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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 735) Index

(p. 735) Index

4 U.S.C § 4, 487
32 U.S. Code § 119, 487
The 99 (comic book series), 499
Abbot, Francis Ellingwood, 692–95, 699, 702
‘Abd al-Qadir, 198
‘Abduh, Muhammad, 195–96, 508
Abdulhamid II (Ottoman emperor), 161, 168n1
abortion
Barthian ethics and, 724
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby and, 471
Christian Right’s opposition to, 62, 80, 493, 728
constitutional protections for, 474–75
contraception and, 475, 492
priority of public reasons and, 273, 278
Rawls on, 135
Republican Party opposition to, 439
secular Americans’ support for right to, 441
Abraham (patriarch of Genesis), 392–95, 397, 732
Abu Zayd, Nasr, 709–10
Accra (Ghana), 204
Acheampong, Ignatius Kutu, 207
Achenbaum, W. Andrew, 729
Act of Toleration (England,1689), 304
Adam and Eve (Book of Genesis), 197, 642, 725
Adams, John, 126
Addo, Nana Akuffo, 208
“Address to Turkish Youth” (Atatürk), 157
adharma (absence of moral order), 79
Adler, Felix, 694–95
Affordable Care Act, 475, 492. See also Burwell v. Hobby Lobby
al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din, 508
Afghanistan, 295, 369, 371
Africa. See sub-Saharan Africa; specific countries
African Americans
African Americans for Humanism and, 457, 523–24
agency and, 452, 458
agnosticism and, 451, 457–58, 462
atheism and, 450–52, 456–59, 461–63
Black Church and, 439–41, 443, 445, 452–53, 459, 461, 463, 700
black nationalism and, 450
Christianity and, 450–54, 456–57, 459–64
civil rights movement and, 458–60
Democratic Party and, 439, 443–44
discrimination against, 451, 454–56, 482, 595
humanism and, 451–52, 454, 456–59
LGBT population and, 462
nonreligious population and, 440, 457–58, 461–62
prosperity gospel and, 456, 463, 510
Protestantism and, 444, 458
religiosity and, 443, 450–52, 456–61
religious fundamentalism and, 463
Republican Party and, 444
same-sex marriage and, 439
secularism and, 13, 435, 438
slavery and, 451, 463
agency
African Americans and, 452, 458
agent-causal libertarianism and, 631–35
cognitive science of religion and, 661
compatibilism and, 623–27, 630–32, 634
covert nonconstraining control and, 627
determinism and, 624–29, 632
downward causation and, 633
emergent properties and, 632–34
event-causal libertarianism and, 623, 631–32
feminism and, 420, 428
guidance control and, 626
incompatibilism and, 624
morality and, 623–27, 629–31, 635
naturalism and, 606–7
self-forming willings (SFWs) and, 628–31
(p. 736) the supernatural and, 546, 555, 607, 662
torn decisions and, 630–31
aggressive secularism, 307, 312, 359
agnosticism
African Americans and, 451, 457–58, 462
atheism and, 4, 35n4
definition of, 502
divorce and, 537
global expansion of, 8
Holyoake on, 4
humanism and, 706, 710
Huxley as originator of, 690
secularism and, 435, 572
in the United States, 494, 509
Ahab (king of ancient Israel), 394–97
Ahlstrom, Sydney, 580
AIDS, 64, 241
“Ain’t I a Woman?” (Truth), 455–56
Alawites, 165, 193
Albanese, Catherine, 578
Albania, 116
Albigensian Crusade, 300n2
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 534, 542–43, 583, 611
Alexander, Richard D., 647
Alexander Nevskii Monastery (Saint Petersburg, Russia), 231
Algeria, 43, 144, 147, 375
Ali, Ayaan Hirsi, 7
Ali, Muhammad, 508
Al-Ali, Nadje, 428
Aligarh Muslim University (India), 222
Alito, Samuel, 487, 491, 494
Allen Jr., Norm, 456–57
Alliance Defending Freedom, 490
alloparenting, 639, 645
Al-Qaeda, 324
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb, 210
Al-Qaeda in Yemen, 72
Alsace-Moselle, 144
Al Shabaab, 210
Altemeyer, Bob, 517, 521
alternative medical systems, 582–83
Altizer, Thomas, 575–76, 693
altruism
definition of, 546
evolutionary theory and, 643–45, 647
game theory and, 644
in-group dynamics and, 659
Mencius on, 683
prosociality and, 14, 541, 546
religiosity and, 541
Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji, 214, 218–19, 222, 224
American Atheists organization, 596–98
American Center for Law and Justice, 490
American Grace (Putnam and Campbell), 535–36
American Humanist Association (AHA), 7, 486, 559, 689, 698, 701
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS), 435–37, 440, 442–44
American Revolution, 76, 126, 290, 298, 304
American Secular Union, 93
American Unitarian Association, 692–93
American Values Atlas (AVA), 435–37, 440, 442
the Amish, 63, 469
Ammerman, Nancy, 512
Anabaptists, 90
Analects, 674–81, 683–84
analytic atheism, 589, 593, 598
ancestor worship, 238, 499
Anderson, Benedict, 78, 82–83
Andorra, 108, 116
Anglican Church. See Church of England
Angola, 112
animal kingdom, 638–46, 652
Anti-Discrimination Support Network, 529
Anwar, Zainah, 429
apatheism, 589, 591–93, 598
apostasy doctrines, 613
Aquinas, Thomas, 292–93
Arab Spring uprisings (2011), 507
Archer, Robin, 189–91
Argentina, 43, 116
Arieli, Yehoshua, 412
Aristotle, 14, 505, 560, 674, 715, 723, 732
Armenia, 43
Arterburn, Stephen, 610–11
“Articles of Secular Belief” (London Secular Center), 4
Asad, Talal
genealogical accounts of the secular and, 22–23, 30–32, 500–501
on Kant and religion, 379–80
modernity and heterogeneity in work of, 33–34
(p. 737) on modern nation-state and religion, 57
on “religion as the twin of the secular,” 337
religio-secular paradigm and, 370
Asian Americans, 437–40, 445
Assemblies of God denomination, 209
Association of Muslim Clerics (Iraq), 81
Atatürk, Kemal, 74, 76, 79, 157–58, 167, 193. See also Kemal, Mustafa
atheism. See also nonreligious population
African Americans and, 450–52, 456–59, 461–63
age demographics and, 43–45
agnosticism and, 4, 35n4
analytic atheism and, 589, 593, 598
apatheism and, 589, 591–93, 598
in China, 41–43, 249, 252, 254, 258, 263
critiques of religious ethics and, 390
definitions of, 40–41
Dewey on, 685
divorce and, 537
education and, 44–46
The Enlightenment and, 34, 303
gender and, 43
global expansion of, 8
Hell and, 291
Holyoake on, 2–3, 25, 85
humanism and, 706, 710
inCREDulous atheism and, 589, 592–93, 598
levels of education and, 441
