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date: 28 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Convergent evidence from brain imaging, behavioral, and molecular genetic studies indicates that neuropathophysiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is rooted in dopamine-mediated circuits encompassing prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, which are important for executive control and motivational behavior. However, cognitive deficits in ADHD extend beyond executive and motivational domains to include spatial attention, temporal processing, and motor execution. Atypical structural and functional anatomy also includes parietal and temporal cortices. A primary challenge for future work is identifying genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of the observed neurocognitive heterogeneity in ADHD that is also paralleled in its phenotypic expression.

Keywords: prefrontal, striatal, dopamine, catecholamine, stimulants

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