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date: 07 July 2020

(p. 606) (p. 607) Index

(p. 606) (p. 607) Index

A
abstract knowledge, 365–366
acetylcholine, 301t
orienting network, 302
achromatopsia, 80
acoustic frequencies, 145
acoustic properties
facial movements and vocal acoustics, 529–531
linking articulatory movements to vocal, 525–526
speech perception, 509–512
acoustic shadowing effect, 150
action
attention and, 255–256, 267–268
attention for, 261
divergence from attention, 261–263
imagery, 123–124
music, 122–124
object-associated, 567–568
performance, 123
sensorimotor coordination, 122–123
sensorimotor modality, 367
action-blindsight, neuropsychology, 322
action monitoring, attention, 299
activate-predict-confirm perception cycle, 62–63
adaptive coding, auditory system, 149–150
affective neuroscience, 599, 600
aging
binding deficit hypothesis and medial temporal lobe (MTL) function, 468
cognitive theories of, 457
compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH), 459, 462, 470
double dissociation between medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions, 466f
episodic memory encoding, 459–461, 464
episodic memory retrieval, 461–463, 464–465
functional neuroimaging of cognitive, 465–467
future directions, 469–470
healthy vs. pathological, 468–469
hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD), 458–463, 470
medial temporal lobes, 463–465
prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during episodic memory retrieval, 462f
resource deficit hypothesis and PFC function, 467
sustained and transient memory effects, 461f
working memory, 458–459, 463
working memory and episodic memory, 456
working memory and prefrontal cortex (PFC) for younger and older adults, 459f
agnosia, 80, 530
auditory, 201
visual, 198–200, 204, 278, 279f
visual, of patient D. E., 199
agnosia for letters, 200
agraphia, 497
alexia without, 495
AIDS, 473
akinetopsia, 198
alerting network, attention, 300–301
alexia, 80
alexia without agraphia, 495
algorithm level, cognitive neuroscience, 2
allocentric neglect, 40
Allport, D. A., 356, 568
sensorimotor model of semantic memory, 362
Alzheimer’s dementia, 203, 456, 562
amnesia, 474
amnesic patient, seizures, 4, 438
amnesic syndrome, 474
amplitude compression, sound, 140
amplitude modulation, sound measurement, 145–146
amusia, 127, 201
amygdala, 90, 93, 95f, 601, 602
audition, 200
emotion, 125
gustation, 202, 203
reconsolidation, 450
sensory, 304
sleep, 446
social perception, 203
visual experience, 566
anatomical, 61
anatomy
attention networks, 301t
music and brain, 126–127
angular gyrus (AG), 36, 128f, 491
language, 173
neglect syndrome, 331
reading and spelling, 494, 499–500
speech perception, 509
speech processing system, 508f
anorexia, olfactory perception, 102
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
executive attention, 301t, 302, 304
learning, 419, 421
retrieval, 384
anterior olfactory nucleus, 93, 95f
anterior piriform cortex, 95f, 96
anterograde amnesia, 376, 439, 443, 474
aphasia, 368n.3, 390
verbal working memory, 402–403
apraxia, 327, 567, 568
object-related actions, 361
Aristotle, 417
articulation
linking to vocal acoustics, 525–526
speech perception, 514–515
artificial neural networks, spatial judgments, 41
asomatognosia, 202
Association for Chemoreception Science, 97
associative phase, stage model, 417–418
astereopsis, 197
Atlas of Older Character Profiles, Dravnieks, 97
attack, timbre, 114
attention, 255–256, 267–268, 268. See also auditory attention; spatial attention
cognitive neuroscience, 313
constructs of, and marker tasks, 297–300
defining as verb, 256–257
deployment, in time, 230, 231f
(p. 608) development of, networks, 302–311, 312–313
divergence from action, 261–263
efficiency, 311
as executive control, 299
experience, 312
genes, 311–312
introduction to visual, 257–259
musical processing, 119
neuroanatomy of, 300–302
optimizing development, 312–313
parietal cells, 35
perceptual load theory of, 545n.11
Posner’s model of, 299–300
relationship to action, 255–256, 267–268
remapping, 344–345
selective, 225–228
as selectivity, 297–299
as state, 297
sustained, 224–225
theories of visual, 259–263
tuning, 258–259
attentional deficit
neglect and optic ataxia, 337, 339–341
oculomotor deficits, 343–344
optic ataxia, 335–337
attentional disorders
Bálint–Holmes syndrome, 326–328
dorsal and ventral visual streams, 320, 322–323
optic ataxia, 335–341
psychic paralysis of gaze, 341–344
saliency maps of dorsal and ventral visual streams, 321f
simultanagnosia, 342–343
unilateral neglect, 328–334
attentional landscape, reach-to-grasp movement, 276
attentional orienting, inhibition, 298–299
attention-for-action theory, 262–263
Attention in Early Development, Ruff and Rothbart, 302
attention networks
childhood, 306–311
developmental time course of, 311f
development of, 302–311
infancy and toddlerhood, 302–306
attention network task (ANT), 300, 306–307
attention window, spatial relation, 41–42
attentive listening, rhythm, 118
audiovisual phonological fusion, 531
audiovisual speech perception
extraction of visual cues in, 538–540
McGurk illusion, 531–532, 535, 537, 538
neural correlates of integration, 540–542
perception in noise, 529f
spatial constraints, 538
temporal constraints, 534–538
temporal window of integration, 536f, 537
audition, 135–136, 200–201. See also auditory system
amusia, 127, 201
auditory agnosia, 201
auditory scene analysis, 156–162
auditory system, 136, 137f
challenges, 136, 163–164
frequency selectivity and cochlea, 136–137, 139–140
future directions, 162–164
inference problems of, 163
interaction with other senses, 163
interface with cognition, 162
perceptual disorders, 201
peripheral auditory system, 138f
sound measurements, 136–142
sound source perception, 150–156
auditory attention. See also attention
brain areas, 229, 230f
concurrent sound segregation, 218–219
conjunction of pitch and location, 221f
deployment of, 228–230
divided attention, 228
enhancement and suppression mechanism, 221–222
environment, 216–220
figure-ground segregation, 221–222
future directions, 230–232
intermodal, 227–228
intramodal selective attention, 226–227
mechanisms of, 220–223
neural network of, 223–230
object-based, 217–218
selective attention, 225–228
sequential sound organization, 219–220
sharpening tuning curve, 222–223
sustained attention, 224–225
varieties of, 215–216
auditory brainstem response (ABR), evoked electrical potential, 149–150
auditory cues, speech production, 528f
auditory filters, pitch, 154f
auditory imagery, music, 124
auditory nerve, neural coding in, 140–142
auditory objects, 216
auditory oddball paradigm, 176, 177f
auditory scene analysis, 156–162
cocktail party problem, 157f
filling in, 159–160
sequential grouping, 158–159
sound segregation and acoustic grouping cues, 156–158
streaming, 159
auditory speech perception, confusion trees for, 530f
auditory speech signal, properties and perception of, 526–527
auditory streams, 216
auditory system
adaptive coding and plasticity, 149–150
anatomy of auditory cortex, 144f
auditory scene analysis, 156–162
brain basis of sound segregation, 160–161
feedback to cochlea, 142–143
filling in, 159–160
functional organization, 143–145
future directions, 162–164
phase locking, 141–142
reverberation, 161–162
schematic, 137f
separating sound sources from environment, 161–162
sequential grouping, 158–159
sound segregation and acoustic grouping cues, 156–158
sound source perception, 150–156
sound transduction, 136, 137f
streaming, 159
structure of peripheral, 138f
subcortical pathways, 142
tonotopy, 143
auditory task, congenitally blind and sighted participants, 564f
autobiographical memory, temporal gradient of, 439–440
autonomous phase, stage model, 417–418
B
Bálint, Reszo, 326
Bálint–Holmes syndrome, 199, 326–328, 344
Bálint’s syndrome, 34, 36, 46, 200, 320f, 327, 334
bandwidth, loudness, 155
basal ganglia
attention, 227
vision, 289
rhythm, 118
selection, 332
singing, 122
skill learning, 425
working memory, 408
Bayesian models, skill learning, 418–419
behavioral models, skill learning, 417–419
behaviorism, mental imagery, 74–75
Bell, Alexander Graham, 525f
biased competition, visual attention, 261
bilateral brain responses, speech and singing, 174–175
bilateral paracentral scotoma, 196
bilateral parieto-occipital lesions, 46
bilateral postchiasmatic brain injury, 196
binaural cues, sound localization, 150, 151
binding, 458
binding deficit hypothesis
cognitive theory of aging, 457, 458, 464
medial temporal lobe (MTL) function, 468
binocular vision, grasping, 275
bipolar receptor neurons, humans, 92
