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date: 24 January 2020

(p. 535) Index

(p. 535) Index

Aaronson, S. A., 14–15, 508–9
Abouharb, M. R., 508–9
Acemoglu, D., 272, 273, 301
Acer, 239
Act for the Prevention and Suppression of Combinations Formed in Restraint of Trade of 1889, 214
Afghanistan, 392
Africa
antidumping laws, 61t
antitrust enforcement, 222
apartheid regime sanctions, 499
Cotonou Agreement, 505
democracy formation by country, 266t
democratization/trade reforms, 264
pollution effects, 443
regional monetary integration, 461
RTAs, 371, 373–74
transportation/efficiency relationships, 442
WTO dispute participation, 411
African Growth and Opportunity Act, 62, 483
Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS), 401, 406, 448
Agricultural protection, 44, 111, 162–63, 172nn89
Ahlquist, J. S., 105
Aitken, B., 244
Albania, 266t
Allee, T., 385, 391
Alliance Treaties and Obligations (ATOP), 29
Alt, J. E., 160, 171
Alvarez, M., 299
Ambroziak, L., 247
American National Electoral Study (ANES), 100, 103t
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, 339
Amsden, A. H., 478–79
Andean Community, 338
Anderson, J., 81, 93n8
Anderson, K., 162, 172n9
Angell, N., 422
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1786, 42–43, 47
Antidumping laws, 60, 61t, 67–69, 72n2, 73n5, 161–62, 392
Antitrust/trade policies interactions
adoption/content/stringency, 220–2221, 220f, 221t, 228n9
aggregate national welfare variant, 217–19
anticompetitive behavior patterns, 222–23
competition patterns, 222–23
complementarity model, 223–25, 225f, 228nn1315
domestic political economy variant, 218–19
empirical studies, 219–23, 220f, 221t, 228nn911
enforcement, 218, 222–25, 225f, 228nn1011
free trade as substitute, 215–17, 227nn56
history, 213–15, 227nn24
optimal tariff theory, 218
ordo-liberalism, 216, 226, 227n6
overview, 13, 213, 226–27
protectionism vs., 217–19, 228nn78
Antràs, P., 70
Apodaca, C., 502
Apple, 235
Aquinas, Thomas, 38–39
Aquino, A., 192n6
Ardanaz, M., 110, 321
Ardelean, A., 282
Argentina
antidumping laws, 60, 61t
currency manipulation, 469n3
democracy formation, 266t
democratization/trade reforms, 259–60, 262
financial crises, 469n3
framing experiments, 110, 114n3
(p. 536) free trade areas (FTAs), 62
global production networks, 250
government export promotion, 478–79
policy preference formation, 321
trade shares in GDP, 476
Asia-Europe Survey (ASES), 106
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), 340, 482
Athukorala, P., 376n3
Atlantic Charter, 23
Australia
antidumping laws, 125
human rights in trade agreements, 495, 510
MFN tariff studies, 66
privacy laws, 507, 508
PTAs, 352, 352f
WTO dispute resolution, 401, 406, 407
Authoritarian regimes
access point theory, 306
coalition size, 302–6
concepts, definitions, 299
coups vulnerability, 309–10
dispute settlement procedure (DSP), 145
economic structure, 299–302, 312nn67
foreign direct investment, 132, 307, 308
income inequality, 301
leader change effects, 145–46
leader mode of entry, 309–10
leader survival effects, 149–50
lobbying, 122
median voter model, 300–302
military, 304, 306, 308
monarchies, 304, 306, 308
personalist, 304, 305, 308
PFS model, 300
power fragmentation, 305–6
property rights, 307
protectionism, industry-level, 301–2
protectionism vs. free trade, 305–6
redistribution, 301
single-party, 304–7
subtypes, 304–5
tariffs, 298, 305, 306, 310
