- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Introduction to The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience: Cognitive Neuroscience—Where Are We Now?
- Representation of Objects
- Representation of Spatial Relations
- Top-Down Effects in Visual Perception
- Neural Underpinning of Object Mental Imagery, Spatial Imagery, and Motor Imagery
- Looking at the Nose Through Human Behavior, and at Human Behavior Through the Nose
- Cognitive Neuroscience of Music
- Neural Correlates of the Development of Speech Perception and Comprehension
- Perceptual Disorders
- Varieties of Auditory Attention
- Spatial Attention
- Attention and Action
- Visual Control of Action
- Development of Attention
- Attentional Disorders
- Semantic Memory
- Cognitive Neuroscience of Episodic Memory
- Working Memory
- Motor Skill Learning
- Memory Consolidation
- Age-Related Decline in Working Memory and Episodic Memory Contributions of the Prefrontal Cortex and Medial Temporal Lobes
- Memory Disorders
- Cognitive Neuroscience of Written Language: Neural Substrates of Reading and Writing
- Neural Systems Underlying Speech Perception
- Multimodal Speech Perception
- Organization of Conceptual Knowledge of Objects in the Human Brain
- A Parallel Architecture Model of Language Processing
- Epilogue to The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience—Cognitive Neuroscience: Where Are We Going?
Abstract and Keywords
Spelling and reading are evolutionarily relatively new functions, and therefore it is plausible that they are accomplished by engaging neural networks initially devoted to other functions, such as object recognition in the case of reading. However, there are unique aspects of these complex tasks, such as the fact that certain words (e.g., “regular” words) never previously encountered can often be read accurately. Furthermore, spelling in many ways seems to be simply the reverse of reading, but the relationship is not quite so simple, at least in English. For example, the spoken word “lead” can be spelled led or lead, but the printed word lead can be pronounced like “led” or “lead” (rhyming with “feed”). Therefore, there may be some unique areas of the brain devoted to certain components of reading or spelling. This chapter reviews the cognitive processes underlying these tasks as well as areas of the brain that are thought to be necessary for these component processes (e.g., on the basis of individuals who are impaired in each component because of lesions in a particular area) and areas of the brain engaged in each component on the basis of functional imaging studies showing neural activation associated with a particular type of processing.
Kyrana Tsapkini, Departments of Neurology, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Argye Hillis, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Department of Cognitive Science, Johns Hopkins University
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