mind-blind atheism and, 589–90, 593
morality and, 451
negative perceptions regarding, 4, 472, 587–88, 595–97, 655
New Atheism and, 7, 523, 596–97
prosociality and, 536–38
public campaigns promoting, 521, 596–97
public education institutions and, 410–12
public officials and, 1
religious jurisprudence and, 472–73, 476
science and, 48–53
secular government and, 133–34
secular humanism and, 697
secularism and, 2–4, 25, 85, 231–33, 302, 313, 435, 502, 555, 572, 690
secularity and, 517, 520–29
secularization and, 67
in the Soviet Union, 94, 232–34, 236–39, 242, 354, 436, 472, 501
Sunday Assembly movement and, 7, 528
transcendence and, 565
United States and, 43–44, 202, 467, 486, 489–90, 494, 509, 572, 587, 596–97, 655
well-being and, 594
World Values Survey data on, 40–53
Atheist Alliance International, 529
Atheist Bus Campaign, 597
Atheist Shoes, 587–88
Atkinson, Henry George, 3
Atlanta Olympic bombing (1996), 72–73
al-Attas, Syed Muhammad al-Naqib, 506–7
Audinet, Jacques, 407
Augustine
on Abraham’s obedience, 393–94
on binary division between secularism and religion, 87
City of God and, 87, 126, 393–94
just war doctrine and, 288
political secularism and, 86, 87, 92
on secularism’s temporal dimension, 126
two cities doctrine and, 721
Aum Shinrikyo cult (Japan), 503
Aupers, Stef, 511
Austin, J.L., 624
Australia
atheism in, 1, 43
liberal democracy in, 108
nonreligious population in, 7, 43
political secularism and, 108, 112, 114, 116
religiosity’s decline in, 573
religious pluralism and, 338
secular state and society in, 189
Austria, 110, 116, 338
authoritarianism (personality dimension), 537, 579
autonomy
consumer orientation and, 62
humanism and, 707–9, 712, 715, 716–18
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 338, 342
moral autonomy and, 391–92, 394, 397
mutual autonomy and, 355–56, 372
political secularism and, 93–95, 354–56
well-being and, 560
“An Awareness of What Is Missing” (Habermas), 317–18
Azerbaijan, 41, 43
(p. 738) Baal (God of the Canaanites), 395–96
Baartman, Saartije (“Venus Hottentot”), 455
Baath Party (Iraq), 81
Babri Masjid (India), 225
Babylonia, 396
Bachmann, Michele, 493
Bacon, Francis, 729
Badawi, Raif, 1
Baehr v. Lewin, 283–84n16
Bahrain, 43
Bailey, Nathan, 5
Baker, Joseph, 6
Balagangadhara, S. N., 379, 381
Balaguer, Mark, 630
Baldwin, James, 441, 450, 452–53
Bangladesh, 40, 93
Bano, Shah, 223
Barker, Dan, 604
Barth, Karl, 724
Ba’thism, 193–94
Batson, Daniel, 575
Battle of Vienna (1683), 82
Battleridge (novel), 3
Baubock, R., 361
Baumeister, Roy, 539, 556, 561
Bayly, Susan, 224
Becket Fund, 490
Beckford, James, 517–18
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 293
Belarus, 43, 240
Belgium, 116, 338, 356, 363, 571
Bellows, Henry Whitney, 692
Bender, Courtney, 423
Benedict XVI (pope), 67, 359. See also Ratzinger, Joseph
Ben-Gurion, David, 174, 506
Berdyaev, Nicholas, 232
Berger, Peter
on monotheism and rationality, 57
on religious pluralism and importance of religion, 35n7
on secularization theory’s limits, 333, 576–77
signs of transcendence and, 584
sociological secularization thesis and, 27
on technological consciousness, 64
on Turkey’s secularism, 166–68
Berlinerblau, Jacques, 6
betrayal trauma theory, 610
bhakti tradition (Hinduism), 34, 502
Bharatiya Janta Party (India), 225
Bhargava, Rajeev, 348n19, 356, 362–63, 425, 430
Bharucha, Rustom, 219
Biale, David, 504–5
The Bible. See also specific books
African Americans and, 458, 461–62
European culture and, 55, 61
Habermas on, 322
humanism and, 709–10, 718
as “infallible word of God,” 697
Protestant Reformation’s vernacular translations of, 60
public schools and, 596
religious ethics and, 392–95
Zionism and, 174, 505
Bible Society (United Kingdom), 512
Bielo, James, 511
“Big God” concepts, 538, 541
Bill 101 (Canada), 296
Bill for Establishing a Provision for Teachers of the Christian Religion (proposal by Patrick Henry), 133
Bin Habit, Ahmed, 507
bin Laden, Osama, 80–81
bioinformatics, 726, 729
biomedical technology, 724–25, 727, 730–31, 733
Birth of a Nation (Griffith), 454
Black Atheists of America, 457, 461
Black Church
American politics and, 439–41, 445
Baldwin and, 452–53
belief in Hell and, 452–53, 461–62
Christian spirituals and, 700
Hughes’s critique of, 461
Larsen’s fictional depiction of, 459
progressives in, 457
prosperity gospel and, 463
same-sex marriage and, 464
trust in, 443
Black Death, 64
The Black Humanist Experience, 457
Black Israelites (prophetic witness community), 450–52
Black Skeptics Group, 457
blasphemy laws, 297, 406, 587
(p. 739) Blasphemy: Verbal Offense against the Sacred from Moses to Salman Rushdie (Levy), 395
Blessing, Kimberly A., 527
Boko Haram, 210
Bolger, Ryan, 511
Bolivia, 116
Bolsheviks, 231–33
Borradori, Giovanna, 323
Borutta, Manuel, 26
Boston Marathon bombing (2013), 72–73
Botswana, 112, 114, 116
Botton, Alain de, 525, 559
Bourdieu, Pierre, 375
Bourguiba, Habib, 508
Bowen, John, 143–45
Boyle, Robert, 558
Bradlaugh, Charles, 4, 25–26, 32, 34, 85
Bradley, John D., 698
Brahmans, 502
Brazil, 1, 43, 112, 114, 116, 419
Breivik, Anders, 72–73, 82–83
Brennan, William, 484–85
Brenner, Joseph Hayim, 506
Breyer, Stephen, 486
Brezhnev, Leonid, 236
British Ethical Union, 695
Brooks, Arthur C., 535
Brosnan, Caragh, 724
Brosnan, Sarah F., 641
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP), 456
The Brothers Karamazov (Dostoyevsky), 655
Brown, Wendy, 21, 34, 380
Brown v. Board of Education, 489, 728
Bruce, Steve, 27, 419, 726
Budde, Michael, 413
Buddhism
in China, 249, 252–54, 261–62, 504
flourishing of, 334, 504
in India, 191, 218, 224, 381, 504
in Japan, 504
political power and, 79–80
in Russia, 240
science and, 51–52
secular Buddhism and, 504
in the Soviet Union, 235
in Taiwan, 255
Theravada Buddhism and, 79
Zen Buddhism and, 334, 580–81
Buddhist Association of the Republic of China, 255
Buisson, Ferdinand, 94
Bulgaria, 116, 191–92
Bultmann, Rudolf, 725
Burchall, David, 458
Burger, Warren, 484–85
Burkart, J.M., 646
Burma. See Myanmar
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, 138–40, 471, 475, 491–92, 494
