) Hebbian potentiation, 251
hierarchical control. See also policy abstraction
cognitive control, 300–301
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 311f
future directions, 313–314
hierarchical learning task, 310f
input gating, 311
learning and abstraction, 308–311
mechanisms of, 311–313
mixture of experts model, 313
output gating, 312
schematic of neural net model of, in frontal corticostriatal loops, 312f
tests of model predictions, 314f
hierarchical set, response mappings, 310
holistic processing, 180n.1
face recognition, 167–169
object identification, 174–175
Hopper, Edward, 220
hormones, socially stressful situations, 153–154
human behavior, flexibility, 300
human vocalizations, nonverbal cues, 151, 154–155
Huntington’s disease (HD), 236
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 103, 402t, 403, 412–413, 467–468
hypersociability, Williams syndrome (WS), 95–96, 99
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 435, 437
hypothalamus, social information
processing network, 126f
I
imagery debate, 4
imaging genetics
mood disorder research, 102–106
neuropsychiatric disorders, 101–107
understanding mood disorders, 106
implementation, reappraisal, 55–59
implementation level, cognitive neuroscience, 2
impression formation, 188–189, 198–199
activation likelihood estimation (ALE), 191
appearance-based, 196
association between faces and behaviors, 196
attractiveness or trustworthiness, 190–194
atypical or extremely attractive faces, 194f
behavior-based, 196
brain areas for, from facial appearance, 192t
efficiency of first impressions, 189–190
future directions, 198–199
linear and nonlinear response patterns in amygdala, 194f
multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), 191
negative evaluations, 193f
negative face evaluations, 191
neural basis from multiple information sources, 195–198
neural basis of, from facial appearance, 190–195
person-learning mechanisms, 197
positive evaluations, 193f
infants
face processing, 259–261
joint attention, 261–263
mechanism for face recognition, 179–180
mimicry, 230
mu activity, 264
understanding action of others, 264–266
inferior parietal cortex (iPFC), attention and working memory, 57–58
inferior temporal (IT) gyrus, face recognition, 169–170, 178–179
information processing, language, 481
input gating, hierarchical control, 311
insula
activation with emotion, 39
affective experience, 371
cortical body state representation, 115–116
interoceptive information, 116
meta-analyses of emotions, 35, 36t
pain network, 216
perception of disgust, 117–118
reappraisal, 60
Ultimatum Game, 127–129
visual self-recognition, 118–119
working memory and attention, 116
intentionality
empathy, 233
mind reading, 244–245
Ultimatum Game, 127–129
interactive specialization (IS), brain, 258–259
intermediate phenotype, biomarkers, 101
International Affective Picture System (IAPS), 141
interoceptive information, insula, 116
interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), 235
intersubjectivity, empathy, 239
intertemporal choices, decision making, 337–338
intractable seizure disorder, joint attention, 262
intraparietal sulcus (IPS), number processing, 384–385, 385f
intrinsic connectivity networks, 46n.6
introspection, recursive thinking, 326
involuntary facial microexpressions, 154
Irons, David, 34
J
Jagger, Mick, 167
James, William, 34, 40, 41, 46n.2, 116, 118, 136
Johnson, Marcia, 141
joint attention, development in infants, 261–263
joint recruitment, executive network, 326
K
Keaton, Buster, 149
Knowledge-based cascade correlation (KBCC), 267
Korsakoffpatients, 197
Kosslyn, Stephen, 5
L
Lange, Carl, 34, 46n.2
language
computation, 481
psychological construction, 44
lateral intraparietal area (LIP), summation coding, 394f
lateral paralimbic group, 42f
lateral spinothalamic tract, 372
laughter
emotional contagion, 157–158
involuntary vocalization, 154–155
learning
effects of drugs on, 405–407
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 436
left inferior frontal gyrus, empathy, 235–236
left temporoparietal junction (LTPJ), theory of mind (ToM), 207–208
lesion-overlap map, policy abstraction, 308, 309f
liars, detecting deception in, 155–156
locked-in syndrome, nonverbal cues, 157
long-term depression (LTD), 405