birds, brain organization, 41
blindsight, residual visual abilities, 283
(p. 609) blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD)
attention, 230f
audiovisual speech, 543
auditory sentence comprehension, 188f
category-specific patterns in healthy brain, 559f
congenitally blind and sighted participants, 564f
episodic memory, 379
intramodal selective attention, 226
measuring early brain activity, 173
mental imagery, 75, 85
responses across neural populations, 19–20
spatial working memory, 399f, 400
sustained attention, 224
body perception disorders, 202
bottom-up inputs, 62, 60, 67f
brain
activation in motor areas, 84
audiovisual speech integration, 540–542
auditory attention, 229, 230f
auditory sentence comprehension, 187, 188f
basis of sound segregation, 160–161
bilateral responses for speech and singing, 174–175
category specificity, 571–572
cognitive neuropsychology, 554–555
combining sensory information, 524–525
division of labor, 31–32, 41, 50
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measuring activation, 12
functional specialization of visual, 194–195
mapping, 3
measuring activity in early development, 172–173
musical functions, 127–129
object-, face- and place-selective cortex, 12, 13f
olfactory information, 96
semantic memory, 358
topographic maps of, 29–31
brain injury
bilateral postchiasmatic, 196
memory disorders, 473–474
mental imagery and perception, 79–80
musical functions, 128
perceptual disorders, 205
sensorimotor processing, 361
traumatic, 473, 478, 481
visual disorders, 195
Broadbent, Donald, 297
Broca’s aphasia, verbal working memory, 402–403
Broca’s area, 111, 127
auditory sentence comprehension, 188f
infant brain, 173
reading and writing, 497–499
syntactic rules, 187
Brodmann areas, 36, 80
reading and spelling, 494f
visual cortex for areas 17 and 18, 76
buildup, 160
C
capacity, working memory, 400–402
capacity limitation theory, visual attention, 259, 260–261
carbon monoxide poisoning, visual agnosia, 278
categorical, spatial relations, 41–45
category-specific semantic deficits
anatomy of category specificity, 563–565
BOLD response in healthy brain, 559f
congenitally blind and sighted participants, 564f
connectivity as innate domain-specific constraint, 567
correlated structure principle, 561–563
distributed domain-specific hypothesis, 565–567
domain-specific hypothesis, 556, 557, 561
embodied cognition hypothesis, 569
explanations of causes of, 556–558
functional imaging, 563–565
knowledge of tool use, 569f
lesion analyses, 563
multiple semantics assumption, 558–559
object-associated actions, 567–568
phenomenon, 555–556
picture naming performance, 555f
relation between impairments and, 557f
relation between sensory, motor and conceptual knowledge, 568–570
representation of conceptual content, 570–571
role of visual experience, 566–567
second-generation sensory/functional theories, 559–561
sensory/functional theory, 556, 557
toward a synthesis, 571–572
cellular consolidation, 441–443. See also consolidation
long-term potentiation (LTP), 441–443
slow-wave sleep and, 444–445
central executive, working memory, 392, 407, 475
central scotoma, 196
central vision, 322, 323f
centroid, 114
cerebellum, rhythm activity, 118
cerebral achromatopsia, 196–197
cerebral akinetopsia, 198
cerebral dyschromatopsia, 196
cerebral hemiachromatopsia, 197
change blindness, 322
phenomenon, 298
visual attention, 257–258, 260
chemosignaling
accessory olfactory system, 90
human tears, 104f
social interaction, 104–105
Cherry, Colin, 297
childhood
alerting, 307–308
attention network development, 306–311
attention network task (ANT), 306f
orienting, 308–309
selectivity, 308–309
Children’s Television Workshop, 579, 580
Chinese language, speech perception, 512–513
chroma of pitch, 113f, 115
cilia, olfactory receptors, 92
closed-loop, skill learning, 418
closure positive shift (CPS), 175, 183
cochlea
cochlear amplification, 140
feedback to, 142–143
frequency selectivity, 136–137, 139f, 139–140
cocktail party problem, 156, 157f
cognitive maps, spatial representation, 48–49
cognitive neuropsychology, 2
cognitive neuroscience, 1, 2, 600, 601, 604
advances for semantic memory, 366–367
attention, 313
audiovisual speech integration, 542–544
constraints and convergence, 3–5
locative prepositions, 44
looking to the future, 601–604
modeling relationships, 602–603
multiple levels of analysis, 2
neural underpinning, 75
skill learning, 416–417, 419–420
themes and trends, 599–601
translation, 603–604
use of multiple methods, 2–3
visual brain, 32
cognitive phase, stage model, 417–418
cognitive psychology, 600
cognitive subtraction, 396
cognitivist, 61
color imagery, visual, 79–80
color vision, 196–197
communication. See speech perception
comodulation, 158
compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH), aging, 459, 462, 470
competition for representation, visual attention, 260–261
computational analysis, 2
computational neuroscience, fast and slow learning, 424–425
conduction aphasia, verbal working memory, 403, 406f
(p. 610) conscious incompetence, skill learning, 417, 418f
consolidation, 436, 451
cellular, 441–443
early views, 436–438
hippocampal activity vs. neocortical activity, 441
modern views of, 438–443
reconsolidation, 450–451
resistance to interference, 436–438
role of brain rhythms in encoding and, states of hippocampus, 447–448
role of sleep in creative problemsolving, 450
sleep and, 443–450
sleep-related, of nondeclarative memory, 448–450
systems, 438–441
temporal gradient of episodic memory, 439–440
temporal gradient of semantic memory, 439
temporal gradients involving shorter time scale, 440–441
testing effect, 451
constraints, cognitive neuroscience, 3–5
context frames, visual processing, 65–66
contextual associations, visual processing, 65–66
contingent negative variation (CNV), 231f, 301, 307, 308
continuous performance task (CPT), 307–308
contrast sensitivity
spatial, 196
spatial attention, 247–248
convergence, cognitive neuroscience, 3–5
convergence zone, 357
coordinate, spatial relations, 41–45
correlated feature-based account, semantic memory, 357
cortical activation, auditory sentence comprehension, 187, 188f
cortical networks, spatial attention, 245
cortical neural pattern (CNP), 377
cortical reactivation, episodic memory, 376f, 382–384
covert attention
eye-movement task, 266–267
shifts of attention without eye displacements, 323
covert orienting
infancy, 303
spatial attention, 240–242, 251, 263–264
Cowan’s K, 401
creative problem-solving, role of sleep in, 450
Critique of Pure Reason, Kant, 50, 528
culture, pleasantness ratings by, 99, 100f
D
declarative memory, 353, 443
long-term, 475–478
sleep-related consolidation of, 444–448
delayed response task, working memory, 394–395, 396f
dementia, 203, 481
depth perception, 197
diabetes mellitus, 203
diagonal illusion, 285
Diamond, Adele, 304
difference in memory (DM) paradigm, 379
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 428, 494
direction, gravity, 37–38
disconnected edges, response, 15f
distributed, 23
division of labor
analog vs. digital spatial relations, 45
brain, 31–32
brain organization, 41
visual processing, 277–278
domain-general binding, 380
domain-specific category-based models, semantic memory, 356
domain-specific encoding, 380
domain-specific hypothesis
category-specific semantic deficits, 556, 557, 561
distributed, 565–567, 572
dopamine
alerting network, 300, 301t
executive attention, 301t, 302
dorsal frontoparietal network
orientation, 308
spatial attention, 245–246, 250
dorsal premotor cortex (PMC), 118, 123, 397, 423
dorsal simultanagnosia, 199–200
dorsal system
object map, 46
object recognition, 45–48
spatial information, 43
dorsal visual stream
active vision, 323, 326
episodic retrieval, 383
interaction with ventral stream, 289–290
landmark test characterizing, 321f
object identification, 32
perception and vision with, damage, 279–280
peripheral vision, 322
saliency map, 321f
shape sensitivity, 33–34
spatial mental imagery, 81–82
vision, 194–195
visual processing, 277f
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 128f
absolute pitch, 121
attention, 267
divided attention, 228
executive attention, 302
sensorimotor coordination, 122
skill learning, 419, 422, 425
working memory, 119
double-pointing hypothesis, visual-motor system, 275, 286–288
double-step saccade task, 323, 325f
Drosophila, 92
dual-channel hypothesis, visual-motor control, 274–275, 276
dual-task paradigm, saccade location and attention, 265
Dutch, word stress, 178
dynamicist, 61
dysexecutive syndrome, 475
dysgeusia, 203
dyslexia, 196
E