Bush, George W., 81–82, 95, 325, 487
Butler, Judith, 380, 420, 422, 424, 427
Byrne, Rhonda, 582
By These Hands (Pinn), 456
Cadge, Wendy, 727
Calhoun, Craig, 104, 336, 424–25
Calhoun-Brown, Allison, 439
Calo, Zachery, 413
Calvin, John, 90
Cambodia, 82, 342
Cambridge Platonists, 303
Cameron, David, 363, 389–90
Cameroon, 112
Campbell, David E., 436, 535–36
Camus, Albert, 558
Canada
Charter of Rights and Freedoms in, 125, 295
French language rights in, 296
lack of established religion in, 125
liberal democracy in, 108
multiculturalism and, 295
nonreligious population in, 7
political secularism and, 108, 116, 311
religiosity in, 572
secular government and, 125–26
Canales, Nemesio, 441
Cannell, Fenella, 502
Canonization of the Gods (fengshenbang; novel), 253
Can We Live Forever? (Turner), 732
Çarkoglu, Ali, 164–66
Caron, Nathalie, 503
Carter, Jimmy, 441, 728
(p. 740) Carus, Paul, 690–91
Casanova, Jose
on binary opposition between the religious and the secular, 23–24
on differentiation and privatization, 62
on persistence of religiosity in modern world, 419
on political secularism and democracy, 104–5
on secularization’s polyvalence, 29
Castelli, Elizabeth, 420
Catholicism
in China, 249, 253, 259–62
contraception opposed in, 138–39, 427
The Enlightenment and, 75
feminism and, 427
in France, 59, 143–44, 251, 293, 302, 308, 407, 501
freedom of conscience and, 292
French Revolution and, 59, 143, 293
in Italy, 59, 112, 409–12, 722
Latinos and, 440, 444–45
Locke and, 133, 291
miracles and sainthood in, 722, 727
multiculturalism and, 356–57, 361
papal authority and, 58–59, 88–89
political secularism and, 87–90, 93–94
politics in secular contexts and, 328–29
private life and, 289
public educational institutions and, 402, 404, 406–7, 410–12
religio-secularism and, 371, 377
religious fundamentalism and, 335
in Russia, 240
science and, 51
secular government and, 133, 138–39
sex abuse scandal within, 656
in the United States, 436, 483
wars of religion and, 290
Center for Inquiry, 689, 701
Central African Republic, 112
Chalfant, Eric, 520
Chalmers, David, 635n1
Charcot, Jean-Martin, 722
Charles I (king of England), 291
Charlie Hebdo attacks (2015)
motivations for, 72–73, 665
Muhammad cartoon controversy and, 71–73, 296, 665
responses to, 34, 142–43
secular values and, 21
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Canada), 125, 295
Chārvāka (Hindu school of thought), 34
Chaves, Mark, 173
Chen Shuibian, 257
Cheyne, George, 723
Chiang Kaishek, 254
Children of God or the Family International (COG/FI; “emerging church” movement), 511
Chile, 1, 43, 116
chimpanzees, 638–41, 660
China
anticlericalism in, 501, 504
atheism in, 41–43, 249, 252, 254, 258, 263
Buddhism in, 249, 252–54, 261–62, 504
Catholicism in, 249, 253, 259–62
communist regime in, 249, 254, 259–62
Cultural Revolution in, 260–61
education in, 259–60, 262
Great Leap Forward in, 260
Law Regulating Temples and Shrines (1929) in, 253
Leninist religious state in, 258–63
nationalism in, 259, 261–62
nonreligious population in, 41–43, 53
one-child policy in, 238
religiosity in, 42, 249, 369
religious state during premodern era in, 251–53
secularization during Republican era in, 253–54
Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) and, 254
State Administration for Religious Affairs (SARA) in, 249, 261–62
Tibet and, 249, 252
United Fronts Department in, 249
Xingjian independence movement in, 249
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 249, 254, 259–62
Chinese Confucius Research Institute, 262
Chinese Five Major Religions Discuss Harmony, 262
Chinese Regional Bishops’ Conference, 255
Chirac, Jacques, 145–46
(p. 741) Chisholm, Roderick, 631
Christchurch (New Zealand) earthquake (2011), 591
Christianity. See also specific sects
African Americans and, 450–54, 456–57, 459–64
assumptions within, 605–6
binary concepts in, 86–87, 126
in China, 249, 253, 259, 261
Darwinism and, 724–25
decline of, 66–67
educational institutions and, 401–2, 406, 408, 411
egalitarianism and, 59
“emerging church” movement and, 511
The Enlightenment and, 723
European culture and, 6, 25, 55
European Union (EU) and, 309
feminism and, 428
freedom of conscience and, 292–93
free will and, 303
humanism and, 707, 709, 713
in India, 218, 224
inner conformity and, 294
marriage and, 55
medical science and, 722
Middle Ages and, 23–24, 60, 64–65, 673
monotheism and, 57, 288–90
multiculturalism and, 360, 362–63
ontological assumptions in, 727
original sin doctrine and, 611–12
political secularism and, 86–94
prolongevity and, 731–32
rationality and, 57
religio-secularism and, 379, 381
religious ethics and, 393–94
religious fundamentalism and, 73–74, 80, 324, 334–35, 418
religious jurisprudence and, 469–70, 472
Roman Empire and, 289–90
in Russia, 239–41
science and, 51–52
secular government and, 126, 130, 132, 139
secular humanism and, 700
state neutrality and, 195
in sub-Saharan Africa, 202–6, 208, 210
terrorism and, 82–83
totalitarianism and, 290
views of sex and reproduction in, 728
well-being and, 594–95
Christian Knight Comics, 499
Church of England
AIDS and, 64
education policy and, 401
as established church of colonial Virginia, 304, 310
as established church of England, 125, 291, 356
female bishop debate in, 357
religious minority rights and, 363
Ciji (Buddhist organization), 255
Çinar, Alev, 512
City of God (Augustine), 87, 126, 393–94
Clark, Margaret S., 541, 546
Clarke, Randolph, 630–31, 634
The Clash of Civilizations (Huntington), 81–82, 417–18, 429
cognitive science of religion (CSR), 592, 656, 660–62, 665
Coit, Stanton, 695–96
Colbert, Stephen, 463
Cold War
end of, 77, 369
religio-secularism and, 371, 377
religiosity in the United States and, 436, 483, 699
religious resurgence following, 369
U.S. patriotism and, 472
Collective Against Islamophobia (CCIF), 148–49
Colombia, 43
Combe, George, 401
Committee of Union and Progress (CUP; Turkey), 156, 160, 168n1
A Common Faith (Dewey), 684–85
communalism, 77, 217–18, 501
communicative action, 318–19, 325
communicative rationality, 318–22, 325, 327–28