time horizons, 307–9
trade policy generally, 13–14, 263, 298–99, 311
trade reforms, 262–63
Baccini, L., 139, 366, 483
Bagwell, P., 64, 66, 67, 71
Baier, S., 32n13, 80, 84, 85, 90, 94n14
Bair, J., 13
Baker, A., 101, 120
Balassa, B., 460
Baldwin, R. E., 57, 72n4, 82, 162, 168, 170, 187, 239, 241, 367
Bandyopadhyay, U., 67, 167
Bangladesh, 260, 266t, 502–3
Bannerman, G., 12
Barbieri, K., 426, 428, 429
Barigozzi, M., 386
Barkin, J. S., 14
Barsoom, P. N., 372, 389
Bartels, L., 505
Battle in Seattle, 504, 512n15
Bauer, R. A., 107, 197, 319
Beaulieu, E., 106, 165, 172n13
Bechtel, M., 148
Beck, N., 429
Benefits targeting, 170–71, 173nn1718, 284–85, 294n3, 480
Benin, 266t
Bergstrand, J. H., 32n13, 80, 84, 85, 90, 94n14
Bermauer, T., 152n8
Bermeo, S. B., 152n7
Bernard, A. B., 198, 201
Bhagwati, J., 148
Bhala, R., 400
Binatli, A. O., 247
Blackhurst, R., 216
Blainey, G., 420
Blair, Hugh, 42
Blanton, R., 501, 504
Blanton, S., 501, 504
Blinder, A., 130
Blonigen, B. A., 69
Bobick, T., 145
Boix, C., 301
Bombardini, M., 169
Borga, M., 233
Borrus, M., 238
Bown, C. P., 12, 67, 69, 148
Bradford, A., 220, 223–25, 228n11
Bradford, S., 123, 124
(p. 537) Brazil
antidumping laws, 60, 61t
currency manipulation, 463, 467, 469n3
democratization/trade reforms, 259–60, 262, 264
electoral system, 304
foreign direct investment, 242, 245, 488
free trade areas (FTAs), 62
globalization/inequality relationships, 132
global production networks, 250
government export promotion, 478–79
human rights in trade agreements, 495, 500t
import-substituting industrialization (ISI), 488
MFN tariffs, 60
PTAs, 339
RTAs, 11, 62, 371
specific trade concerns (STCs), 406–7
tariffs, 60, 259–60, 271, 276n10
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 407
WTO dispute resolution, 407, 411, 449–50
Bretton Woods Agreements, 392
Broda, C., 65–66
Broude, T., 504
Broz, L., 464
Budetta, M., 364, 372
Bueno de Mesquita, B., 302, 303, 311
Buhr, R., 142
Bulgaria, 266t
Burgoon, B., 105
Busch, M. L., 14, 121–23, 143, 146, 152n10, 263, 285, 318, 325, 326, 331n9, 387, 407
Bush, George W., 126, 321
Büthe, T., 13, 220, 223–25, 228n11
CAFTA, 102, 108, 113, 244, 250, 321
Callaway, R., 502
Canada
antidumping laws, 61t, 125
antitrust law, 214, 222, 227n2
electoral systems, 294n10
GATT (see GATT)
human rights in trade agreements, 495–96, 497–98t
MFN tariff studies, 66
privacy laws, 507–8
protectionism, industry-level, 172n13
WTO dispute resolution, 401, 406
WTO membership benefits, 386
Cao, X., 502
Cape Verde, 266t
Cardenas, Lazaro, 242
Carey, J. M., 303
Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act of 2000, 243
CARIFORUM, 352
Carnegie, A., 386
Cassing, J., 121
Ceccoli, S. J., 104
Central African Republic, 266t
Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 102, 108, 113, 244, 250, 321
Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). see Europe, European Union
Chaffour, J. P., 373
Chang, P. -L., 386
Chase, K. A., 14, 121, 129, 322, 368
Chaudoin, S., 148, 388
Chauffour, J. P., 365
Chile, 266t, 294n8, 352, 441, 496, 497t, 510
China
antidumping laws, 60, 61t
economic structure, 300
export-processing zones, 488
free trade vs. protectionism, 103–4
globalization/inequality relationships, 132
global production networks, 239–41
hostile foreign policies, 433–34
human rights in trade agreements, 510
immigration policy, 530
international cooperation in trade agreements, 452