long-term potentiation (LTP)
drugs and learning, 405–407
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 435
love
and attachment, 221–223
maternal, 222–223
romantic, 221–222
love spots, 3
M
macaques
action motor goals, 245–246
conflict monitoring, 286–287
face cells and face areas in, 169–170
face-selective responses, 195
mirror neurons in, 247–249
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 153, 480
emotion regulation, 64
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 435
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 232, 480
(p. 489) major depressive disorder (MDD)
emotion processing, 103–104, 105
emotion regulation, 66–67
emotion regulation in, 64
Marr, David, 2
maternal love, 222–223
medial posterior group, 42f
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 42f, 212n.1
abstracted, semantic representations, 142–143
joint attention, 262
self reference, 139–141
social cognition, 216
social phobia (SP), 456–458
target person, 210
theory of mind (ToM), 207f, 208
Trust Game, 129
medial spinothalamic tract, 373
medial temporal lobe (MTL)
category learning, 351, 353
creative thinking, 325, 326
memory
episodic, 139
pharmacological dissection, 407–408
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 436
self in, 138–141
semantic, 138, 139
subtypes, 478
memory systems debate, 4
mental Rubicon, 244
meta-analysis
emotion generation, 34–40
face evaluation, 191
meta-awareness, recursive thinking, 326
meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), 465
methodological behaviorism, 136
methylphenidate (Ritalin), 410
methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 426–427
mice, witnessing pain in others, 233
microfacial expressions, nonverbal cues, 155
Miller, George, 1
mimicry, sharing emotions of others, 230–231
mind reader, 148
mind reading, 244
intentional understanding, 244–245
oxytocin, 153
simulation, 253
mind wandering, 318, 321, 322, 323–324
mirroring mechanisms
humans, 249–251
ontogenesis of, 251–252
mirror neurons
action, perception and cognition, 252–253
action understanding and imitation, 232–233
audiovisual, 248
disgust or pain, 118
emotions, 115–116
goal-relatedness, 250
macaque monkeys, 247–249
motor intention, 248
nonhuman primates’ social cognition, 249
social interactions, 244–245
Möbius syndrome, nonverbal cues, 157
modal model, 32
monkeys. See macaques
monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), imaging genetics, 104
mood, peripheral information-processing, 23
mood disorders
imaging genetics, 102–106
imaging studies for understanding, 106
motivated attention, 12
amygdala as automatic threat detector, 19–20
amygdala role, 26
attentional blink, 14–17
biasing competition, 13–21
developmental changes, 20–21
emotional stimuli under limited attention, 14–19
face-place object selection task, 18f
great automaticity debate, 17–19
individual differences, 20–21
visual processing of arousing images, 13–14
motor cognition, macaque monkey brains, 245–246
motor/sensory regions, attention, 43–44
mu activity, infants, 264
multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), 37, 191, 194–195
multiple sensory modalities, nonverbal cues, 148, 151–152
multiple systems models, category learning, 350–351
multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), face selectivity, 171
multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), spatial patterns, 388
mu rhythm, 232
myeloencephalography (MEG), face selectivity, 171
N
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 482
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 480
natural kind model, 32, 46n.1
near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
infant face-processing, 259, 260
mirroring mechanism, 251
neural evidence, face recognition, 169–173
neural reference space, 41, 42f
neuroatomical basis, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 422–426
neurobiological dysfunction, obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD), 465–467
neurochemical basis, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 426–427
neurochemistry
oxytocin, 153–154
vasopressin, 153–154
neurogenetics, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 427–428
neuroimaging, 3
emotion, 44
emotion regulation, 69
neural circuits between self and other, 231–233