early left anterior negativity (ELAN)
syntactic phrase structure, 175
syntactic rules, 187
early right anterior negativity (ERAN)
harmonic expectancy violation, 116
music and language, 121
eating, olfaction influence, 102–103
eating disorders, olfactory perception, 102–103
Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 1
Ebbinghaus illusion, 284, 285, 286
echoic memory, 484n.1
edges, response, 15f
efference copy, 68
efficient coding hypothesis, auditory system, 149
egocentric spatial, frame of reference, 40
electroencephalography (EEG)
audiovisual speech, 541
cortical reactivation, 385
executive attention, 304
measuring early brain activity, 172–173
phonetic categories of speech, 514
REM sleep, 444
sensorimotor coordination, 122
electrophysiology
language processing, 175
neurons in monkey IT cortex, 19
object and position sensitivity, 16
object recognition, 11–12
prosodic processing, 183
word segmentation studies, 178
emotion, 2
brain regions, 128f
memory impairment, 483–484
music and, 124–126
encephalitis, 473, 481
encoding
episodic memory, 375
episodic memory mechanisms, 378
episodic memory with aging, 459–461, 464
functional imaging, 378–379
stage of remembering, 474
encoding specificity principle, episodic memory, 377
(p. 611) encyclopedic knowledge, 355
English, word stress, 177–179
enhancement and suppression mechanism, auditory attention, 221–222
entorhinal cortex, 48, 49, 93, 95f, 448, 469
envelope, amplitude capture, 145–146
environment, separating sound sources from, 161–162
environmental agnosia, 200
epilepsy, 203, 473
epiphenomenal, 363, 369n.6
episodic buffer, working memory, 392, 393–394, 475
episodic memory, 353, 375–376, 475–476
aging process, 456
coding and hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD), 459–461
cortex reactivating during retrieval, 382–384
early insights from patient work, 376–377
encoding using functional imaging, 378–379
functional neuroimaging as tool, 377–378
hippocampal activity during encoding, 379–381
hippocampal reactivation mediating cortical reactivation, 384–385
hippocampus activating during retrieval of, 381–382
medial temporal lobes (MTL) and encoding, 464
memory as reinstatement (MAR) model, 376f, 377
MTL and retrieval, 464–465
musical processes, 120–121
relationship to semantic memory, 354, 477
retrieval and hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD), 461–463
temporal gradient of, 439–440
error-dependent learning, 421
error detection and correction, skill learning, 420–425
errorless learning, 481–482
error-minimization mechanisms, 63
error-related negativity (ERN), 299, 310, 311, 421–422
event-related potentials (ERPs)
attention, 298, 309
audiovisual speech, 541, 542–543
auditory attention, 219f
auditory scene, 216
infant N400, 182
language development, 176f
language perception, 175
learning, 421
measuring early brain activity, 172
musical training, 116
music and language, 121
N400 effect, 181, 182
phonetic learning, 518, 519
phonotactics, 179–180
prosodic processing, 183, 184f
sentence-level semantics, 184–185, 185f
spatial attention, 247
syllable discrimination, 177f
syntactic rules, 186f
word meaning, 180–182, 182f
word stress, 178, 179f
evolution, brain organization, 41
excitation pattern, pitch, 154f
executive attention
attention networks, 301t
childhood, 309–311
network in infants, 304–305
executive control
attention as, 299
top-down, for visual-motor system, 289
executive function, 457
Exner’s area, reading and writing, 494, 500
experimental psychology, resistance to new learning, 437
explicit memory, skill learning, 425–427
extinction, dissociation between neglect and, 328–331
extrastriate body area (EBA), 13
eye movements
behavioral evidence linking spatial attention to, 264–266
overt attention, 323
parietal lobes, 35
and spatial attention, 242–244, 251
visual attention and, 256
visual tracking task, 288
F
face agnosia, 200
face-selective cortex, fMRI signals, 13f
facial movements, combination with vocal acoustics, 529–531
familiarity, 458
far transfer, working memory, 402
fault tolerance, 367
fear-conditioning task, sleep, 447
feature-based attention, 258–259, 261–262
feature integration theory, 46
feedback connections, visual world, 61–62
feedforward connections, visual world, 61–62
figure-ground segregation, auditory attention, 221–222
filling in, sound segregation, 159–160
filtering, separating sound sources from environment, 161–162
Fitts, Paul, 417
flanker task, 300, 310
Fowler, Carol, 525
frames of reference
object-centered or word-centered, 38–39
spatial representation, 36–38
French
syntactic structure, 186–187
word stress, 177–179, 179f
frequency selectivity, cochlea, 136–137, 139f, 139–140
frontal eye field (FEF), 36, 226, 230f,\
attention, 334
orienting network, 301
remapping, 325f
spatial attention, 244
spatial attention and eye movements, 266, 267
spatial working memory, 398–399
frontal lobes, 601
functional imaging, encoding episodic memory, 378–379
(p. 612) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
abstract knowledge, 366
attention, 217
attentional orienting, 298
audiovisual speech, 542
auditory imagery, 124
category specificity, 563–565
dissociations with aging, 457
episodic memory, 379
grasping control, 281–282
intramodal selective attention, 226–227
lexical competition, 516
measuring brain activation, 12
measuring early brain activity, 172–173
mental imagery, 75–76
neural bases of object recognition, 11, 12
neural dispositions of language in infant brain, 173, 174f
neuroimaging of patient’s dorsal stream, 281f
neuroimaging of patient’s ventral stream, 280f
piriform activity in humans, 96
pitch and melody, 115
reading and spelling, 494, 498f
retinotopic mapping, 31
semantic memory, 439
sentence comprehension, 187
signals of object-, face- and placeselective cortex, 12, 13f
slow-wave sleep, 446
spatial attention, 245
spatial mental imagery, 81
speech articulation, 511
tonal dynamics, 117
verbal working memory, 404–405
visually guided reaching, 282
visual mental imagery, 76–77
visual-spatial attention and eye movements, 266–267
visual-spatial working memory, 397–398
functional magnetic resonance imaging–adaptation (fMRI–A), 14, 361
neural representations, 17
responses of putative voxel, 20, 21f
rotation sensitivity, 20f
functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)
infant brain, 173
measuring early brain activity, 172–173
functional neuroimaging
cognitive aging, 465–467
medial temporal lobe (MTL), 468
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 467
reading words and nonwords, 495, 500
tool for episodic memory, 377–378
working memory, 395–400
fusiform body area (FBA), 13, 22–23
fusiform face area (FFA), 13
domain-specific hypothesis, 566
sparsely distributed representation of, 22–23
visual mental imagery, 78–79
fusiform gyrus, 12, 13, 399, 491, 494–497
G
Gabor patches, 76
gap effect, 238
Gault, Robert, 533
gaze, psychic paralysis of, 341–344
gaze ataxia, 327
gaze-contingent display, perception, 264, 264f
Gazzaniga, Michael, 1
genes, attention networks, 301t, 311–312
geometry, cognitive maps, 48–49
German, word stress, 177–179, 179f
Gerstmann’s syndrome, 322
gestalt, 34, 199
gestaltist, 61
Glasgow Outcome Scale, 478
global-to-local integrated model, visual processing, 63–64
glomeruli
olfactory bulb, 93
patterns for rat, activation, 94f
goal-driven attentional shifts, 258
Gottfried, Jay, 96
graceful degradation, 367
grammar
constraint-based principles of, 581–582
mainstream generative, (MGG), 579
no strict lexicon vs., 582–584
grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, 492, 500
graphemic buffer, 493
grasping
binocular vision, 275
illusory displays, 285–286, 287f
objects, 274, 283
reach-to-grasp movements, 274–276
shape and orientation of goal object, 276
studies, 275
visual-motor system, 285–286, 288
gravity, sense of direction, 37–38
grip aperture
grip scaling, 288
optic ataxia vs. visual agnosia, 279f
reach-to-grasp movements, 274f
sensitivity to illusions, 285–286
Weber’s law, 286, 288
grounding by interaction, 570–571
grouping cues
sequential grouping, 158–159
sound segregation, 156–158
group therapy, memory impairment, 483–484
Grueneberg organ, 89, 90
gustation, 202
gustatory perceptual disorders, 203
H
Haberly, Lew, 95–96
Handbook
linking analysis, 600–601
looking to future, 601–604
new methods, 602
new topics, 601–602
new ways of modeling relationships, 602–603
overview of, 5–6, 600
themes and trends, 599–601
translation, 603–604
haptic devices, 534
harmony, music, 112
head-related transfer function (HRTF), sound localization, 151–152
hearing. See also auditory system