communicative reason, 319–21, 323, 325, 327, 329, 422
communism
in Eastern European bloc, 192
hostility to religion and, 555, 699
Middle East and, 508
Polish resistance to Soviet-imposed, 66
Soviet Union’s regime and, 192, 231–35, 237, 354
(p. 742) Communist Party (China), 249, 254, 259–62
Communist Party (Soviet Union), 232, 235, 237, 354
Communist Youth League (Soviet Union), 234
communitarianism, 294–95, 422–24
compatibilism, 623–27, 630–32, 634
Comte, Auguste
Martineau and, 3
on the “positive” phase of mankind, 26
positive psychology and, 559
“religion of humanity” of, 558–59, 692–93, 696, 701
on science and superstition, 64
sociology and, 730
concilience, 562
Concordat of 1801, 144, 251
Condorcet, Marquis de, 723
Confucian Association of the Republic of China, 255
Confucianism
in Communist Era China, 262
Confucius Institutes and, 262
naturalism and, 682–84
religious ethics and, 679–80, 682
rituals and, 678–79, 681
science and, 682–84
secular ethics and, 14, 674–80, 686
the supernatural and, 678–81
transcendence and, 680–81, 683–85
Confucius. See also Confucianism
advice to political leaders from, 252
conversations with students by, 676–77
participation in religious rites by, 678
political failure of, 679
Congo, Republic of, 112
Congress of Vienna, 293
Congress Party (India), 216, 223
Conlan, John, 700
Connecticut, 475
Conrad, Joseph, 565
Conseil d’Etat (administrative court in France), 143
Constantine (emperor of Rome), 87, 289
Constitutional Convention (United States), 93
constitutional democracy, 271–74, 277, 343, 421
contraception
abortion and, 475, 492
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby and, 471, 475, 491–92
Catholic objections to, 138–39, 427
Supreme Court on, 138–39
converging technologies, 730, 733
Cooper, Robert, 4
Copernicus, 605–6
Cornaro, Luigi, 729
Costa Rica, 1, 116
Council for Secular Humanism, 701
Council of Europe, 313
Council of Nicaea (325 CE), 289
covert nonconstraining control, 627
creationism, 48, 405, 458, 617, 728
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant), 320
Croatia, 116, 192
Cromwell, Oliver, 291
crucifix case. See Lautsi v. Italy
cuius regio, eius religio, 377
Cultural Revolution (China), 260–61
culture shock, 603, 615
culture wars (kulturkampf)
birth control and, 492–94
church-state relations and, 14, 24
nineteenth-century Europe and, 24
public prayer controversies and, 484–86
same-sex marriage and, 488–89
the secular and, 24, 26
Cuvier, Georges, 455
Cyprus, 43, 108, 110, 117
Czech Republic, 8, 117
Dalit class (India), 218, 224, 381
dao (“path”), 580, 674, 681
Daoism
in Communist Era China, 249, 261–62
nature and, 725
in premodern China, 252–53
prolongevity and, 729
in Republican Era China, 253–54
Westerners’ attraction to, 580–81
Daoist Association of the Republic of China, 255
Darrow, Clarence, 698
Darwin, Charles
animals’ altruistic behavior and, 643, 645
evolutionary theory of, 724–25
religious responses to, 288, 405–6, 728, 731
theological education of, 75
Davie, Grace, 28, 35n5, 176
(p. 743) Davison, Andrew, 155–56, 159
Dawkins, Richard
atheism and, 390, 394, 589, 597
popular reception of, 7, 597
secular approaches to morality and, 372
Dear, Keith, 557
Deci, Edward L., 560
Declaration of Independence (United States), 303, 390
deconstructionism, 573
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA,1996), 283n12
Defensor Pacis (Marsilius of Padua), 89
deism, 76, 80, 502, 674
Delgardo, Thamani, 458
“Demands of Liberalism” (Abbot), 694
democracy
associative democracy and, 339
constitutional democracy and, 271–74, 277, 343, 421
electoral competition as prerequisite for, 343
feminism and, 420–22, 424–27, 429
Islam and, 506
liberal democracy and, 29, 56, 60, 62, 65, 94, 104, 108, 112, 115, 125, 134, 214, 271, 275, 340, 343–45, 355–56, 370, 372–74, 418–20, 476
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 339–41, 343–46
minority rights in, 306
multiculturalism and, 355–56
pluralism and, 305
pluralist versus deliberate forms of, 271–75
political secularism and, 13, 103–5, 107–9, 112–20
Ratzinger on, 329
religio-secularism and, 370, 372–74
religious freedom and, 304–9, 311–14
Democratic Management Committee (China), 260
Democratic Party (Turkey), 160
Democratic Party (United States)
African Americans and, 439, 443–44
Catholics and, 444
culture war issues and, 439
Latinos and, 444
nonreligious population and, 436–37, 440–43, 445–46
Democratic Progressive Party (Taiwan), 257
democratic secularism, 343
Democritus, 628
Deng Xiaoping, 259–60
Denmark
early modern era in, 251
Lutheran established church in, 356–57
Muhammad cartoon controversy in, 31, 71–73, 296
political secularism and, 117
religiosity’s decline and, 571
weak constitutional establishment and, 338
welfare system in, 731
Dennen, Catherine Ann, 402
Dennett, Daniel, 597, 624–26, 629–31
depression, 560, 609–10, 612
De Roover, Jakob, 379
Derrida, Jacques, 371, 380, 573
Descartes, René, 710–11, 722
The Descent of Man (Darwin), 724
The Desecularization of the World (Berger), 27
Destutt de Tracy, Antoine, 76
determinism, 624–29, 632
Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ethische Kultur, 26
Deutscher Freidenkerverbund, 26
de Vitoria, Francisco, 327, 329
de Waal, Frans, 640–41, 646, 659–60
Dewey, John, 14, 134, 380, 674, 684–86
dharma (natural law), 79
Dharma Drum Mountain (Buddhist organization), 255
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 566, 608
The Dialectics of Secularization (Habermas), 318, 327
Diderot, Denis, 723
Diener, Ed, 557
Dietrich, John H., 696–98
Dimitrov Constitution (Bulgaria), 192
Diversity Model (Taylor), 296–97
divorce
atheism and, 537
in India, 222–23
Judaism and, 172, 175, 183
leaving religion and, 612
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 345
Pentecostal attitudes toward, 63
Doe v. Acton-Boxborough Regional School District, 486, 488–90
(p. 744) domestic violence, 426, 460, 610–11
Dominican Republic, 117
Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 391, 655
Douglas, Stephen, 135
Douglass, Frederick, 441, 445, 455–57, 464
Doukobhors, 63