Internet censorship, 509
priming experiments, 111–12
RTAs, 371
trade agreements generally, 109, 488
trade models, 6
trade policy historically, 4–5, 13–14
Chow, W. M., 309, 310
Chrysler, 240
CIRI, 503
Clague, C., 307
(p. 538) Clayton, A. B., 105
Cobden, R., 39, 41, 44, 46, 47, 50
Collective action. see lobbying
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), 446, 448
Common external tariff (CET), 361
Common Fisheries Policy, 447
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), 450
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 450
Cooper, M. C., 508
Cooper, S., 461
Copeland, B. R., 65
Copelovitch, M. S., 14, 391–92, 462, 463
Corn Laws, 3, 39, 43, 44, 46, 320, 324
Cotonou Agreement, 505
Cox, G. W., 290
Crowley, M. A., 67
Currency Reform for Fair Trade Act, 466
Cusumano, M. A., 235
Czechoslovakia, 266t, 392
Davis, C. L., 14, 144m 153n13, 145, 152n7, 387, 388, 389, 392
De Benedictis, L., 386
de la Court, Pieter, 41
De Melo, J., 365
De Mesquita, B. B., 284
Democratic regimes
coalition size, 302–3
collectivism, 49–50, 52–53, 262
demand-side studies, 261, 269
developed vs. developing countries, 263–64, 271, 273–75, 276n5, 276n10, 303
dispute settlement procedure (DSP), 142–50, 188
electoral systems, 113, 261, 272, 276n1
foreign direct investment, 132, 235
global trends, 262, 276n4
human rights, 500
income inequality, 272–74, 277n18
individual attitudes, 113, 261, 276nn23
institutional effects, 123–24, 261–63
intra-industry trade, 188–90
labor mobility, 269–71, 271f, 277n16
leader change effects, 145–46
leader mode of entry, 309–10
leader survival effects, 149–50
lobbying, 122, 133, 261
media ownership, marketing effects, 108
multinational corporations, 235–36
nontariff barriers, 259, 263, 275
political affiliation, 263
post-transition governments, 260, 263–64, 269–72, 271f, 276n5
protectionism, industry-level, 162, 172n4, 172n14, 259–60, 275, 301–2
reg3hdfe assessment, 85, 86t, 93n9
skilled vs. low skilled tariffs, 272, 276nn910
supply-side studies, 261–62
tariffs, 259–60, 262–72, 265f, 266–67t, 271f, 275, 276nn614, 277n15
time horizons, 308
trade policy generally, 9, 13, 259–60, 274–75, 276n1
trade reforms, 262–63
Deng Xiaoping, 237
Design of Trade Agreements (DESTA) project, 365
de Sola Poole, I., 107, 197, 319
Developing countries
democratic regimes, 263–64, 271, 273–75, 276n5, 276n10, 303
development-trade relationships, 475–88
dispute settlement procedure, 387–88, 400–401, 407–11, 414nn56
environment-trade relationships, 441, 451
GATT effects, 26–27
globalization in, 132
human rights-trade relationships, 511
immigration effects, 527–28, 531
protectionism, industry-level, 161–62, 172n12
WTO membership, 387–88
Development-trade relationships
(p. 539) balance-of-payments deficits, 478, 479
benefits targeting, 170–71, 173nn1718, 284–85, 294n3, 480
dependency, 484–85
developing countries, 475–88
economic policy, 475, 477–82, 489nn14
exchange rates, 480
export-processing zones, 486–87
foreign direct investment, 478, 479, 483, 486–88, 489n2
free trade, 476–77, 485–86
global value chains, 235, 238, 480, 481, 486–87
government export promotion, 478–79, 488
import regulation, 478
import-substituting industrialization (ISI), 4, 242, 425, 477–79 , 487–88, 489n1
industrialization strategy, 475, 477–82, 489nn14
intellectual property, 478
interdependence, asymmetrical, 485, 487
market access, 483, 487–88