frequency selectivity and cochlea, 136–137, 139f, 139–140
research on pitch, 153
hearing science, future directions, 162–164
Hebb, Donald, 297
Hebbian plasticity, 424, 481
hemianopia, 80, 195, 196, 204
hemianopic dyslexia, 196
hemifield constraints, attention and action, 263
hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD), prefrontal cortex (PFC), 458–463, 470
Heschl’s gyrus (HG), 115, 117, 126–127, 128f
acoustic properties of speech, 510
attention, 226
auditory sentence comprehension, 188f
episodic retrieval, 383
language, 173
phonetic learning, 518–519
speech perception, 509, 510, 512
high spatial frequency (HSF) information, ventral visual pathway, 67f
hippocampal cells, cognitive maps, 48–49
hippocampal neuro pattern (HNP), 377
hippocampal pattern completion, 376f, 377
hippocampus, 21, 32, 36, 44, 48, 49, 95f
activity during encoding, 379–381
activity during retrieval, 381–382
activity vs. neocortical activity, 441
aging and condition interaction, 463f
consolidation, 438, 440–445
longitudinal changes, 457f
memory, 120, 124, 376
reactivation, 384–385
role of brain rhythms in encoding and consolidation, 447–448
skill learning, 425
homonymous visual field defect, 195
homophony, 527
homunculus, 31
honeybees, spatial information, 29
horizontal-vertical illusion, 285
hub, 357
human behavior, olfactory system, 101–105
human cerebral cortex, two streams of visual processing, 277f
human cognitive psychology, verbal and working memory, 402
human leukocyte antigen (HLA), mating, 103
human olfaction. See also mammalian olfactory system
primacy of, 88, 89f
schematic of system, 89f
human parietal cortex, spatial information, 49
humans
chemosignaling, 104f
microsmatic, 88
motor imagery, 82–83
olfactory cortex, 95f
olfactory system, 90f
schematic of nasal cavity, 91f
human ventral stream. See also ventral visual stream
functional organization of, 12–14
nature of functional organization, 21–23
Huntington’s disease, 203, 427
hypogeusia, 203
I
iconic memory, 484n.1
image rotation, motor imagery, 83
imagery
brain regions, 128f
debate, 4–5
mental imagery and, 74–76
music, 123–124
image scanning paradigm, landmarks, 81
immediate memory, 475
implementation analysis, 2
implicit memory, skill learning, 425–427
improvised performance, music, 123
inattentional blindness, 260
independent-components account, 493
(p. 613) Infant Behavior Questionnaire, 305
infant brain, neural dispositions of language, 173–175
infants, attention network development, 302–306
inferior colliculus, 137f, 146, 148f, 149, 152, 227
inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)
audiovisual speech, 540
lexical competition, 516–517
reading and writing, 497–499
speech processing system, 508 f
inferior parietal lobe (IPL), 319
neglect, 40, 334
polysensory areas, 36
inferior temporal lobe, 46, 78, 322, 358, 399
inferotemporal (IT) cortex, responses to shapes and objects, 11
information flow, speech processing, 517–518
information processing, 3
inhibition, attentional orienting, 298–299
inhibition of return (IOR), 299
inner hair cells, 136
integrative agnosia, 199
intelligibility, visual contributions to speech, 528–529
interaural level differences (ILDs), sound, 150–151
interaural time differences (ITDs), sound, 150–151
interference
attention and action, 262–263
consolidation and resistance to, 436–438
intermodal auditory selective attention, 227–228
internal model framework, action generation, 68
intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs), 182–183
intramodal auditory selective attention, 226–227
intraparietal sulcus (IPS), 13f, 31, 81, 559f
attention, 224, 230f, 319
audiovisual speech, 540
auditory attention, 224–225
neglect syndrome, 331
singing, 122, 128f
spatial attention, 245
visual-spatial attention, 266, 278, 281
working memory, 399, 401f
invariance, 18
invariance problem, speech perception, 513–514
invariant object recognition, neural bases of, 15–16
inverse retinotopy, 76
irrelevant sound effect, verbal working memory, 404
J
Jacobson’s organ, 89–90
James, William, 296, 375, 417
Jost’s law of forgetting, 438
K
Kahneman, Daniel, 297
Katz, Larry, 97
Keller, Helen, 525f
key, music, 112, 113f
key profile, music, 113
Khan, Rehan, 97
Korsakoff’s syndrome, 473
L
landmarks, image scanning, 81
language. See also reading and writing
information processing, 603
parallels between music and, 121–122
perception of lexical tone, 512–513
working memory maintenance, 405f
language acquisition, 171–172
auditory sentence comprehension, 187, 188f
developmental stages, 176f
from sounds to sentences, 182–187
from sounds to words, 175–182
neural dispositions of language in infant brain, 173–175
phoneme characteristics, 176–177
phonological familiarity, 180
phonotactics, 179–180
sentence-level prosody, 182–183
sentence-level semantics, 184–185
syntactic rules, 185–187
word meaning, 180–182
word stress, 177–179
language processing, 507–509. See also Parallel Architecture; speech perception
Parallel Architecture, 578–579
working memory, 584–586
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), spatial attention, 244
lateral inferior-temporal multimodality area (LIMA), 496
lateral intraparietal (LIP) area, 321f
attention, 319–320
visual remapping, 325f
lateralization, spatial representations, 40–45
lateral occipital complex (LOC), 12, 13f
cue-invariant responses in, 14–15
object and position information in, 16–18
position and category effects, 17, 18f
selective responses to objects, 14f
viewpoint sensitivity across, 18–21
visual mental imagery, 78
lateral olivocochlear efferents, feedback to cochlea, 142
lateral superior olive (LSO), sound localization, 151
law of prior entry, spatial attention, 249–250
learning, memory-impaired people, 481–483
left hemisphere
categorical perception after damage, 43
digital spatial relations, 41, 42
lesions in, 42–43
object recognition after damage, 47
lesion analyses. See also brain injury
category-specific deficits, 563
object recognition, 11–12
letter-by-letter reading, 495
letter discrimination, optic ataxia, 340f
lexical competition, speech perception, 516–517
lexical-semantic information, sentencelevel, 184–185, 185f
lexical tone, speech perception, 512–513
lexicon
after working memory, 587f
fragment of, 587f
phonological activation, 586–588
speech processing system, 508f
life cycle, memory, 391
linguistic theories, 578–579
linguistic working memory, 586f, 593n.10
lip reading, 527, 530f
listening, separating sound from environment, 161–162
localization, sound source, 150–152
location-based attention, 259
locative prepositions, spatial relations, 44–45
Locke, John, 368n.3
long-term memory, 475
long-term potentiation (LTP), cellular consolidation, 441–443
long-term store (LST), working memory, 390–391
loudness
constancy phenomena, 161
deviation tones, 229
sound, 155–156
love spots, 3
M
McCarthy, Rosaleen, 555
McGurk illusion, 537, 538, 542, 543
audiovisual speech integration, 531–532, 535
schematic showing, 531f
magnetic misreaching, 335
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
diffusion-weighted, 499f
perfusion-weighted image, 498f, 499f
working memory, 422
magnetoencephalography (MEG)
acoustic properties of speech, 510
audiovisual speech, 541
cortical reactivation, 385
measuring early brain activity, 172–173
reading and spelling, 494
mainstream generative grammar (MGG), Parallel Architecture, 579
maintenance, working memory, 391, 405f
(p. 614) major histocompatibility complex (MHC), mating, 103
mammalian olfactory system
eating, 102–103
human olfactory cortex, 95f
looking at human behavior through the nose, 101–105
looking at nose through human behavior, 97–101
mating, 103–104
mouse and human, 90f
multiple sensing mechanisms, 89–90
neuroanatomy of, 88–96
olfactory bulb for odorant discrimination, 92–93
olfactory epithelium, 91–92
olfactory perceptual space, 97, 98f
physicochemical space to perceptual space, 99f
piriform cortex, 94–96
pleasantness across cultures, 99, 100f
pleasantness identification, 97, 98f, 99–101, 100f
primary olfactory cortex, 93–94
schematic of human olfactory system, 89f
sniffing, 90–91, 91f
social interaction, 104–105
marker tasks, attention, 297, 301t
mating, olfaction influence, 103–104
medial olivocochlear efferents, feedback to cochlea, 142
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 128f, 601
contextual processing, 66, 67f
learning, 426
memory, 441
tonal dynamics, 117, 120, 123
medial superior olive (MSO), sound localization, 151
medial temporal lobe (MTL)
aging and double dissociation between regions, 466f
binding deficit hypothesis and MTL function, 468
consolidation, 438, 439–440
