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date: 08 July 2020

(p. 659) Index

(p. 659) Index

abortion, 84–85, 311
and conscientious objection, 209–210
and disability, 196
and fathers, 316–317
and framing, 47–48
as basic right, 58
as constitutional right, 173
in emergency, 217
medical definition, 219
selective, 142, 630–631
accommodations
for conscience, 213–216
for disability, 407–408, 413–414
adoption, 16, 85, 161, 234, 361–362, 447–448
and same sex couples, 165
and citizenship, 168–169, 178, 179–180
and parents with disabilities, 414
and responsibilities of birth parents, 319 n. 17
anonymity, 510–512
Affordable Care Act, 3, 53
and conscientious objection, 222–223
and infertility treatment, 197
age and reproduction, 167; see also autonomy, in vitro fertilization
alienation, 25, 122, 401–402
alienated labor, 399
American Society for Reproductive Ethics (ASRM), 11, 13, 23, 26, 28, 34, 213, 233–234
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 200–201, 366–367, 476 n. 1
and infertility, 371–375
and parents with disabilities, 413–414
anonymity, 29, 165, 228; see also gamete donation
and egg donation, 483–484
and sperm donation, 499
effects on supply, 502–504
of sperm donors in the US, 506–508
of sperm donors outside the US, 500–502
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 11
asymmetry of parental rights and responsibilities, 311; see also parental responsibilities, parental rights
autism, 565
autonomy, 285–287
and age-related infertility, 431–440
and egg donation, 480–481
and family formation, 472–476
and motherhood, 287–289
of children, 616–617
professional, 227, 229
relational, 290–292
single-embryo transfer, 625, 633–635
Baby M, 37, 361, 389–391
baby selling, 128–129
Benatar, David, 32, 583–585–587, 645
beneficence, procreative. See procreative beneficence
care ethics, 189–190
Catholic Church, 210–211
and contraception, 326
and health care facilities, 221–222
cesarean section, coerced, 544–545
China’s “one child” policy, 68, 472
and reproductive rights abuse, 104
cloning, 616–617
commodification, 8–9, 118
and egg donation, 492–493
in surrogacy, 395–398
of gametes, 162, 178, 481–483; see also gamete donation
conscience, 210
of professionals, 227
(p. 660) conscientious objection, 12, 210–2
and duty to refer, 216–217, 219–220
and newborn screening, 255
categorical, 221
constructivism, 7–8, 17, 80–82
contraception, 58
and reproductive liberty, 194–195
as abstinence, 329–330
double coverage, 343–347
efficacy, 339–340
emergency, 211–213, 220
and inequality, 326–327, 331–335, 347–351
Plan B, 215, 218–219
safety, 339–340
technologies under development for men, 335–339
contraceptive mandate, 222
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 6, 64, 66, 98
cooperation, formal and material, 210–211
and informed consent, 218
CRISPR, 10, 145
cross-border reproductive care, see tourism, reproductive
cystic fibrosis, 259–260
deafness, 33
different-number choices, 573; see non-identity problem
disability, 13, 35
and effective parenting, 26, 196–198, 234, 418–422
and parental regret, 553
and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, 242–244
and procreative beneficence, 592–593
and selection for, 597
and selective abortion, 630–631
and social costs, 26–27, 465–466, 470–473
avoidable, 653–655
cognitive, 188, 198–200
costs of raising children with disabilities, 468–470
discrimination, 25, 164, 171, 195–196, 230–231, 234
disclosure of gamete donation to offspring, 524–252; see also anonymity
discrimination, 172, 238–239, see also justice
and conscientious objection, 220–221
and genetic selection, 616
and infertility, 371–375; see also Americans with Disabilities Act
and same sex couples, 198, 221
and race and ethnicity, 235–237
and trafficking victims, 110–111,
domestic violence, 102
duty to refer, see conscientious objection
egg donation, 122, 478–479
and parental rights, 486–487
and same-sex couples, 488–490
compensation for, 481–483, 492–493
from family members, 484–485
risks, 479–480
egg freezing, 429, 490–491
and fertility preservation, 493–494
embryo, 85–86
enhancement, 147–150, 614; see also eugenics
epigenetics, 149
eugenics, 10
and avoiding disease, 614
and disability, 407, 465
and egg donation, 485–486
definition, 142
history, 146–147
liberal, 10
European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), 11
expectations, 17, 21
and parental rights, 273–276, 281
of mothers, 292–293
exploitation, 130–131