most-favored nation (MFN), 481–84
overview, 14, 475–77
political organization, mobilization, 486
PTAs, 475, 482–87, 489nn58
resource transfer, 479–80
state interventions, 478–79
tariffs, 476, 480, 481, 484
Washington Consensus, 480, 487
welfare state, 476–77
Dexter, L. A., 107, 197, 319
Dispute settlement procedure (DSP). see also preferential trade agreements (PTAs)
adjudication, 144–47, 152n7, 354, 452
appeals, 404
Appellate Body, 404
compliance, 148, 152n11, 353–54
concessions, 403–4
condemnation, 404, 410
consultations, 402–3
decentralization, 402
democracy, development, 143–44
democratic regimes, 142–50, 188
design, 139, 140f, 152n1, 342, 344
design variation, 142–43, 152n6
DESTA data set, 139, 140f
developing countries, 387–88, 400–401, 407–11, 414nn56
early settlement, 146
effectiveness, 388
enforcement, 148, 386–89, 402–4, 408–10
environmental policy, 446, 448
feedback effect, 147
fire alarm effect, 147
flexibility provisions, 141–42, 152nn35
functioning, outcomes, 143–47
information, 149–50
institutional bias, 408
intra-industry trade, 188
judicial economy, 402
leader survival, 149–50
leader turnover, 145–46
legal capacity, 400, 411
literature review, 402–5
litigation, 403, 407
overview, 138–39, 150–51, 400, 413
participation, 401, 407–11, 414nn56
political uncertainty, 140–42, 152nn25
post-adjudicative bargaining, 146–48
retaliation, 404–5
rulings, 401–2, 411–13
sanitary, phytosanitary (SPS) measures, 401, 406, 448
selection bias, 144–45, 152nn811, 401, 405, 408
settlement, 146–47, 400, 403–4, 409–11
specific trade concerns (STCs), 152n10, 401, 405–8
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 401, 405–8
third parties, 403, 409–11
trade policy effects, 148–49
transparency, 401, 409
turtle-excluder devices (TEDs), 448–50
unfair eviction, 147
voter actions, 149–50
Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), 139, 150–51, 152n1, 374, 387, 400, 408, 412
Dixit, A., 126, 198, 216
(p. 540) Domestic geography
background, 317–19 330nn13, 331n4
checkerboard problem, 318, 325
close-group hypothesis, 325, 327
clustering, 319, 322
coalition-building, 329, 331n8
collective action, 323–26, 329, 331nn67
dartboard approach, 318
dispersed-group hypothesis, 325, 327
electoral systems, 325–26, 328
empirical analysis, 318, 331n5
employment concentration, 328
first nature, 317
geographic central concentration, 318–19, 331n4
lobbying, 322, 324, 329, 331n5
location Gini, 318
low vs. high skilled workers, 322
modifiable areal unit problem, 331n4
nontariff barriers, 325, 326
offshoring, 322
partisan effects, 329, 331n8
policy pressures, 316, 319
political dispersion, 328
political representation, 327–30, 331nn810
political system responsiveness, 328
preference formation, 319–23, 331n5
redistribution, 329–30
research applications, 316–17, 330, 331n11
second nature, 317–18, 330nn12
spatial component studies, 323, 326
tariffs, 320, 323, 324, 329, 331n10
Domestic political institutions
electoral systems, 291–93, 294n13
exchange rates, 459–61, 465, 468
human rights-trade relationships, 494–95
most-favored nation (MFN) status, 10, 21
reciprocity, 10
RTAs, 366–68, 375, 489n3
trade policy generally, 9–10
Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), 485
Downs, G. W., 372, 389
Doyle, M. W, 422
Dreher, A., 386
Drope, J., 125
Dür, A., 139, 366
Dutt, P., 122, 172n12, 301, 312n7, 385
Eaton, J., 198
Egger, H., 128