dysfunction in healthy and pathological aging, 468–469
episodic memory, 456
episodic memory encoding, 464
episodic memory retrieval, 464–465
hippocampal activity during encoding, 379–380
surgical removal, 376–377
working memory, 463
melody
brain regions, 128f
music, 112
tonality, 115
memory, 2. See also episodic memory; semantic memory; working memory
aids in loss compensation, 480–481
assessment of, functioning, 479–480
audition, 162–163
auditory, 217
brain regions, 128f
music and, 119–121
navigational, 48–49
Plato, 74
recovery of functioning, 478–479
rehabilitation, 480–484
stages of remembering, 474
systems, 474–478
memory as reinstatement (MAR) model, episodic memory, 376f, 377, 378, 381
memory disorders, 473–474, 484
anterograde amnesia, 474
assessment of memory functioning, 479–480
compensating with memory aids, 480–481
declarative long–term memory, 475–478
emotional consequences, 483–484
episodic, 475–476
memory systems, 474–478
modifying the environment, 483
new learning, 481–483
non-declarative long-term memory, 478
priming, 478
procedural memory, 478
prospective memory, 477–478
recovery of memory functioning, 478–479
rehabilitation of memory, 480–484
relationship between semantic and episodic memory, 477
retrograde amnesia, 474
semantic memory, 476–477
short-term and working memory, 474–475
stages of remembering, 474
understanding, 474–484
memory-guided saccade (MGS), spatial working memory, 399f
memory impairment, 474
memory systems debate, 4
memory trace
consolidation, 437
skill learning, 418
menstrual synchrony, olfaction influence, 103
mental exertion, 437
mental imagery, 74, 84–85
brain-damaged patients, 80–81
dorsal stream and spatial, 81–82
early studies of, 74–76
imagery debate, 74–76
visual, and early visual areas, 76–78
visual, and higher visual areas, 78–82
mental mimicry, 224
mental rotation tasks, strategies in, 83–84
mental rotation paradigm
humans, 82–83
objects, 75
mesial temporal epilepsy, 203
meter, music, 112, 117–118
middle temporal gyrus, speech processing system, 508f, 509
Mikrokosmos, Bartok, 124
Milan square’s neglect experiment, 49
Miller, George, 1
mismatch negativity (MMN), 178
audiovisual speech, 541, 545n.10
chords, 116
language development, 176f
oddball paradigm, 543
phonetic learning, 518
speech sounds, 176
timbre, 118–119
mismatch paradigm, 176
mismatch response (MMR), 176
missing fundamental illusion, 152
modulation frequencies, 145
modulation tuning, sound measurement, 146–148
Molaison, Henry (H.M.), 4, 376–377, 438, 478
monkeys
navigational memory, 49
neurophysiological studies, 267
perception of space and object, 33
motion perception, 198
motor imagery, 82–84
functional role of area M1, 84
music, 124
physical movement, 82–83
strategies in mental rotation tasks, 83–84
motor systems, speech perception, 514–515
mouse, olfactory system, 90f
moving window paradigm, perception, 264, 264f
Müller, Georg, 436
Müller–Lyer illusion, 66, 285
multimodal speech perception. See speech perception, multimodal
multiple sclerosis, 473
gustatory disorders, 203
olfactory perception, 203
multiple semantics assumption, 558–559
multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA)
episodic retrieval, 383
semantic memory, 366, 368
sensibility to position, 17, 18
music
absolute pitch, 121
action, 122–124
amusia, 127, 201
anatomy, plasticity and development, 126–127
attention, 119
auditory imagery, 124
auditory perception, 200
brain’s functions, 127–129
building blocks of, 112–115
(p. 615) detecting wrong notes and wrong chords, 115–117
disorders, 127
emotion, 124–126
episodic memory, 120–121
imagery, 123–124
improvised performance, 123
memory, 119–121
motor imagery, 124
parallels between music and language, 121–122
perception and cognition, 115–121
performance, 123
pitch and melody, 115
psychology and neuroscience, 111–112
rhythm and meter, 117–118
score-based performance, 123
semantics, 121–122
sensorimotor coordination, 122–123
singing, 122–123
syntax, 121
tapping, 122
time, 112
tonal dynamics, 117
tonality, 112–114, 115–117
tonal relationships, 113f
working memory, 120
working memory maintenance, 405f
N
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 604
Navigation, spatial information, 48–49
n-back task, sustained working memory, 224, 225f
negative priming, phenomenon, 299
neglect. See also unilateral neglect
reference frames, 39f
space, 38–40
neglect dyslexia, 40
Neopolitan sixth, 116
neural networks
invariant object recognition, 15–16
spatial attention, 244–246
neural play, slow-wave sleep, 445–446
neuroanatomy
attention, 300–302
mammalian olfactory system, 88–96
neuroimaging
cognitive aging, 465–467
cortical 3D processing, 36
musical processes, 120
navigational tasks, 49
reach-to-grasp actions, 34–35
shape-selective actions, 33
NeuroPage, memory aid, 480–481
neurophysiology
monkeys, 267
visual-spatial attention and eye movements, 266
neuroscience, 111–112, 600
neurotransmitters, attention networks, 301t
noise-vocoded speech, 146, 147f
nondeclarative memory, 443, 448–450, 478
noradrenaline, alerting network, 301t
norepinephrine, 300, 301
O
obesity, olfactory perception, 102
object-centered, frame of reference, 38–39
object form topography, 22
object map, 46
object recognition
category-specific modules, 22
cue-invariant responses in lateral occipital complex (LOC), 14–15
distributed object form topography, 22
electrophysiology measurements, 11–12
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 11, 12
functional organization of human ventral stream, 12–14
future directions, 23–24
lesions of dorsal system, 46
neural bases of invariant, 15–16
neural sensitivity to object view, 20
open questions, 23–24
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 64
process maps, 22
representations of faces and body parts, 22–23
responses to shape, edges and surfaces across ventral stream, 15f
theories of, 18, 20–21
variant neuron, 20–21
object recognition task, unilateral posterior lesions, 47f
objects. See also category-specific semantic deficits
ambiguous figures, 68–69
perceptual and conceptual processing of, 360–362
spatial attention, 239–240
spatial information within the, 45–48
visual attention, 258
visual working memory, 399–400
object-selective cortex, fMRI signals, 13f
obstacle avoidance, visual-motor networks, 283
oculomotor deficits, 343–344
oculomotor readiness hypothesis (OMRH), spatial attention, 242–244
oddball paradigm, attention, 224
odorants
discrimination at olfactory bulb, 92–93
pleasantness, 97, 98f, 99–101
sensing mechanisms, 89–90
sniffing, 90–91
transduction at olfactory epithelium, 91–92
odor coding, olfactory bulb, 93
odor space, 97
olfaction. See also human olfaction; mammalian olfactory system
rating pleasantness, 99–101
receptor events in, 92f
olfactory bulb, 95f
odorant discrimination, 92–93
spatial coding, 94f
olfactory cortex, primary, 93–94
olfactory epithelium, odorant transduction, 91–92
olfactory perception, disorders, 202–203
olfactory perceptual space, 97, 98f
olfactory receptors, humans, 92
olfactory tubercle, 95f
On the Motion of Animals, Aristotle, 417
open-loop control, skill learning, 418
optical topography (OT), early brain activity, 172
optic aphasia, 558
optic ataxia, 278, 279f, 327, 328
central cue vs. peripheral cue, 340f
dissociation between attentional deficits in neglect and, 337, 339–341
errors for saccade and reach, 338f
field effect and hand effect, 336f
neuropsychology, 322
Posner paradigm, 339f
reaching errors, 335–337
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), visual information, 64, 67f
organized unitary content hypothesis (OUCH), 561
organ of Corti, peripheral auditory system, 136, 138f
orienting network
attention, 301–302
childhood, 308–309
infants, 303–304, 305
outer hair cells, 137
overt attention, eye movements, 323
overt orienting, spatial attention, 240–242, 251
P
parahippocampal cortex (PHC), 49, 66, 67f, 379, 465, 468, 565
parahippocampal gyrus, music, 125
parahippocampal place area (PPA), 13, 78–79, 383, 566
Parallel Architecture, 579–581, 581f, 592–593
activated lexical items, 587f
constraint-based principles of grammar, 581–582
example, 586–590
fragment of lexicon, 587f
goals of theory, 578–579
language processing, 578–579
lexicon after working memory, 587f
mainstream generative grammar (MGG), 579
no strict lexicon vs. grammar distinction, 582–584
noun phrases (NPs), 579
phonology, 579–580
processing, 584–586
(p. 616) semantics as independent generative component, 580–581
semantic structure without syntax or phonology, 591–592
syntactic integration, 588
visually guided parsing, 590–591
working memory after semantic integration, 588f, 589f