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 438–440
self-reflections, 138
special self in memory, 139–141
neuropeptides, 106–107, 402t
neuropeptide Y, 402t
neuropsychiatric disorders
genetic mechanisms of, 101–107
multiple genetic risk variants, 102f
nonverbal cues, 157
neuropsychology
conflict monitoring, 285–286
special self in memory, 139
neuroreceptor studies, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 441
neuroscience. See also cognitive neuroscience
cognitive psychopharmacology, 402–403
theory of mind (ToM), 204–205, 211–212
neurotransmitters, major chemical, 402t
New Yorker cartoon, 365
NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors
cognitive enhancement, 408–410
effects of drugs on learning, 405–407
recognition memory, 407–408
nociception, 372
nonhuman primates. See macaques
nonverbal cues, 148–149, 158–159
amygdala, 53
anomalies and ambiguities in interpretation, 156–157
auditory, 151
communication, 155
deception detection, 155–156
eyes, 150–151
fear, 153
future directions, 159
hormones, 153–154
human vocalizations, 151, 154–155
interactions and synchrony between individuals, 157–158
mind reading, 148, 153
(p. 490) multiple senses, 148, 151–152
olfactory, 151
oxytocin levels, 153–154
perception and interpretation of, 149–152
social interaction, 149f
tactile, 151
unconscious vs. conscious perception, 152–154
unintentionally vs. intentionally sent, 154–156
use for deception, 154–156
visual, 148
nonvolitional responses, 363
noradrenaline, 402t
noradrenergic system, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 437
norepinephrine, 16, 17, 437
nucleus accumbens
impression formation from facial appearance, 192t
social information processing network, 126f
nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), 115
numerical cognition, 382–383
brain representations of numerical order and numerical magnitude, 389–390
cognitive neuroscience, 392–394
developmental dyscalculia (DD), 392–394
development of numerical-magnitude representations in brain, 390–392
future directions, 397–398
number-specific or magnitude-general coding in parietal cortex, 387–388
numerical distance effect (NDE), 383f
numerical magnitude, 394–396
numerical magnitudes in brain, 383–385
numerical ratio effect (NRE), 383f
numerosity code, 396–397
reconstruction of human brain for number processing, 385f
response selection in parietal cortex, 385–387
symbolic and nonsymbolic brain representations, 388–389
symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison task, 384f
numerical magnitude
development of representations in brain, 390–392
logarithmic vs. linear representation, 395–396
representation in brain, 389–390, 394–396
summation vs. place coding, 394–395
O
object identification
behavioral evidence, 175–177
holistic processing, 174–175
neural evidence, 177–178
sensitivity to spatial-frequency content, 177f
whole-part paradigm, 176
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 463–464
affected brain circuitry, 466f
brain maps, 468f
clinical aspects, 464–465
functional brain imaging, 467f
implications, 469
pharmacological intervention, 465
quantifying neurobiological dysfunction, 465–467
translational modeling of select cognitive problems, 467–469
occipital face area (OFA), face selectivity, 170
occipital/visual association group, 42f
Ochsner, Kevin, 5
odorants, perception of disgust, 117
olfactory cue, nonverbal, 151
olfactory information, 115
olfactory stimuli, arousal and valence, 20
ontogenesis, mirroring mechanisms, 251–252
orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC), emotion processing, 103
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
amygdala role, 26
emotional modulation, 84f, 85
emotional modulation of visual processing, 84f
lateral, activation with emotion, 38t, 39
(p. 491) maintaining expectancies, 368, 369f
meta-analyses of emotions, 35, 36t
negative reinforcement learning, 237
sensitivity to valence, 20
Williams syndrome (WS), 100f
other-race effect, 175
out-of-body experience, 156
output gating, hierarchical control, 312
oxytocin, 402t
neurochemistry, 153–154
social-emotional behavior, 106–107
P
pain
brain, 210
concept of, 373
expectations, 359–360, 372–374
grief, 221
modulating expectancy, 370
network, 216f