Ehrlich, S., 106, 107, 108, 126, 290, 295n14, 306, 311
Eichengreen, B., 23, 463
Eicher, T. S., 386
Electoral systems
alternative measures, 292
benefits targeting, 284–85, 294n3
causal mechanisms, 287–93, 294nn811, 295n14
concepts, definitions, 281
constituency size, 303
consumer prices, 284
democratization, 113, 261, 272, 276n1
district size, 287–89, 294n8
domestic geography, 325–26, 328
electoral competition, 289–90
import licenses, 285
individual attitudes, 107–8
institutional bundles, 293
institutions, interests, 291–93, 294n13
majoritarian, 107–8, 280–86, 291–92, 294n13
mixed, 286–87, 294nn56
nontariff barriers, 282, 284
party strength, 290–91, 294nn911
personal votes, 289–90
policy instrument selection, 285
proportional, 280, 283–86, 291–92, 294n2, 294n5
protectionist bias, 281–83, 294n1
seat-vote elasticity, 283
single-member district plurality system (SMDP), 281
subsidies, 71, 282–83, 285, 480
tariffs, 282–84
time horizons, 308
trade policy generally, 280, 293–94
winning coalitions, 284
WTO disputes, 283, 288, 294n3
Elliott, K. A., 503
(p. 541) Ellison, G., 318
Elsig, M., 139, 366, 411
Embedded liberalism, 107, 126
Engel, C., 463
Environment-trade relationships
consumer power, 441
developing countries, 441, 451
economic growth limits, 441, 444
efficiency gains, 440–42, 444
environmental exceptions, 447–49
food miles, 441–42
free trade, 443–44
global environmental commons protection, 449–53
governance issues, 443–45, 451–53
illegal trade, 444–45, 450
international cooperation, 452–53
international trade institutions, 445–51
local vs. global effects, 440, 442
market access, 445
multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), 439, 450–52
multilateralism, 448–51
NAFTA, 443–48
overview, 14, 439–40, 453–54
ozone-depleting chemicals, 450
pollution, 440–44, 450, 451
regulatory effects, 443–45, 452–53
resource use, 440, 442–43
transportation, 441–42
turtle-excluder devices (TEDs), 448–50
Ernst, D., 238
Estevadeordal, A., 68, 365
Europe, European Union
Agenda 2000, 246
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1786, 42–43, 47
antidumping laws, 61t, 125
collective action, 324
competition laws historically, 228n9
consumer power effects, 441
electoral systems, 294n10
environmental policy in trade agreements, 447
foreign direct investment, 246–48
France (see France)
GATT (see GATT)
Germany (see Germany)
global production networks, 245–50
GSP+ programs, 483–84
human rights in trade agreements, 495–96, 497–98t, 510
immigration policy, 526, 528, 530
income inequality/unemployment, 128
MFN import tariffs, 66, 67, 484
multilateral tariff reductions, 68, 73nn1213
multinational corporations, 239, 240
nontariff barriers, 207, 325
party organization, 304
policy preference formation, 319–21
political system responsiveness, 328
privacy laws, 507
PTAs, 352–53, 352f, 483
regional integration, 461
as RTA, 11
RTAs, 360, 366, 367, 370–71, 461
tariffs, 321
trade agreement institutionalization, 341–42, 447
trade policy historically, 3–4, 319–21
WTO dispute resolution, 412–13
WTO membership benefits, 386
European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA), 497–98t, 506
Evans, C. L., 282, 284
Exchange rates
blunt instrument problem, 467–68
bureaucratic agencies, actors, 466, 468
causality, 465, 467
competition effects, 459
currency manipulation, 459–62, 467
currency unions, 463
development-trade relationships, 480