parietal cortex, rats, 49
parietal lesions, 40, 48
parietal lobe
mapping, 35–36
position, 35
speech perception, 509
unilateral lesions, 46
parietal neglect, spatial working memory, 326f
Parkinson’s disease, 203, 473
perceptual, 61
perceptual disorders, 193–194, 203–205
audition, 200–201
auditory agnosia, 201
body perception disorders, 202
color vision, 196–197
future research, 205
gustatory, 203
olfactory, 202–203
olfactory and gustatory perception, 202–203
social perception, 203
somatosensory perception, 201–202
spatial contrast sensitivity, 196
spatial vision, 197–198
vision, 194–200
visual acuity, 196
visual adaptation, 196
visual agnosia, 198–200
visual field, 195–196
visual identification and recognition, 198–200
visual motion perception, 198
perceptual odor space, 97
perceptual trace, skill learning, 418
performance, music, 123
periodicity, pitch, 153f
peripheral vision, dorsal stream, 322
phase locking
sound frequency, 141, 141f
upper limit of, 141–142
phonemes. See also language acquisition
auditory speech signal, 526–527
characteristics, 176–177
restoration, 160
speech sounds, 175
visual speech signal, 527
phonological loop
verbal working memory, 403–404
working memory, 392–393, 407, 475
phonology, Parallel Architecture, 579–580
phonotactics, language learning, 179–180
phosphene threshold, 77
physical movements, motor imagery, 82–83
picture-matching task, 568
picture-naming performance, category-specific semantic deficits, 555f
picture viewing, 564f
picture-word priming paradigm, phonotactics, 180, 181
Pilzecker, Alfons, 436
piriform cortex, 93, 202
olfactory object formation, 94–96
understanding, 95–96
pitch
absolute, 121
resolvability, 154f
sound source, 152–155
tonality, 115
place cells, 48, 49f
place models, pitch, 153
place-selective cortex, 13f
plasticity
auditory system, 149–150
music, 126–127
phonetic learning in adults, 518–519
Plato, 74
pleasantness
music, 125
odorants, 97, 98f, 99–101
Ponzo illusion, 286, 287f
positron emission tomography (PET)
auditory attention, 223
changes in regional cerebral blood flow, 360
mental imagery, 75–76
reading and spelling, 494
semantic memory retrieval, 359
spatial attention, 245
visual information, 567
visual mental imagery, 76–77
visual-spatial working memory, 396–398
Posner, Michael, 297, 417
model of attention, 299–300
Posner cueing paradigm, 259, 298, 308, 339f
posterior parietal cortex (PPC), 34–36, 49, 565
category specificity, 563
mental imagery, 81, 82, 84
optic ataxia, 336f
somatosensory perception, 201, 205
spatial attention, 245
unilateral neglect, 333–334
vision for action, 277–278, 281–283, 289
visual attention, 319, 323, 327
posterior piriform cortex, 95f, 96
precedence effect, 161
prediction, relevance in visual recognition, 62–65
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
activity in young and older adults, 460f
episodic memory, 456–457
episodic memory encoding, 459–461
episodic memory retrieval, 461–463
hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD), 458–463
longitudinal changes, 457f
resource deficit hypothesis, 467
sustained and transient memory effects by aging, 461f
top-down control of working memory, 408–410
verbal and spatial working memory for older and younger adults, 459f
visual-spatial working memory, 397–398
working memory, 394–395, 396f, 458–459
premotor cortex (PMC), 36, 37, 123, 128f
attention, 230f
body perception disorders, 202
mental imagery, 83
rhythm, 118
semantic memory, 361, 364
sensory functional theory, 559f
skill learning, 423
speech perception, 541
visual control of action, 283, 289
working memory, 397, 409
premotor theory
attention, 344
spatial attention, 242–244
pre-supplementary motor area (pSMA)
rhythm discrimination, 118
sensorimotor coordination, 122
primacy effect, 390
primary memory, 475
primary olfactory cortex, structure and function, 93–94
primary somatosensory cortex, 31
priming, memory, 478
principal components analysis (PCA), odor space, 97
procedural memory, 478
process maps, object recognition, 22
progressive semantic dementia, 477
prosody, sentence-level, 182–183
prosopagnosia, 80, 200
prospective memory, 477–478
psychic paralysis of gaze, 341–344
Balint’s description, 341
oculomotor deficits, 343–344
simultanagnosia, 342–343
psychophysics, 273, 275
pulvinar, spatial attention, 238
pulvinar nucleus, spatial attention, 244
pure alexia, 200, 495, 497
putative voxels, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses, 20, 21f
Q
qualitative spatial relations, 44
quantitative propositions, 44
R
(p. 617) radical visual capture, 199
random stimuli, response, 15f
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep and consolidation, 443–444
rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), spatial attention, 250
rats
hippocampal lesions in, 438
maze navigation, 48–49
spatial coding of olfactory bulb, 94f
reach-to-grasp actions
bilateral optic ataxia, 338f
dual-channel hypothesis, 274–275
neuroimaging, 34–35
visual control of, 274–276
reaction time, spatial attention, 238–239
reactivation, working memory, 407–408
reading
cognitive architecture, 492–493
mechanisms, 493
representational model, 492f
visual field, 195–196
reading and writing, 491–492, 500–501
angular gyrus (BA 39), 499–500
Brodmann areas, 494f
Broca’s area (BA 44/45), 497–499
cognitive architecture of, 492–493
Exner’s area (BA 6), 500
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 498f
fusiform gyrus (BA 37), 494–497
inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), 497–499
neuro correlates of, 493–500
superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), 500
supramarginal gyrus (BA 40), 499
recency effect, 390
recognition, listener, 163
recognition by components (RBC) model, 16, 19
recollection, 458
reconsolidation, 450–451
recovery
mechanisms of memory, 479
memory functioning, 478–479
reference frame, 37. See also frames of reference
reflexive control, spatial attention, 240–242
regional cerebral blood flow, positron emission tomography (PET), 360, 395
region of interest (ROI), episodic retrieval, 382–384
remapping, attention, 344–345
Remote Associations Test, 450
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 77, 228, 422
representation of conceptual content, 570–571
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), 604
resilience, 562
resource deficit hypothesis
cognitive theory of aging, 457, 458, 461
episodic memory retrieval, 461
prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, 467
retina, image formation, 29–31
retinotopic mapping, stimuli and response times, 77f
retrieval
episodic memory, 375, 377
episodic memory with aging, 461–463, 464–465
hippocampus activating during episodic, 381–382
semantic memory, 358–360
spaced, 481
stage of remembering, 474
retrograde amnesia, 438, 474
retrograde facilitation, 443
retrosplenial complex (RSC), 66, 67f
reverberation, sound, 161–162
rhinal cortex, longitudinal changes, 457f
rhythm, music, 112, 117–118
right anterior negativity (RATN), 116
right hemisphere
analog spatial relation, 41, 42
coordinate space perception after damage, 43
neglect, 38
object recognition after damage, 47
speed of response to stimuli, 43
right orbitofrontal cortex, music, 125
right temporal lobe (RTL)
agnosia, 201
episodic memory, 120, 476
music, 115, 118, 120, 127, 128
rodents, macrosmatic, 88
S
saccadic eye movements
bilateral optic ataxia, 338f
central vision, 323f
overt attention, 323
spatial attention, 264–266, 265f
visual perception, 324f
visual tracking task, 288
saliency maps, dorsal and ventral visual streams, 321f
score-based performance, music, 123
seizures, amnesic patient, 4, 438
selectivity
action and attention, 256–257
attention as, 237, 297–299
childhood, 308–309
mechanisms, 256
self-regulation, late infancy, 304
semantic, 368n.1
semantic categorization task, 181
semantic dementia, 354–355, 562
semantic integration, 588–590, 592
semantic judgment task, 181
semantic knowledge, 355, 359–360
semantic memory, 353, 355, 367–368, 475, 476–477
abstract knowledge, 365–366
acquisition, 354
advances in neuroscience methods, 366–367
biasing representations, 363–364
brain regions, 358
cognitive perspectives, 356
correlated feature-based accounts, 357
differences in sensory experience, 364–365
domain-specific category-based models, 356
future directions, 367–368
individual differences, 364–365
interactions between category and task, 359–360
models, 356–358
neural regions underlying semantic knowledge, 362–363
neural systems supporting, 358–363
organization, 355–358
perceptual and conceptual processing of objects, 360–362