neural substrates of, 215–216
pain processing network (PPN), 372f
social interaction, 219–221
witnessing others in, 233–235
pain empathy, mirror neurons, 118
parahippocampal place area (PPA)
attentional blink, 16
co-activation of PPA and primary visual cortex, 23–24
cortical activation, 23
parietal cortex
number processing, 385–387
number-specific or magnitude-general coding, 387–388
parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), 119
Parkinson’s disease
category learning, 352
conditioning, 361
levodopa (L-dopa), 403, 411
nonverbal cues, 157
subthalamic nucleus (STN), 39
patient populations, 2
perception
affective experience, 371
beyond influence of emotion, 25
emotion and cognition, 80–82
nonverbal cues, 149–152
visceroception and, of disgust, 117–118
perceptual competition, dual competition model, 83, 84–86
perceptual processing, efficiency, 16
periacqueductal gray (PAG), activation with sadness, 38
peripheral information processing, mood, 23
peripheral nervous system, emotion, 40
personality psychology, self-knowledge, 136
person-learning mechanism, impression formation, 197
pharmacological intervention, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 465
phobias. See also social phobia (SP)
emotion regulation, 67–68
placebo
conditioning, 361
expectancy effects, 371
expectations, 359, 361
pleasure
neural substrates of, 215
reward network, 216f
point-light displays (PLDs)
biological motion, 263
movies, 149
policy abstraction
alternatives to, 305–306
context task, 303f, 305
dimension task, 303f, 305
feature task, 303f, 304
frontoparietal control system, 307
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of parametric manipulations of control, 304f
hierarchical learning and abstraction, 308–311
patient overlap maps, 308, 309f
processing hierarchy in frontal cortex, 306–308
response task, 303f, 304
(p. 492) rostrocaudal axis of frontal cortex, 302–305
rules governing rules, 301–302
schematic of second–order policy structure, 301f
schematics of hierarchical learning task, 310f
task for testing four levels of, 303f
positron emission tomography (PET), 3, 480
cerebral metabolism, 408
conflict monitoring, 278
face processing, 259
face selectivity, 170
major depressive disorder (MDD), 103
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 437, 438
visual processing, 13
posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)
impression formation, 196
self and neuroscience, 137–138
social cognition, 216
spontaneous thought, 322
posterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), emotion regulation, 58
posterior occipital cortex, category learning, 351–352
posterior parietal cortex, decision making, 338
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 407, 434–435
amygdala and perceptual sensitivity, 21, 27
brain structure, 435–438
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 440
cognitive functioning, 435–438
diagnosis of, 434–435
emotion regulation, 67–68
(p. 493) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, 440
fractional anisotropy (FA), 437
functional neuroimaging studies in, 438–440
learning and memory, 436
neuroreceptor studies in, 441
symptoms of, 435
prediction errors, drugs and learning, 405–407
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
category learning, 352
control, 275–276
goal-directed thought, 319
networks of social cognition, 266–267
regulatory feedback loop, 276f
temporal abstraction, 305–306
threat processing, 87f
Prisoner’s Dilemma Game
impression formation, 196
social interactions, 218
problem solving, relational reasoning, 320–321
process-map hypothesis, face specialization, 174
progressive supranuclear palsy, nonverbal cues, 157
prosopagnosia
face-selective deficits, 172, 178–179
responses to people’s faces, 197
prospection, expectancies, 367–368
prototype-based models, category learning, 345–347
psychiatric diseases, multiple genetic risk variants, 102f
psychiatric disorders, 95
psychical disturbance, Irons, 34
psychological construction, 33
cognitive neuroscience evidence, 42–44
concept, 40–44
elemental models, 41
emergent models, 41
future directions, 44–45
hypothesis, 40–42
implications, 45–46
psychology
expectations, 360
self-knowledge, 135–137
psychopathology
emotion generation, 69
emotion regulation, 65–68, 69