family structure, 159
fathers
and abortion, 274–275
rights, 270–271
female genital mutilation, 214
feminist theory, 19, 286–287
frames, in policy discourse, 3–4, 45–46
framing reproduction as health, 49–51
(p. 661) gag rules, 213
Global Gag Rule, 70–72
gamete donation, 27–28, see also anonymity, egg donation, sperm banks
and physician-patient relationship, 228–229
compensation for, 504–505
interests of donors, 514
registries of donors, 524–525
Gates Foundation, 72–73
genetic engineering, 144–145
Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 100, 102–103, 108
German measles, 32, 592–593
harm, 571; see also well-being
concept of, 572–573
from being brought into existence, 583–587
from conception, 587–588
of existence, 573–574
harm principle, 2, 5, 447
and offspring, 23, 520–522
Helms amendment, 6, 69–70
HIV, 13, 50–51, 149, 164, 330
and denial of infertility treatment, 231–232, 364
and disclosure to sexual partners, 313–314
Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (UK), 164, 239
Human Rights Aspects of Family Planning (Resolution XVIII), 66
ideal and non-ideal theory, 5–6, 38, 183
and surrogacy, 395
identity, 173, 291
and biological parentage, 556–558
and relationships, 292, 558–561
and sacrifice, 293
and shared histories, 561–566
and surrogacy, 400–403
genetic, 578–579
narrative, 30, 536–537
proleptic, 539–540
social construction of, 537
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, 104, 108
impersonal reasons, see reasons, impersonal
incest, 526
infanticide, 89–91
infertility, see also justice and infertility
and age, 22, 428–430
and desire for twins, 625
as disability, 366–372
definition, 357–358
social, 164, 226, 228
informed consent, 217–219
and egg donation, 480–581
and multifetal pregnancy, 625
and newborn screening, 255
insurance and infertility treatment, 164
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 170–171
International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo), 65, 67
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 97
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, 97–98
in vitro fertilization, 37, 161–162, 227
and age, 429
and multiple births, 624–625
and parental rights, 267, 279–280
and procreative beneficence, 593–595
and selection for disability, 597
costs, 21, 358–360, 448–450, 636; see also justice and infertility
state-funding for, 597
Jaggar, Alison, 61
justice, 7, 38; see also discrimination
and age, 434–436
and gender, 61
and infertility, 21, 171, 174, 235–236
Kant, 8, 119–121, 131
Korsgaard, Christine, 8, 80
Life Worth Living Premise, 574–575, 642, 646–648
luck egalitarianism, 430–432, 466–467
MacKinnon, Catherine, 59, 62–64
Marquis, Don, 79, 81
maternal/fetal conflict, 60
(p. 662) Mill, John Stuart, 2, 4
Millum, Joseph, 16, 266–272, 305–306; see also parental rights
mitochondrial replacement, 37, 123
motherhood, 285; see also relational autonomy
and bonds with children, 287
and care, 286–287
and community, 294–295
and separation, 289
“good enough,” 292
multiple births, 624–625
narratives of pregnancy, 536–537
fetal container, 537–540
good mother, 540–543
public body, 543–545
naturalism, 78–79, 81
newborn screening, 14–15, 251–252
and research, 258–259
criteria for, 253–254
informed consent for, 255
mandates for, 255; see also conscientious objection
state payment for, 253, 256
parental education about, 257–258
non-identity problem, 29–30, see also harm principle and offspring
and disability, 653–655
and rigid designators, 32, 554–555, 579–583
and single-embryo transfer, 632–636
and social identity, 30–31
and sperm donation, 516–517
non-person-affecting principles, 519–520, 611–613
Nussbaum, Martha, 109–110
objectification, 118
obligations
prima facie, 304, 594–595
pro tanto, 304
special, 81
one child policy, 104–105, 194
open future, child’s right to, 615–616
oppression, reproductive, 162–164, see also justice
Palermo Protocol, 99, 107, 109
parental rights, 265–266; see also expectations, fathers, rights
and asymmetries, 308–310
and care-giving, 271, 295–296
and disability, 409–410
and egg donation, 486–487
and expectations, 273–276, 281
and genetics, 266
and gestation, 269–270
and incompetence, 309
and intentions, 271–272, 281, 308–312
and pregnancy, 281
and reckless ignorance, 283 n. 23
and sperm donation, 526–527
and surrogacy, 403–404
and work, 268–270
parental responsibilities, 276–278, 305
and causing a child to exist, 302–303, 308, 319 n. 16, 646–647