relationship to episodic memory, 354, 477
semantic dementia, 354–355
semantic space, 367, 368
sensorimotor-based theory, 356–357
sensory-functional theory, 356–357
stimulus influence on retrieval, 358–359
task influence on retrieval, 359
temporal gradient of, 439
semantic relevance, 562
semantics
music and language, 121–122
Parallel Architecture, 580–581
sentence-level, 184–185
semantic violation paradigm, 184
semitones, music, 112
sensorimotor adaptation
explicit and implicit processes, 426–427
skill acquisition, 417
sensorimotor-based theory, semantic memory, 356–357, 364–365
sensorimotor contingency, 204
sensorimotor coordination, music, 122–123
sensory-functional theory
category-specific semantic deficits, 556, 557, 559–561
semantic memory, 356–357
sensory memory, 475
sentence-level prosody, 182–183, 184f
sentence-level semantics, 184–185
septal organ, 89, 90
sequence learning
explicit and implicit processes, 426
models of, 422–423
motor, paradigms, 423
skill acquisition, 417
working memory capacity and, 423–424
(p. 618) Sesame Street, Children’s Television Workshop, 579, 580
Shallice, Tim, 555
shape
geometrical entity, 45–46
hole, 15f
information in dorsal system, 33–34
shared-components account, 493
short-term memory, 390, 474–475
short-term store (STS), working memory, 390–391
sight, 277
sign language, double dissociation, 44
simpler syntax, 584
simultanagnosia, 46, 199, 335, 342–343, 344
simultaneous agnosia, 199
singing, music, 122–123
single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT), 78
size-contrast illusions
Ebbinghaus illusion, 284, 285, 286
Ponzo illusion, 286, 287f
vision for perception and action, 284–288
skeletal image, 46
skill learning, 416
Bayesian models of, 418–419
behavioral models of, 417–419
closed-loop and open-loop control, 418
cognitive neuroscience, 416–417, 419–420
error detection and correction, 420–425
explicit and implicit memory systems, 425–427
fast and slow learning, 424–425
Fitts’ and Posner’s stage model, 417–418
future directions, 428–429
late learning processes, 424
practical implications for, 427–428
questions for future, 429
role of working memory, 422–424
sleep
consolidation, 443–450
rapid eye movement (REM), 443–444
role in creative problem–solving, 450
slow-wave, and cellular consolidation, 444–445
slow-wave, and systems consolidation, 445–447
slow-wave sleep
cellular consolidation, 444–445
systems consolidation, 445–447
Smart houses, 483
sniffing
mechanism for odorant sampling, 90–91
visualization of human sniffairflow, 91f
social cognitive neuroscience, 599
social interaction, olfactory influence, 104–105
social neuroscience, 599, 600
social perception, disorders in, 203
somatosensory perception, 201–202
sound measurements
amplitude compression, 140
amplitude modulation and envelope, 145–146
auditory system, 137f
frequency selectivity and cochlea, 136–137, 139f, 139–140
mapping sounds to words, 515–518
modulation, 145–148
modulation tuning, 146–148
neural coding in auditory nerve, 140–142
peripheral auditory system, 136–142
structure of peripheral auditory system, 138f
sound segregation
acoustic grouping cues, 156–158
auditory attention, 218–219, 219f
brain basis of, 160–161
separating from environment, 161–162
sound source perception. See also auditory system
localization, 150–152
loudness, 155–156
pitch, 152–155
space, 28
cognitive maps, 48–49
models of attention, 238–239
neglecting, 38–40
spaced retrieval, 481
sparsely, 23
sparsely distributed representations, faces and body parts, 22–23
spatial attention, 250–251. See also attention
behavioral evidence linking, to eye movements, 264–266
control of, 240–242
cortical networks of, 245
covert visual-, 263–264
dorsal and ventral frontoparietal networks, 245–246
early visual perception, 247–250
effect on contrast sensitivity, 247–248
effects on spatial sensitivity, 248
effects on temporal sensitivity, 248–250
eye movements and, 242–244, 263–266
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, 266–267
law of prior entry, 249–250
neural sources of, 244–246
neurophysiological effects of, 246–247
object-based models, 239–240
oculomotor readiness hypothesis (OMRH), 242–244
parietal cells, 35
premotor theory, 242–244
reflexive and voluntary control, 240–242
space-based models, 238–239
subcortical networks of, 244
zoom lens theory, 238–239
spatial coding, olfactory bulb, 94f
spatial contrast sensitivity, 196
spatial information
coordinate and categorical relations, 42f
shape recognition, 46
within object, 45–48
spatial memory task, schematic, 397f
spatial representations, 28–29, 50
actions, 34–36
brain’s topographic maps, 29–31
central vision, 323f
cognition by humans, 28–29
cognitive maps, 48–49
distinction between analog and digital, 42
lateralization of, 40–45
neglecting space, 38–40
spatial frames of reference, 36–38
spatial information within the object, 45–48
visual perception, 324f
what vs. where in visual system, 31–34
“where,” “how,” or “which” systems, 34–36
spatial sensitivity, spatial attention, 248
spatial vision, 197–198
spatial working memory, younger and older adults, 459f
spectrogram, 145
noise-vocoded speech, 147f
speech utterance, 147f
spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs), modulation tuning, 146–148
spectrum, pitch, 154f
speech. See also language acquisition
left hemisphere dominance for processing, 174
speech reading, 527
tactile contributions to, 532–534
visual contributions to, intelligibility, 528–529
working memory maintenance, 405f
speech perception, 507–509
acoustic properties, 509–512
articulation in stop consonants, 511
articulatory and motor influences on, 514–515
functional architecture of auditory system for, 508f
future directions, 519
invariance for phonetic categories, 513–514
lexical competition, 516–517
lexical tone, 512–513
mapping of sounds to words, 515–518
nature of information flow, 517–518
neural plasticity, 518–519
(p. 619) phonetic category learning in adults, 518–519
spectral properties, 511
temporal properties, 510–511
voice onset time (VOT), 511–512, 515
voicing in stop consonants, 510–511
vowels, 511–512
speech perception, multimodal, 544–545
audiovisual, 534–538, 545n.8
audiovisual speech integration, 531–532, 542–544
auditory perception of speech, 530f
auditory speech signal, 526–527
cross-talk between senses, 524–525
facial movements and vocal acoustics, 529–531
linking articulatory movements and vocal acoustics, 525–526
lip reading, 530f
McGurk effect, 531–532
simultaneous communication by modalities, 525f
tactile aids, 533–534
tactile contributions, 532–534
visual contributions to speech intelligibility, 528–529
visual speech signal, 527–528
spelling. See also reading and writing
cognitive architecture of, 492–493
mechanisms, 493
representational model, 492f
split-brain patient, 45
spotlight, spatial attention, 238
stage model, skill acquisition, 417–418
state, attention as, 297
stimulus-driven, attentional shifts, 258
storage, stage of remembering, 474
streaming, sound segregation, 159
stroke, 481
gustatory disorders, 203
object identification, 568
reading or spelling, 494
spelling, 497, 498f
visual field disorders, 195
Stroop task, 299, 302
subcallosal cingulate, 125
subcortical networks
auditory system, 142
neglect, 40
spatial attention, 244
suicide, 473
Sullivan, Anne, 525f
superior colliculus, 30, 36
attention, 322, 323
audiovisual speech, 540
orienting network, 301
spatial attention, 238, 242, 244, 267
visual processing, 277f, 283
superior parietal lobe
agent operating in space, 36
eye movement, 35
limb movements, 37
superior parietal occipital cortex (SPOC), 282
superior temporal cortex, 36, 40, 187, 226, 327, 404–406, 512
superior temporal gyrus (STG), 40, 144f, 187
auditory attention, 227
auditory cortex, 144f
language, 173, 174f
memory, 225f, 402
music, 115, 128f
semantic memory, 365
speech perception, 509
speech processing system, 508f
(p. 620) unilateral neglect, 333
written language, 491, 494, 497, 500
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 144f, 566
auditory brain, 200
audiovisual speech, 540
language, 173
semantic memory, 366
speech perception, 509
working memory, 404, 405f
supplementary motor area (SMA)
rhythm discrimination, 118
sensorimotor coordination, 122
suppression, 160
supramarginal gyrus (SMG)
reading and spelling, 494, 499
speech perception, 509
speech processing system, 508f
surfaces, response, 15f
syntactic phrase structure
emerging ability to process, 175
language, 185–187
syntactic violation paradigm, 186, 187
syntax, music and language, 121
systems consolidation, 438–441. See also consolidation
slow-wave sleep and, 445–447