firm behavior, 468
fixed vs. floating, 459, 463, 466–67
foreign direct investment, 464
gold standard, 23, 457, 463
individual actors, 459–61, 465, 468
institutions, 459–61, 465, 468
lobbying, 465–68
Mundell-Fleming trilemma, 463, 466–67
optimum currency areas (OCA) theory, 458–59
overview, 14, 457–58, 469
(p. 542) pass-through, 459, 464
as policy instrument, 70–71, 458–62
political agency, 468
protectionism/labor interests, 121, 123, 463–64, 469n3
regional integration, 460–61
research strategies, 464–65
tariffs, 467–68
timing, time horizons, 467
trade policy, 459–61
trade policy choices, 462–64
Fabbri, F., 131
Factor-based trade theorem, 100–101
Factor endowments (Heckscher-Ohlin) models, 5–6, 120, 164–65, 172n13, 178
Fagiolo, G., 386
Fariss, C. J., 152n2
Fearon, J. D., 420
Feenstra, R., 129
Felbermayr, G., 28
Findlay, R., 166, 173n18
Finite mixture modeling, 101–2
Fontagné, L., 183
Fordham, B. O., 106, 119, 320, 433
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
authoritarian regimes, 132, 307, 308
development-trade relationships, 478, 479, 483, 486–88, 489n2
exchange rates, 464
Latin America, 242–44, 483
migration-trade relationships, 527
multinational corporations, 234–36, 242–43, 246–48
new new trade theory, 127
PTAs, 483, 489n2
RTAs, 368
war-trade relationships, 435
Framing experiments, 109–10, 114n3
France
alliance formation, 3
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1786, 42–43, 47
economic geography, 322
free trade vs. protectionism, 42–43, 45, 47, 49, 51
GATT effects generally, 26, 29
global production networks, 237
immigration policy, 526
political systems, 47, 423
PTAs, 24
WTO membership, 386
Francois, J., 162
Frankel, J., 463
Freeman, R. B., 503
Free trade
alternatives to, 48–50
Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1786, 42–43, 47
antitrust/trade policies interactions, 215–17, 227nn56
commercial policy, 42–48
comparative advantage theory, 43–44
competition policy (see antitrust/trade policies interactions)
concentrated interests, 46
concepts, definitions, 38–40
decline, reformation of, 50–52
democratic regimes, 49–50, 52–53, 259, 262–63, 272–74, 277n18
development-trade relationships, 476–77, 485–86
diminishing returns theory, 44
domestic altruism, 42
economic development, 44–48
economic efficiency, 42, 63, 70, 73n12
economic nationalism, 48–49
environment-trade relationships, 443–44
GATT, 21, 32nn24, 51
government policy, 41, 46
heterogeneous firms, 196–97, 202–3, 206–8
import restrictions, 38
individual attitudes, 101–12, 114nn13, 126
infant industry argument, 48
international economy, 41–42, 52–53
Iron Law of Wages, 44
Keynesian demand stimulus, 51
market access, 38
mercantilism, 39–41
migration-trade relationships, 526, 528
(p. 543) moral economy, 49–50
most-favored nation (MFN) status, 47
overview, 37–38
political economy (classical), 40–42
price-specie flow mechanism, 40
prosperity vs. power (hegemony), 41, 42, 46–48
protectionism, 39, 41, 43–46, 49–52
reciprocity treaties (trade agreements), 45, 47, 49
support for, 44, 46–49
tariffs, 38, 43, 45–48, 50–51, 63, 73nn78
Universal Economy doctrine, 39
war strategy, 43
WTO membership effects, 380–81, 381f, 384–86, 391
Freudenberg, M., 183
Freund, C., 68
Frye, T., 305–6
Garrett, G., 263
Gartzke, E., 14, 428
GATT. see also World Trade Organization (WTO)
accession processes, 390–91, 395n5
compliance monitoring, 24
creation, 22–25, 32n9