psychopathy, empathy and, 236–238
Psychopathy Check List-Revised (PCLR), 238
Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version (PCL-SV), 237
psychopharmacology
ampakine compound (CX717), 408–409
atomoxetine, 413f
attention, 411–412
chemical neurotransmitters, 402t
cholinergic hypothesis of dementia, 403
citalopram, 413f
cognitive, 401–402, 415
cognitive enhancement via glutamate receptors, 408–410
cognitive enhancers, 414
cognitive flexibility, 412
dissection of effects of drugs on memory, 407–408
drug effects on cognition via arousallike processes, 403–405
drugs and learning, 405–407
executive cognition, 410–414
methylphenidate (Ritalin), 410, 411
modafinil, 414f
neuroscience, 402–403
recognition memory, 407–408
response inhibition, 412–414
translational imperative, 403
working memory, 408, 410–411
Yerkes–Dodson principle, 403–404, 404f
psychophysiology, empathy, 232
pulvinar complex of thalamus, 85, 85f
pupillary contagion, 152
pupillometry, unconscious social or
emotional contagion, 158
pupil size, nonverbal cues, 152
R
radical behaviorism, 136
rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, attentional blink, 14f
rational agent theory, decision making, 334–336
reappraisal
amygdala, 59–60
emotion regulation, 53f, 54
insula, 60
older adults, 65
perceptual and semantic representations, 61
plots of activation foci, 55f
sources and targets of, 55f
studies of brain systems in cognitive control of emotion, 56t, 57t
targets, 59–60
ventral striatum, 60
ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), 60–61
reasoning, relational, 320–321
recognition memory, pharmacological dissection, 407–408
regions of interest (ROIs)
developmental dyscalculia, 392
hierarchical rules, 313, 314f
pain processing network (PPN), 372f
reinforcement, conflict monitoring, 287–288
reinterpretation
emotion regulation, 54
reappraisal, 58
rejection, social interaction, 219–221
relational integration, abstraction, 306
relational reasoning, thinking, 320–321
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), empathy, 232
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), 482
resources, processing of, and threat, 88f
response expectancies, 361–363, 367–368, 370
response inhibition
executive cognition, 412–414
executive function, 82
response modulation, emotion regulation, 53f, 54, 62–63
response-outcome contingencies, 360
response task, policy abstraction, 303f, 304
retrospective expectancy, affective processing, 366–367
reward
neural substrates of, 215
reward network, 216f
reward-guided decision making, conflict monitoring, 287–288
(p. 494) reward prediction error (RPE), hierarchical rules, 312, 313, 314f
reward processing
adolescence, 123–125
cake gambling task, 125f
right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), theory of mind (ToM), 207f, 208–209
risk-taking, adolescence, 123–125
romantic love, 221–222
rostrocaudal axis of frontal cortex
connectivity along, 307f
nested corticostriatal loops, 312–313
policy abstraction and, 302–305
rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC)
goal-directed thinking, 319–321
recursive thinking, 326–327
spontaneous thought, 322–323
rule-based models, category learning, 343–345
rules, policy abstraction, 301–302
RULEX model, category learning, 344
Russian roulette, 345
S
sadness category
brain activation differences, 38t
meta-analysis, 35, 36t
schizophrenia, 406, 409
decision making, 337
nonverbal social cues, 157
selective attention, emotion regulation, 53f, 54
selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 103, 465
self-consciousness, visceroception and, 118–119
self-involvement, 143
self-knowledge, 135–137, 143–144
cognitive neuroscience and self, 137–138
cortical midline structures, 141–142
future research, 144
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in abstracted, semantic representations, 142–143
neuroimaging, 139–141
neuropsychology, 139
self in memory, 138–141
self-reflections, neuroimaging, 138
self-regulation
adolescence, 123, 130
emotions in adolescence, 63
semantic memory
neuropsychology, 139
self–related, 138
sementic dementia (SD), empathy, 236
sense of balance, visceroception and, 119
sensory decision theory (SDT), modulating expectancy, 370
sequencing task, impression formation, 195, 196
