- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Introduction to The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience: Cognitive Neuroscience: Where Are We Now?
- Salience, State, and Expression: The Influence of Specific Aspects of Emotion on Attention and Perception
- Emotion: Generation or Construction?
- The Neuroscience of Emotion Regulation: Basic Mechanisms and Their Role in Development, Aging, and Psychopathology
- The Impact of Emotion on Cognition
- Genetics and Emotion
- Visceromotor Sensation and Control
- Development of Emotion and Social Reasoning in Adolescence
- Perception of Nonverbal Cues
- Face Recognition
- The Cognitive and Neural Basis of Impression Formation
- Theory of Mind: How Brains Think about Thoughts
- The Pleasures and Pains of Social Interactions: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective
- The Neural Underpinnings of the Experience of Empathy: Lessons for Psychopathy
- Mirror Neurons and the Perception–Action Link
- The Early Development of the Brain Bases for Social Cognition
- Conflict Monitoring and Cognitive Control
- Hierarchical Cognitive Control and the Functional Organization of the Frontal Cortex
- Decision Neuroscience
- Expectancies and Beliefs: Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cognitive Neuroscience of Numerical Cognition
- Psychopharmacology of Cognition
- Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia Considered from a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective
- The Neurobiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
- Epilogue to The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience: Where Are We Going?
Abstract and Keywords
Expectations influence clinical outcomes and ongoing experience across nearly all psychological domains. They color our perceptions, drive learning and memory, and shape the generation of emotional responses. Despite their profound influence, researchers have only recently begun to focus on the mechanisms by which expectancies actually modulate subjective experience. This chapter describes a cognitive neuroscience approach to the study of expectations, focusing on expectancy effects on affective experience. First a brief history is provided of the development of expectation as a construct with explanatory power in psychology, and several distinct types of expectancy are discussed. Next, the chapter describes the role of expectations in affective processes, both during anticipation and during the experience of hedonic outcomes. The chapter ends with a discussion on the brain mechanisms currently thought to underlie expectations and their effects, first focusing on expectancies across domains, and then specifically on pain, an area that has proven to be a particularly tractable and informative model system.
Lauren Atlas, Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY
Tor D. Wager, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO
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