temporal gradient of autobiographical memory, 439–440
temporal gradient of semantic memory, 439
T
tactile contributions
aids, 533–534
speech, 532–534
Tadoma method
individual communicating by, 533f
sensory qualities, 534
tapping, music, 122
taste, qualities, 202
tears, chemosignaling, 104f
tele-assistance model, metaphor for ventral-dorsal stream interaction, 289
temporal lobe structures, speech perception, 509
temporally graded retrograde amnesia, 443
temporal order judgment (TOJ), 536f, 545n.7
temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), 238
temporal properties, speech perception, 510–511
temporal sensitivity, spatial attention, 248–250
temporal ventriloquist effect, 537
testing effect, consolidation, 451
Thai language, speech perception, 512–513
timbre
music, 114–115
music perception, 118–119
time
deployment of attention in, 230, 231f
music, 112, 113f
toddlers, attention network development, 302–306
Token Test, 44
tonality. See also music
brain regions, 128f
detecting wrong notes and wrong chords, 115–117
dynamics, 117
music, 112–114
pitch and melody, 115
tonal hierarchies, 113
tone deafness, amusia, 127, 201
tonotopy, auditory system, 143
top-down effects
contextual, 65–66
interfunctional nature, 67–69
modulation, 61, 69
visual perception, 60–61
working memory, 408–410
topographagnosia, 200
topographic maps, brain, 29–31
trace hardening, consolidation, 436–437
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 366
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
analysis method, 2
mental imagery, 75–76
motor imagery, 84
object-related actions, 361
phonetic categorization, 515
prefrontal cortex function, 467
repetitive TMS (rTMS), 77, 228, 422
semantic memory, 366
verbal working memory, 405
transient attention, perceived contrast, 250
traumatic brain injury (TBI), 473, 478, 481
trial-and-error learning, 481
trigeminal nerve, odorants, 89–90
Tulving, Endel, 353
tuning curve, attention, 222–223
tuning mechanism, attention, 261
tunnel vision, 196
U
unconscious competence, skill learning, 417, 418f
unification, 584
unilateral neglect, 328f, 328–334
dissociation between neglect and extinction, 328–331
lateralized and nonlateralized deficits within, 331–333
Posner paradigm, 339f
posterior parietal cortex organization, 333–334
unilateral posterior lesions, object recognition task, 47f
unimodal lexical-semantic priming paradigm, 181
V
ventral frontoparietal network, spatial attention, 245–246, 250
ventralmedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), attention, 229
ventral visual stream
central vision, 322
domain-specific hypothesis, 565–567
episodic retrieval, 383
functional organization of human, 12–14
interaction with dorsal stream, 289–290
landmark test characterizing, 321f
linear gap vs. object in gap, 33f
nature of functional organization in human, 21–23
object identification, 32
perception and vision with, damage, 279–280
responses to shape, edges and surfaces, 15f
saliency map, 321f
vision, 194–195
visual processing, 277f
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), 128f, 364
attention system, 119
audition, 200
musical syntax, 117
ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), 123, 125, 229
verbal working memory, 402–407
aphasia, 402–403
language disturbances, 402–403
phonological loop, 403–404
prefrontal cortex (PFC) for younger and older adults, 459f
short-term memory deficits, 406
vertical and horizontal axes, spatial vision, 197
vibration, pitch, 154f
vision, 2
color, 196–197
dorsal visual pathway, 194–195
human representation of space, 29
image formation on retina, 29–31
motion perception, 198
neural computations for perception, 283–288
spatial, 197–198
spatial contrast sensitivity, 196
ventral visual pathway, 194–195
visual acuity, 196
visual adaptation, 196
visual field, 195–196
visual acuity, 196, 324f
visual adaptation, 196
visual agnosia, 558
bilateral damage, 32, 33f
grasping for patient with, 279f
neuropsychology, 322
visual identification and recognition, 198–200
visual attention. See also attention
capacity limitations, 259, 260–261
change-blindness studies, 257–258
feature-based, 258–259
introduction to, 257–259
limits of, 257–258
location-based, 259
object-based, 258
tuning, 258–259
visual brain, functional specialization, 194–195
visual control of action, 273
interactions between two streams, 289–290
neural computations for perception and action, 283–288
neural substrates, 277–280
neuroimaging evidence for two visual streams, 280–290
neuroimaging of DF’s dorsal stream, 281f
neuroimaging of DF’s ventral stream, 280f
reaching, 282–283
reach-to-grasp movements, 274–276
size-contrast illusion, 284–288
superior parietal occipital cortex (SPOC) and visual feedback, 282
visual cortex, topographic representation, 30f
visual cues
extraction of, in audiovisual speech, 538–540
loudness, 156
speech production, 528f
visual disorientation syndrome, 327
visual mental imagery
early visual areas, 76–78
higher visual areas, 78–82
reverse pattern of dissociation, 80
ventral stream, shape-based mental imagery and color imagery, 78–81
visual-motor psychophysics, 275
visual-motor system, 273. See also visual control of action
cues for grasping, 275
double-pointing hypothesis, 286–288
grasping, 283, 285–286, 288
grip aperture, 285, 288
interactions of ventral–dorsal streams, 289–290
neural computations for perception and action, 283–288
Ponzo illusion, 286, 287f
size-contrast illusion, 284f
visual object working memory, 399–400
visual perception, 4–5
activate-predict-confirm perception cycle, 62–63
ambiguous objects, 68–69
bottom-up progression, 67f
contextual top-down effects, 65–66
error-minimization mechanisms, 63
feedback connections, 61–62
feedforward connections, 61–62
global-to-local integrated model, 63–64
importance of top-down effects, 60–61, 69–70
interfunctional nature of top-down modulations, 67–69
magnocellular (M) pathway, 64, 65
prediction in simple recognition, 62–65
spatial attention, 240–242, 247–250
top-down facilitation model, 64
triad of processes, 324f
understanding visual world, 61–62
visual processing, division of labor, 277–278
visual sequence task, 305
visual spatial attention, 237
visual spatial localization, 197
visual-spatial sketchpad, working memory, 392, 393, 475
visual-spatial working memory, 396–399
visual speech signal, properties and perception of, 527–528
visual synthesis, 323
visual synthesis impairment, 344
visual tracking task, eye movements, 288
visual word form area (VWFA), 13, 495–496
visuo-spatial attention
central vision, 323f
visual perception, 324f
voice onset time (VOT), speech perception, 510–511, 515
voluntary control, spatial attention, 240–242
vomeronasal organ (VSO), 89–90
vowels, speech perception, 511–512
voxel-based morphometry
brain analyses, 126, 127
reading and spelling, 494
W
WAIS-R Block Design Test, 45
Wallach, Hans, 161
Warrington, Elizabeth, 354, 555
Weber’s law, 286, 288
Wernicke’s aphasia, 403
Wernicke’s area, 111
Williams’ syndrome, 32
(p. 621) Wilson, Don, 96
words
frame of reference, 38–39
mapping of sounds to, 515–518
meaning in language acquisition, 180–182
word-learning paradigm, 181
word stress in language acquisition, 177–179
working memory, 389–390, 410
aging process, 456
audition, 162–163
capacity, 400–402
capacity expansion, 402
central executive, 392, 407
cognitive control of, 407–410
compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH), 459
delayed response task, 394–395, 396f
development of concept of, 391–394
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 119
emergence as neuroscientific concept, 394–395
episodic buffer, 393–394
event-related study of spatial, 399f
frontal lobe, 34
functional neuroimaging studies, 395–400
hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD), 458–459
lexical matches, 586, 587f
linguistic, 593n.10
maintenance, 391, 405f
medial temporal lobes (MTL), 463
musical processes, 120
n-back task for sustained, 224, 225f
neurological evidence for short- and long-term stores, 390–391
phonological loop, 392–393, 407
positron emission tomography (PET) studies, 397–398
prefrontal cortex, 194
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 394–395
reactivation, 407–408
recall accuracy as function of serial position, 390f
role in skill learning, 422–424
short-term and, 390, 474–475
spatial, 326f
spatial memory task, 397f
syntactic department of, 588
verbal, 402–407
visual object, 399–400
visual-spatial, 396–399
visual-spatial sketchpad, 393
written language. See reading and writing
Z
zombie agent, dorsal system, 34
zoom lens theory, spatial attention, 238–239