serotonin (5-HT), 103, 402t, 403, 412–413, 467–468
serotonin transporter (5–HTT), 103
serotonin transporter length polymorphism (5–HTTLPR)
genetic variation, 103–106
multiple genetic risk variants, 102f
simulation
mind reading, 253
other people’s actions and experience, 210–211
situational modification, emotion regulation, 53f, 54, 62
situation selection, emotion regulation, 53f, 54, 62
social anxiety disorder, emotion regulation, 67–68
social brain, 137, 258
social brain network, ontogeny of, 258–259
social cognition, 257–259, 267–268
abstracted, semantic representations, 142–143
action, 264–266
biological motion, 263–264
early development, 259, 266–267
emerging networks, 266–267
face, 259–261
gaze, 261
joint attention, 261–263
neural substrates, 216
nonhuman primates, 249
social cognitive neuroscience, discipline, 258
social-emotional behavior
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 106–107
genes, neuropeptides and, 106–107
Social Information Processing Network (SIPN) model, 126f, 126–127
social interactions, 214–215, 223–224
altruistic giving, 218–219
being acknowledged by others, 218
being esteemed by others, 217
being rejected, 219–221
being treated fairly by others, 217–218
being treated unfairly, 219
benefits for “me”, 217–218
benefits for “us”, 218
benefits for “you”, 218–219
cooperation, 218
facial expressions, 150–151
grief, 221
losing those we love, 221
love and attachment, 221–223
maternal love, 222–223
mirror neurons, 244–245
neural regions, 215–217
neural substrates of pain, 215–216
neural substrates of pleasure, 215
neural substrates of social cognition, 216
nonverbal sensory cues, 149f
pain network, 216f
pains of, 219–221
pleasures of, 217–219
romantic love, 221–222
social phobia (SP)
clinical features of, 451
cognitive neuroscience, 455–458
diagnosis, 450
emotional attention, 452–453
fear conditioning, 451–452
future directions, 458
threat processing, 451
social psychology, self–knowledge, 136
social reasoning, adolescence, 125–129
socioemotional processing, Williams syndrome (WS), 96–99
somatic markers
hypothesis, 115
visceroception and decision making, 116–117
song lyrics, emotion, 11
spatial neglect, attention, 15
specialization, face recognition, 173–178
spinoreticular pathway, visceroception, 115
spontaneous thought, 318, 321, 322–323
state anxiety, 67
state changes, executive functions, 89
stimulus characteristics, expectancies, 361–363
stimulus expectancies, 361–363
stimulus-independent thought, 321, 323
stimulus-outcome contingencies, 360
stop signal reaction time (SSRT), executive cognition, 412–413
Striatal Pattern Classifier (SPC), 353
structural imaging, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 422–424
subthalamic nucleus (STN), stimulation, 39
superior temporal sulcus (STS)
biological motion processing, 263–264, 266
emotional modulation of visual
processing, 84f
face recognition, 169
face selectivity, 170
social information processing network, 126f
SUSTAIN model, category learning, 349–350, 353
sympathy, 228, 229
T
tactile cue, nonverbal, 151
task processing, regulatory feedback loop, 276f
temperature sensation
interoception, 116
regulation of body skin, 119
temporal abstraction, 305–306
temporoparietal junction (TPJ)
mind wandering, 323
social cognition, 216
Trust Game, 129
Ultimatum Game, 127–129
(p. 495) testosterone, stressful situations, 153–154
thalamus
impression formation from facial appearance, 192t
pulvinar complex of, 85, 85f
Thatcher effect, face recognition, 166, 167f, 173
theory of mind (ToM), 204–205, 211–212
brain regions involved in ToM tasks, 206f
brain supporting thinking about thoughts, 209–211
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 206–208
empathy, 230
left temporoparietal junction (LTPJ), 207–208
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 207f, 208
pain, 210
right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), 207f, 208–209
sample stimuli from experiments, 207f
social information, 127
thinking about people’s thoughts, 205–209
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 208–209
thinking, 318
cognitive neuroscience, 318–319
creative, 324–326
future research, 327–328
goal-directed, 319–321
mind wandering, 323–324
recursiveness of thought, 326–327