downward causation, 633
Dragadze, Tamara, 236
Dressler, Markus, 370–71
Driberg, J.H., 499
Driessen, Michael, 105, 115
Dubnow, Simon, 506
DuBois, W.E.B., 456, 462–63
Durgah committee case, 221
Durgah Khwaja Saheb Act of 1955, 221
Durkheim, Emile
on individualism and suicide, 557
Judaism of, 506
on modernity and religion, 201
religion in small communities and, 60
on the sacred and the profane, 518
tensions between scientific and religious knowledge and, 28
Eastern Europe, 232, 406–7. See also specific countries
Eastern Han dynasty, 252
Ebola crisis (2014), 203, 206
Eckersley, Richard, 557
economic secularism, 11–12
Ecuador, 43
Edict of Milan, 289
education
in China, 259–60, 262
Confucianism and, 675–76
culture wars and, 24, 26
evolution and, 48
expansions of, 60
in France, 143–46, 302–3, 407
in Germany, 409
humanism and, 707–8
in India, 216, 221–22
leaving religion and, 617
liberal democratic constitutionalism and, 339
meaning-making and, 563
multiculturalism and, 295, 356–57
in the Ottoman Empire, 508
political secularism and, 107
public school prayer controversies and, 402, 404–5
religion and, 13
religiosity and, 44–46, 50
secular government and, 126
secularism in the public provision of, 10–12, 192, 401–13, 689, 691
secularity and, 522–23
secularization and, 28
secular spirituality and, 577, 579
in the Soviet Union, 232, 238, 463
in sub-Saharan Africa, 202, 205, 208
in the United States, 336, 402–7, 412–13, 489, 493
views of science and, 50–52
educational secularism, 11–12
egalitarianism, 56, 58–60, 62, 65, 317, 659
Egypt
Arab Spring uprising (2011) in, 507
feminist scholarship and, 427–28
mulid festivals in, 509
nineteenth-century modernization efforts in, 508
political secularism in, 76
religious conflicts in, 377
Ehrenreich, Barbara, 565
Einstein, Albert, 605
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 699
Elijah (Old Testament prophet), 394–97
Eliot, George, 714
Elizabeth I (queen of England), 291
Elizabeth II (queen of England), 291
Elk Grove v. Nedow, 487, 489
Eller, David, 615
Ellis, Stephen, 208–10
Ellison, Christopher, 443–44
Ellison, Noel Thomas, 2
emergent properties, 632–34
“emerging church” movement, 511
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 581–82, 584, 692
empathy, 540–41, 641, 646, 649–50, 663
Employment Division v. Smith, 470
Enacting Heaven (Buddhist organization), 255
Engels, Friedrich, 233, 260
Engel v. Vitale, 468
(p. 745) Engineer, Ashgar Ali, 501
Englehart, Katie, 523
English Civil War, 127–28, 291
English Secularism (Holyoake), 690–91, 696
The Enlightenment
African Americans and, 450
atheism and, 34, 303
Catholicism and, 75
Christianity and, 723
feminism and, 417, 419–21, 426–27, 429–30
humanism and, 706, 708
Jewish Enlightenment movement and, 175–76, 505
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 345
logical positivism and, 307
nation-states and, 80, 83
naturalism and, 606
political secularism and, 86, 93
poststructural criticism of, 429
Protestantism and, 723
race and, 454–55
rationality and, 75, 420, 426, 429, 576
religio-secularism and, 372
science and, 723
secular ethics and, 673
secularism and, 74–76, 78, 80, 83, 86, 293, 297, 302, 304
Erasmus, Desiderius, 707, 713
Erastus, Thomas, 90
Esbeck, Carl, 106
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke), 133
Essay of Health and Long Life (Cheyne), 723
The Essence of Christianity (Feuerbach), 692
Establishment Clause (U.S. Constitution)
County of Allegheny v. ACLU, Greater Pittsburgh Chapter and, 468–69
diminishing role of, 14
Doe v. Acton-Boxborough Regional School District, 486, 488–90
educational institutions and, 404–6
Engel v. Vitale and, 468
government subsidies to religious organizations and, 476
Lemon test and, 484
Marsh v. Chambers and, 469, 484–85
Pledge of Allegiance and, 487
religious exemptions and, 470, 474–75
religious freedom and, 190
secular humanism and, 689
separationism versus neutrality in interpreting, 467–70
taxpayer standing and, 487
text of, 468
Town of Greece v. Galloway and, 469–70, 472–73, 484–86
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris and, 469
Estate of Thornton v. Caldor, Inc., 475
Esther, Book of (Old Testament), 505
Estonia, 43, 112, 114, 117
Ethical Culture movement, 559, 694–95, 697, 700
ethical secularism, 11–12, 345
eudaimonia, 561–63, 721–22, 732
European Convention on Human Rights, 125, 313
European Court of Human Rights. See also specific cases
secular government principles and, 134, 139
on secularism and public education, 401, 403, 406–13
European Union (EU). See also specific countries
Christianity and, 309
constitution of, 111
expansion of, 417
faith-based educational institutions in, 336
liberal democracy in, 108
Lisbon Treaty and, 309
political secularism in, 111–13, 116–20, 309
postsecularism and, 323
postsecularity and, 323–25
secularism and, 369
Europe: The Exceptional Case (Davie), 28
eusociality, 638–39, 645, 658
evangelicalism
conservative social beliefs and, 728
Latinos and, 444
life after death beliefs and, 731–32
mass media and, 510
“public religion” and, 335
religious fundamentalism and, 335, 439
Republican Party and, 439
in Russia, 240
in sub-Saharan Africa, 202–5
in the United States, 439, 444, 458, 728
(p. 746) event-causal libertarianism, 623, 631–32
Everson v. Board of Education, 402, 699
evolution
altruism and, 643–45, 647
Christian Right’s opposition to teaching of, 62, 292, 606, 614, 698, 728
ethics and, 656, 658–63
Fuller on, 731
helping behavior and, 639–46
humans and, 638–39
intelligent design and, 405, 545, 724–25, 730–31
Islam and the teaching of, 508
kin selection and, 645–46
nonreligious population’s views of, 48
public education and teaching of, 405, 458
religious worldviews challenged by, 724–25
sexual selection and, 644–46
sociality and, 642–52
Eweida v. British Airways, 139
exclusivist secularism, 343–44
Executive Order No. 13672, 474
Facebook, 81, 457
Falungong, 249
Falwell, Jerry, 488, 493, 611, 728
The Famous New York Fundamentalist-Modernist Debates (Potter), 697
Farisco, Michele, 730
Fassin, Didier, 34
Fawda, Faraj, 508
Felicity Party (Turkey), 161