and child’s basic needs, 648 653
and costs of raising child, 278
and deception, 279, 312–316, 334–335
and dependency, 301–302
and fathers, 316–317, 328
and mothers, 287, 292–293, 328
and natural duties, 305–306
and sacrifices, 649–652
asymmetries in, 311, 316–317, 328; see also, contraception and inequality
Parfit, Derek, 30, 516, 551–557, 563, 565, 579, 595, 603, 610–611
patriarchy, 61
person-affecting principles, see non-person-affecting principles
personhood, 539–540
physician-patient relationship, 625
population control, 67, 108
post-menopausal pregnancy, 440–442
pregnancy, narratives of, see narratives of pregnancy
pregnancy reduction, 86
pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, 10, 142–144, 165, 465
and enhancement, 150–151 (p. 663)
and gamete donation, 494–495
and genetic disorders, 149–150, 242–244
and Huntington disease, 230–232
and procreative beneficence, 594–595
and sex selection, 241–242
coerced, 151
liberal, 152–153
prima facie obligations, see obligations
procreative beneficence, 32, 151–152
and liberty, 595–597
as prima facie consideration, 594–595
procreative responsibility, 634–637, 641–642
race and access to infertility treatment, 162–164, 234–237; see also discrimination, justice
and eugenics, 148–149
and good mother narratives, 541
rape, 309, 320 n. 24
and trafficking victims, 117 n. 75
statutory rape, 321n. 32
Rawls, John, 8, 80
reasons
impersonal, 34, 609–613
person-affecting, 34
refer, duty to, see conscientious objection
refugees, 97–98, 100–103
regret, 552–555
all-things-considered, 563–564
moral, 563–564
religion, free exercise of, 3, 222
reproductive tourism, see tourism, reproductive
research ethics, 13–14
responsibilities of parents, see parental responsibilities
Responsibility for Dependent Life Principle, 302–305
right to life, 79, 83, 87–90, 308–310
rights; see also parental rights
basic rights, 5, 63
civil rights, 7, 186–191, 229, 239
constitutional, 168–170, see also rights, fundamental
fundamental, 173
correlative with duties, 84, 86–87
human, 7, 82, 97, 102, 170–171, 184–190, 410
international human, 60
natural, 80, 91
negative or positive, 59, 191–194, 414–417
threshold, 63
Roe v. Wade, 3, 37, 48, 78, 410
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 65–66
same sex couples, 164
and access to infertility care, 238–239
“savior sibling,” 652
Scanlon, T.M., 8, 80
screening, newborn, see newborn screening
sex selection, 165, 178, 240–242
sex trafficking, 6
and asylum, 100–101, 103–106
and reproductive health, 99–100
obligations of destination states, 97
sexually transmitted infections, 100, 112
Shiffrin, Seana, 520–521
Siegel, Reva, 59–60
single embryo transfer (SET), 34, 244
and autonomy, 625
and cost-reduction, 626
and disability, 631–632
chances of getting pregnant, 628–630
sperm banks, 122, 512
and registries, 525–526
stem cells (embryonic), 37
sterilization, 67, 104–106, 162–163, 183–186, 407, 636
and US constitution, 168
as contraception, 326
surrogacy, 281
commercial, 9, 24–25, 129, 168, 393–397
gestational, 21, 128, 361–363, 365, 389–391
traditional, 389–391; see also Baby M
synecdoche, 3, 51–52, see also frames
Tay Sachs disease, 89
termination of parental rights, 199–200
thalidomide, 196
Thomson, Judith Jarvis, 17, 83, 89–90, 305, 307, 311
tourism, reproductive, 168–169, 491–492; see also, adoption, and citizenship
and sperm donation, 527
(p. 664) Trafficking Victims Protection Act, 101
transgender, 291
Trisomy 13, 89
twin pregnancies, 623
in IVF, 623–625
risks to offspring, 626–628
umbilical cord blood, 9, 124–127
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 6, 60, 66, 97, 170, 180, 187
uterus transplantation, 21–22, 363–365
value, see well-being
welfare, see well-being
well-being, 33; see also harm, harm principle
and disability, 599
and empathy, 600
and intelligence, 600–601
and late-in-life pregnancy, 442–444
and life expectance, 600
as ground for denying infertility treatment, 233–234
context-relativity of, 605
imprecision of, 608–609
intersubjectivity of, 606–607
objective list theories, 603–604
of children, 230–231, 410, 564–565
and late-in-life pregnancy, 444–447
and surrogacy, 403
of dependent life, 304–306
of donor-conceived offspring, 520–524
of parents, 410–411
subjective accounts of, 601–603
within lives, 598–601
Worse-Off Condition, 575–578
Worthwhile Life Condition, see Life Worth Living Premise
wrongful life, 642–646
Zika virus, 30