spontaneous thought, 322–323
stimulus-independent thought, 323
undirected, 321–324
thought, recursiveness of, 326–327
threat
affective significance, 84f
effects on executive functions, 89f
prefrontal cortex, 87f
processing of resources and, 88f
threat detection
amygdala as, 17–19
challenging view of amygdala as, 19–20
Williams syndrome, 98–99
threat processing
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 451
social phobia (SP), 451
timing, expectancies, 361–363, 362f
Tomkins’ facial feedback hypothesis, 34
top-down processing
attentional capture, 12, 13
diminishing the burden, 15
dual competition model, 83, 84f, 85
regulatory feedback loop, 276f
Tourette’s syndrome, nonverbal cues, 157
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 2
empathy, 232
mirror mechanism, 250
prosopagnosia, 172
theory of mind (ToM), 208, 210
translation, 481–482
emotion regulation, 68
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 467–469
traumatic brain injury (TBI), semantic memory, 139
Trust Game
adolescence, 129, 130
positive and negative outcomes, 198
social interactions, 218
trustworthiness, impression formation, 190–194
tryptophan depletion, 465
Turner syndrome (TS), 392
U
Ultimatum Game
adolescence, 127–129, 130
irrationality in social norms, 337, 339–340
social interactions, 217
unbiasing, mood, 24
unconditioned stimulus (US), 451
undirected thinking, 321–324
undirected thought, 319
upright face perception, 166–167
utility, decision making, 335
V
Valenstein, Elliot, 39
variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), polymorphism in promoter region, 103–106
vasoactive polypeptide (VIP), 402t
vasopressin, 402t
neurochemistry, 153–154
social-emotional behavior, 106–107
ventral intraparietal area (VIP), numerical magnitudes, 395
ventral prefrontal cortex, social information processing network, 126f
ventral striatum (VS)
grief, 221
impression formation from facial appearance, 192t
love and attachment, 221–223
pleasure, 215, 216f, 217–219
reappraisal, 60
ventral tegmental area (VTA)
love and attachment, 221–223
pleasure, 215, 216f, 217–219
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)
abstraction, 320
emotion regulation, 58–59
maintaining expectancies, 368, 369f
ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)
activation with emotion, 39
explicit prospection, 368
extinction, 452
impression formation from facial
appearance, 192t
pleasure, 215, 216f
reappraisal, 60–61
social phobia (SP), 457
stored knowledge, 44
violation of perceptual independence, 168
visceral, 114
visceral-somatic integration, 115
visceroception, 114
bodily self-awareness, 118–119
cortical body state representation, 115–116
decision making, 116–117
from gut to the brain, 114–115
future directions, 120
perception of disgust, 117–118
sense of balance, 119
Vision, Marr, 2
visual cortex
activation with emotion, 38, 39
attention, 18
emotional modulation of visual processing, 81f, 84f
visual processing
emotionally arousing images, 13–14
emotional modulation, 81f, 84f
emotional state, 23–25, 26
visual short-term memory (VSTM), face processing, 166
vocalizations, nonverbal cues, 151, 154–155
vocal prosody, 154
von Economo neurons, 118
voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study
amygdala volume, 103–104
developmental dyscalculia, 393
W
Wager, Tor, 37
Walker, Alice, 359
Walton, Sam, 359
Watterson, Bill, 359
weapon focus, emotional state, 23
Weber’s law, 383
whole-part effect, face recognition, 167
Williams syndrome (WS), 94, 257
amygdala activation, 100f
amygdala for emotion processing, 100–101
combination of features, 95–96
emotional vs. nonemotional contextual cues, 97–98
experiment of nature, 95–101
facial-emotional processing, 96–97
hypersociability, 95–96
(p. 496) insights from socioemotional processing, 99–100
processing of threatening facial expressions, 98–99
socioemotional processing, 96–99
Wilson, Timothy, 365
Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, 352, 412, 466
working memory
attention, 13
attentional blink, 14
category learning, 352
executive cognition, 410–411
executive function, 82
insula, 116
pharmacological dissection, 408
threat triggering executive functions, 89
Wundt, W., 40
Y
Yawning, emotional contagion, 157–158
Yerkes–Dodson principle, 403–404, 404f, 410