Felton, Jack, 610–11
feminism
African Americans and, 456, 462
agency and, 420, 428
democracy and, 420–22, 424–27, 429
The Enlightenment and, 417, 419–21, 426–27, 429–30
headscarf bans and, 427–28
Islam and, 420, 427–29, 508
modernization and, 419–20, 428
multiculturalism and, 427–28
public sphere and, 417–18, 421–26
religion and, 426–27
secularization and, 417, 419–20, 423, 429
spirituality and, 583
women’s rights and, 223, 418, 438, 455, 506
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 692–93
Finke, Roger, 107, 239
Finland, 94, 117, 338, 356, 571
Finley, Reginald, 457
fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), 507
The Fire Next Time (Baldwin), 450, 452–53
First Amendment (U.S. Constitution)
educational institutions and, 402–4
Establishment Clause and, 467–70, 472–76, 484, 486–89, 689
Free Exercise Clause and, 13, 467–71, 474, 476
religious tests for public officeholders as a violation of, 699
separation of religion and state established in, 106, 190, 292, 304, 310–11 (See also Establishment Clause)
First Book of Kings (Old Testament), 395, 397
First Corinthians 3:18-19, 614
First Corinthians 5:5, 613
First Humanist Society of New York, 698
First Office of the Social Works Department (China), 255
First Tract on Government (Locke), 128–29
Fischer, Claude S., 436
Fischer, John, 626
Flack, Jessica C., 641, 644
Foguangshan (Buddhist organization), 255
Folgerø v. Norway, 408
Fordism, 64
Forman, James, 458–60
Formations of the Secular (Asad), 500–501
Foucault, Michel, 30, 33, 57, 377, 573, 723
Fradkin, Hillel, 104
France
Catholicism in, 59, 143–44, 251, 293, 302, 308, 407, 501
Charlie Hebdo attacks (2015) in, 21, 34, 71–73, 142, 296, 665
Communist Party in, 59
Concordat of 1801 in, 144, 251
constitution of, 110, 117
education in, 143–46, 302–3, 407
European Union and, 309
headscarf bans in, 71, 74, 106, 145–49, 193, 302, 308, 363–64, 369–70, 373–74, 379, 411, 419, 427–28
(p. 747) Jews in, 131, 144, 361
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 338, 342
multiculturalism and, 356, 358–59, 362–63
Muslims in, 1, 34, 71–73, 106, 131, 143–49, 308, 361, 375, 666
nationalism and, 76
nonreligious population in, 143, 571
political secularism and, 93–95, 106, 110, 117, 142, 149, 293–94, 311, 313, 335
Porte de Vincennes attack (2015) in, 21
religio-secularism and, 370, 373–75, 377, 379
republican values in, 34
revolution (1789) in, 59, 62, 93, 143, 190, 233, 290, 293, 298, 302–4, 308, 311, 313
Taylor on, 296
veil bans in, 1, 145, 148 (see also France, headscarf bans in)
Frank, Anne, 299
Frankfurt, Harry, 625–26
Frankl, Viktor, 582
Franklin, Benjamin, 76
Fraser, Nancy, 421–22, 424–25
Frederickson, Barbara, 561
Frederick the Great, 396–97
Freedom from Religion Foundation, 7, 596, 598
Freedom From Religion Foundation v. Obama, 487–88
freedom of conscience
Christianity and, 292–93
India’s constitution and, 219
Israel’s Law against Religious Coercion and, 176
laïcité and, 143–44
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 342
liberalism and, 232–33
Locke on, 291, 305
Luther and, 625, 629
Nehru Report on, 216
political secularism and, 90–92, 95, 104
religio-secularism and, 378
religious freedom and, 305–6, 307, 309, 311–13
religious jurisprudence regarding, 469, 471, 475–76
Russia’s law (1997) regarding, 240
secular government and, 129–30, 132, 135
secular state and, 294
freedoms of speech, 21, 31, 343
Free Exercise Clause (U.S. Constitution), 13, 467–71, 474, 476
Free Religious Association (FRA), 692–95
French Council of the Muslim Religion, 143
French Revolution
Catholic Church and, 59, 143, 293
liberal democracy and, 62
liberalism and, 290, 298
political secularism and, 93, 233, 293, 302–4, 308, 311, 313
separation of religion and state in, 190
Freud, Sigmund, 372, 505–6, 566, 655
Frisch, Max, 317
Froese, Paul, 239
“From Hitchens to Dawkins: Where Are the Women of the New Atheism?” (Engelhart), 523
Frothingham, Octavius Brooks, 692–93, 696
Fukuyama, Francis, 77
Fuller, Steve, 730–31
“Fundamental Perspectives and Policies of Religious Issues in the Period of Chinese Socialism” (Chinese Communist Party), 260
The Future of Human Nature (Habermas), 321
“The Future of Judaism” (Adler), 694
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 709, 713, 715
Galanter, Marc, 220, 224
Galen, 722
Galileo Galilei, 288, 558
Galton, Francis, 455
Gandhi, Indira, 215
Gandhi, Mohandas, 214, 216–19, 714
Gandhi, Rajiv, 223
Gaylor, Anne Nicol, 596
Gaylor, Annie Laurie, 596
gay rights, 81, 484, 488, 493
Gazi, Faisal, 196
Gelasius (pope), 87–88
Gellner, David, 502
(p. 748) gender
African Americans and, 453, 456, 460, 462
feminism and, 421–22, 425, 427–29
Indian politics and culture regarding, 214, 222–24, 226
mentalizing and, 590
multiculturalism and, 358, 361, 364
prosociality and, 537
religio-secularism and, 373, 375
religiosity and, 42–44, 537
secularity and, 523–24
views of science and, 50–51
Generation X, 438
Genesis, Book of, 392–94, 641–42
genetics, 534, 724, 726
German Sociological Association, 26
Germany
atheism in, 587
headscarf bans ruled unconstitutional in, 281, 284n18
liberal democracy and, 62
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 338
multiculturalism and, 356–57, 359, 361
Nazi Era in, 72, 76, 82, 299, 342
nonreligious population in, 43, 587
political secularism in, 117
public education in, 409
secular government and, 129
World War I and, 157
World War II and, 235
gerontology, 725, 729
Gervais, Ricky, 595
Gervais, Will, 589, 592–93, 595–96
Ghana
atheism in, 43
Christianity in, 203–4, 209
elites’ exploitation of religion in, 201
Islam in, 208–9
National Democratic Congress Party in, 206, 208–9
New Patriotic Party in, 208–9
nonreligious population in, 43
Pentecostalism in, 202
political secularism in, 201
religiosity and politics in, 206–8
religiosity levels in, 203–6
Ghannouchi, Rashid, 196, 198
Gibbon, Edward, 289
Gibbs, Eddie, 511
Gilead Sciences, 727
Gillard, Julia, 1
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 486, 491–92, 494
Girard, René, 714–15, 718
globalization
Cold War’s end and, 77
loss of faith in nationalism and, 78
pace of change in, 428
popular culture and, 80–81
religious diversity and, 334
secularism and religion’s conflict and, 78
Global South, 28, 426–28
Glorious Revolution (England, 1688), 290–91, 298
Goa (India), 191
God
African Americans and belief in, 458
atheists who believe in, 40
“Big God” concepts and, 538, 541
Book of Genesis account of, 641–42
European culture and belief in, 55
monotheism and, 56–57, 287–88, 290, 394, 505
Nietzsche’s on the death of, 557–58, 575–76, 655
religious ethics and, 390–96
secularism and rejection of, 6, 30
sub-Saharan Africans’ prayers to, 205
World Values Survey data on belief levels regarding, 45
Yahweh (God of Judaism) and, 395
God in the Tumult of the Global Square (Juergensmeyer et al.), 81
God’s Word: Scripture, Tradition, Office (Ratzinger), 328
Golden Rule, 651
Goldwater, Barry, 492–93
Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health, 137–38, 488–89
Gordon and Gary Shepherd, 511
Gor’kii, Maksim, 232
Gould, Frederick J., 696–97
Gould, Stephen J., 502, 562
Graham, Lindsey, 72
(p. 749) Gramsci, Antonio, 91
Graves, Joseph, 454–55
Grayling, A.C., 394
Great Awakenings, 190
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Leap Forward (China), 260
Greece, 117, 338
Gregory, Peter, 581
Gregory VII (pope), 88
Griffith, D.W., 454
Grün, Karl, 692
Guatemala, 117
guidance control, 626
Guinea-Bissau, 112
Gülen education movement, 512
Gunn, Jeremy, 144
Gush Emunim (movement to protect Jewish character of Israel), 180
Gwun (father of Emperor Yu), 251
Ha’am, Ahad, 506
Habermas, Jürgen
communicative action and, 318–19, 325
communicative rationality and, 318–22, 325, 327–28
on the “crisis of legitimation,” 78
on the European Union, 330n3
Kant’s theory of perpetual peace and, 326–27, 330–31n4
postsecularism and, 13, 317–19, 337, 344
Ratzinger and, 317–18, 327–29
Rawls and, 317, 330n1
religio-secularism and, 372–73, 379
on religious fundamentalism, 318, 321, 323–24
secular government and, 134
on secularism, 13, 317
on secularity, 316
on the secular state, 421–22
on tolerance, 323
on the United Nations, 327
on the “War on Terror,” 324–26
the Hajj, 208, 236
Hall, Stuart, 372
Ham (Book of Genesis), 454
Hamilton, William D., 645
Hann, Chris, 241
Hansen, Chad, 684
haredim (Ultra-Orthodox Jews), 177, 180–81
Harlem Renaissance, 459
Harris, Sam, 7, 394, 528, 565, 597
Hartmann, Nicolai, 392
Harvey, Steve, 451
Hasan and Eylem Zengin v. Turkey, 408
Hatcher, Mark, 458, 463
Haydon, Albert E., 698
hazarah be-teshuvah (movement encouraging Jews to return to religious life), 179–80
headscarf bans
challenges to, 146–49, 281, 284n18
educational institutions and, 411
feminism and, 427–28
as form of state violence, 420
gender equality as goal of, 146–48, 280–81
laïcité as basis for, 106, 145, 148, 302, 308
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 336
multiculturalism and, 363–64
Muslim community’s response to, 71, 74, 147–49
priority of public reasons and, 280–81
religio-secularism and, 369–70, 373–74, 379
Heart of Darkness (Conrad), 565
The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Magister’s Pox (Gould), 562
Hedges, Chris, 665
hedonia, 561
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 26
Heidegger, Martin, 294, 380
Heine, Heinriche, 505
Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation, 487, 489
Hell
atheism and disbelief in, 291
Black Church beliefs regarding, 452–53, 461–62
Christianity and belief in, 55, 289, 452–53, 461–62, 606
modern Christianity’s de-emphasis on, 732
religious trauma syndrome and, 610, 612
World Values Survey data regarding belief in, 45–46
Helms, Jesse, 490
helping behavior, 639–46
Henry, Patrick, 133
Henry IV (Holy Roman Emperor), 88
Henry VIII (king of England), 290–91
(p. 750) Herman, Judith, 609
hermeneutics
applicatio (concretization) and, 715, 717
China’s religious Leninism and, 259–62
humanism and, 707, 709–11, 713–18
herms, 288
Hervieu-Léger, Danièle, 35n5
Herzl, Theodor, 173
Herzog, Jonathan, 371
Hess, Moses, 506
Hinduism
bhakti tradition in, 34, 502
Brahman caste and, 502
community structures and, 501
conflicts within, 220–21
Hindutva and, 223, 225, 381
in Nepal, 1
polytheism of, 393
questions regarding doctrines of religious truth and, 379, 381
rajdharma (moral authority legitimizing rulers) and, 79
science and, 51–52
Universal Soul and, 581
Hirschkind, Charles, 507
Hitchens, Christopher, 7, 390, 394, 589, 597
Hitler, Adolf, 82, 137
Hizb ‘Almani, 508
Hobbes, Thomas, 128, 290
Hobby Lobby case. See Burwell v. Hobby Lobby
Hoffer, Eric, 604
Holyoake, George Jacob
atheism and, 2–3, 25, 85
Bradlaugh and, 25–26, 32
humanism and, 692
The Origin and Nature of Secularism and, 2–4
Rationalist Press Association and, 696
The Reasoner magazine and, 2–4, 690
on secularism and education, 691
secularism concept introduced by, 2–4, 25–26, 30, 34, 75, 85, 690–92, 699, 701–2
on secular knowledge, 617
worldview secularism and, 24
Holy Roman Empire, 290
homosexuality. See also LGBT population; same-sex marriage
Black Church preachers on, 450
Christian Right’s opposition to, 62, 488, 728
legal restrictions regarding, 137, 294
U.S. laws prohibiting discrimination based on, 473–74
Hong Kong, 41, 43
Horning, Sheena M., 594
Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC, 477n6
Hout, Michael, 436
Hughes, Langston, 459, 461
Huizong (emperor of China), 252
Hu Jintao, 261–62
humanism
African Americans and, 451–52, 454, 456–59
autonomy and, 707–9, 712, 715
classical antiquity and, 693, 708
content of, 710–12
critical tradition of, 707–10
education and, 707–8
Ethical Culture movement and, 559, 694–95, 697, 700
exclusive humanism and, 233, 657–58
exemplary figures of, 713–17
hermeneutics and, 707, 709–11, 713–18
humaneness and, 708–12, 718–19
leaving religion and, 617
mimesis and, 714–15, 717–18
nihilism and, 706
objection to killing and, 306
phronèsis (practical knowledge) and, 715–16
posthumanism and, 725, 729–31
religious humanism and, 668, 693–94, 696–97, 700–701, 706, 710
Renaissance humanism and, 673, 691, 698, 706–8, 712–13
secular humanism and, 85, 176, 451, 457, 464, 559, 689–702
secularism and, 85
secularity and, 523–25
self-critical character of, 710–11
separation of religion and state and, 691, 694, 699
the supernatural and, 692, 695, 699
transhumanism and, 725, 730–31
Unitarianism and, 691–93, 695–98, 701
The Humanist (journal), 696, 698
Humanist Press Association, 698
(p. 751) Human Rights Act, 125
Humboldt, Alexander von, 723
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 723
Hume, David, 626, 673
Hungary, 117
Hunsberger, Bruce, 521
Hunter, Ian, 24, 26
hunting, 639–40, 646–48
Huntington, Samuel, 81–82, 257
Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman, 142, 202, 207, 377
Hurston, Zora Neale, 459–61
Hussain, Taha, 508
Hussein, Saddam, 81, 193, 342, 508
Huta, Veronika, 561
Hutchinson, Sikivu, 524
Hutterites, 63
Huxley, Aldous, 693
Huxley, Thomas Henry, 4, 35n4, 690
Ibn Abi-l-Awja, 507
Ibn Khaldun, 507
Iceland, 117
idéologues, 76
Igwe, Leo, 1
ilmaniya (scientific thinking), 79
inclusive secularism, 344
incompatibilism, 624
inCREDulous atheism, 589, 592–93, 598
India
Buddhism in, 191, 218, 224, 381, 504
Christianity in, 217–18, 224
constitution in, 191, 215–16, 219–24, 226
divorce and, 222–23
education in, 216, 221–22
gender justice in, 214, 222–24, 226
Hinduism in, 76, 191, 218, 220–21, 224–25, 302, 381, 501–2
industrialization in, 217
Islam in, 76, 191, 217–18, 224–25, 501, 508
liberal democracy in, 214–15, 217
liberal-democratic constitutionalism and, 338–39, 341, 343–44, 346
marriage in, 222
modernization in, 217, 219, 225
multiculturalism and, 361–62, 364
National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions in, 219–20
nationalism in, 215–17, 223, 381
nonreligious population in, 43
political secularism in, 24, 33, 77, 93, 110, 117, 191, 215
religio-secularism and, 369, 371, 381
religious freedom in, 214, 216, 220–22, 226
secularism in, 40, 76–77, 214–26
secularity in, 524, 527
secularization in, 217, 219, 221
social justice in, 224–25
state neutrality and, 219, 226
Supreme Court in, 219, 222–23
tolerance in, 215–17
uniform civil code efforts in, 222–23, 226
Indian National Congress, 216
individualism
communitarian critiques of, 422–24
egalitarian forms of, 323
individualization and, 334–35
political secularism and, 90
Protestant Reformation and, 58–59
secularism and, 312
secularity and, 519
secularization and, 56, 58–59, 65, 557
suicide and, 557
United States’ culture of, 510
well-being and, 557, 559, 567
Indonesia, 40, 117, 191, 338–39
industrialization
egalitarianism and, 59
individualism and, 510
privatization of religion and, 335
religious revival movements and, 66
secularization and, 28
structural differentiation and, 58
Inglehart, Ronald, 419, 436
Innocent IV (pope), 300n7
Inoue, Jermaine, 461
Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture, 8
intelligent design, 405, 545, 724–25, 730–31
International Daoist Forum, 262
International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, 504, 506
The Internet, 494, 511, 521
Iran, 76, 338, 369, 371, 427, 502, 524
Iraq, 43, 81, 193–94, 342, 508
Ireland, Republic of, 117, 125, 419
Isaac (son of Abraham), 392–93
(p. 752) Isaiah (Old Testament prophet), 395, 641
Is Critique Secular? (edited volume), 21, 31, 34
Is God a White Racist? (Jones), 700
ISIS. See Islamic State
Islam. See also Muslims
Abraham story in, 393
anticolonialism and, 287
in China, 249, 253, 261
democracy and, 506
diversity within, 11
feminism and, 420, 427–29, 508
fiqh (jurisprudence) and, 507
French government’s approach to, 142–48, 355
gender and, 147
the Hajj and, 208, 236
humanism and, 709–10
in India, 501
in-group dynamics and, 665–67
jihadism and, 376
marriage and, 507, 709
monotheism and, 288–90
multiculturalism and, 355, 357, 359, 363
postsecularism and, 344
public education institutions and, 407
religio-secularism and, 375–77, 379, 381
religious ethics and, 389–90, 393
religious fundamentalism and, 324, 334, 417–18
science and, 51–52
secularism and, 11, 21, 34, 71–73, 81, 193–99, 506–9
Sharia law and, 165, 193, 198, 210, 313
in sub-Saharan Africa, 202–3, 205, 208–10
Sufism and, 502, 509
takfirism and, 376
terrorism and, 72–73, 299, 417–18
in Turkey’s culture and politics, 157–68, 193, 355
Islam and Secularism (al-Attas), 506
Islamic State (“IS” or “ISIS”)
authoritarian nature of, 418–19
brutality of, 293, 299
religious fundamentalism and, 83, 389–90
support in Iraq for, 81
terrorist attacks and, 72
“Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?” (Okin), 427
Israel
ancient history of, 79, 393–96, 642
countersecularization in, 179–81
economic modernization and development in, 177–78
Eretz Israel (historic Israel), 173–74
founding of, 174–75
immigration from former Soviet Union to, 177–78, 182, 184
Law of Return in, 178
League against Religious Coercion (Israel) in, 176
the military in, 1, 175, 182–83
nationalism in, 173–74
nonreligious population and, 175–77, 180, 183–84
Orthodox Jews and, 1, 172–84
Palestinian conflict and, 425
political secularism in, 118
religiosity in, 172–73, 177–78, 180–81, 185
religious freedom and, 175–76, 179
secularization in, 172–85
strong establishment of religion in, 338
Zionism and, 173–75, 180, 505–6
Italy
Catholicism in, 59, 112, 409–12, 722
Communist Party in, 59
constitution of, 110, 112, 118
crucifix case in, 409–12
fascist era in, 76
Napoleon’s invasion of, 293
political secularism and, 110, 112, 118
Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 505
Jackelén, Antje, 500, 510
Jagannath temple, 221
Jains, 224
Jakobsen, Janet, 424
Jamaica, 1, 112, 114, 118
James, William
on “experiences of the more,” 584
feelings of epiphany and, 564
on religion and solitude, 76–77, 577
on religions’ boundaries, 500
on “unseen order” of religion and spirituality, 574
Jam’iyyat al-Nida’ al-Jadid, 508
Jam’iyyat al-Tanwir, 508
Jansen, Yolande, 361, 702
(p. 753) Japan
atheism in, 43, 503
Buddhism in, 504
Christianity in, 503–4
Meiji Restoration in, 251
modernization in, 163, 504
nonreligious population in, 8, 43, 503
political secularism in, 112, 114, 118