developing vs. industrial countries, 26–27
dispute-resolution mechanism (DRM), 24–25
dispute settlement procedure (see dispute settlement procedure (DSP))
Doha Round, 11, 360, 362, 373–75, 392, 395, 439, 446, 452
effects, 25–28, 31–32, 32n13, 33n15, 33n17, 392
Enabling Clause, 482
enforcement, 64, 67
environmental policy, 447–48
equilibrium, 21–22, 32n6, 64
European Economic Community (EEC), 27
exchange rate manipulation, 459–62
free trade, 21, 32nn24, 51
gravity model (see gravity model)
history, 4, 12, 15n3, 19–20, 59–60, 72nn13, 215, 380
human rights provisions, 498–500, 500t
Kennedy Round, 26, 362, 374
most-favored nation (MFN), 21, 23, 59–60, 62, 498
national security exception, 499
national treatment principle, 498
political/military alliances effects, 28–31, 30t, 33nn1921
preferential trade agreements (PTAs) (see preferential trade agreements (PTAs))
principal-supplier rule, 25–26
protection instruments, 59–60, 72nn13, 489n4
provisional members, 27
PTAs, 353
reciprocity principle, 64
tariffs, 20, 21, 23, 26–27
temporary trade barrier policies, 60, 61t
Tokyo Round, 361, 383, 482, 489n4
trade institutions value, impacts, 20–22, 32nn17
Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM), 24
tuna-dolphin decisions, 407, 412, 447–49
unforeseen developments safeguard, 412–13
Uruguay Round, 24, 62, 66, 68, 139, 151, 376n4, 387, 448, 481
voluntary export restraints (VERs), 61–62, 72n4, 73n5
Gawande, K., 67, 123, 160, 164, 166, 167, 169
Gawer, A., 235
Geddes, B., 263, 298, 304, 305, 312n10
Gelleny, R. D., 104
Gelpi, C., 422
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. see GATT
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), 162
Generalized system of preferences (GSP)
analysis methods, 87–90, 88t, 92
development-trade relationships, 483–85
overview, 29–31, 30t
Geography. see domestic geography
Gereffi, G., 235
(p. 544) Germany
alliance formation, 3
electoral system, 286
foreign direct investment, 237, 246
free trade, 47–49, 522
GATT effects generally, 26, 29, 31, 83–84
global production networks, 246–47
HOSS model, 7
immigration policy, 526, 530
Marshall Plan, 432
protectionism, 49–51, 319–20
WTO membership, 386
Gerschenkron, A., 319
Ghana, 260
Gilligan, M. J., 179
Gilpin, R., 235, 425
Gladstone, W. E., 45
Glaeser, E. L., 318
Global Integrity, 503
Globalization. see also multinational corporations (MNCs)
in developing countries, 132
environment-trade relationships, 442–44
exchange rates (see exchange rates)
global production networks, 233–36
global value chains, 235, 238, 480, 481
history, 3–5, 15n3, 19–20, 39–40
immigration effects, 527–28
income inequality, 132
labor political influence, 131
labor rights effects, 503–4
redistribution, 127
union bargaining, 131
war-trade relationships, 424
Global production networks (GPNs), 233–36. see also multinational corporations (MNCs)
Global value chains (GVCs), 235, 238, 480, 481, 486–87
Goldberg, P. K., 67, 132, 167
Goldstein, J., 27, 29, 33n19, 80, 87, 105, 123, 385, 388, 395n5, 524, 530
Goodhart, L. M., 13, 170
Gowa, J., 12, 25, 26, 29, 72n1, 83, 85, 180, 189, 190, 386, 424
Gravity model
application recommendations, 92–93
bonus vetus approach, 84, 85, 88t, 90, 94n13
border effects, 81
collinearity, 92
control variables, 83
country-year effects, 82–84, 93n9
cross-sectional form, 78–79
distance, 78, 93n3
dummy variables, 80, 83–85, 92
dyadic factors, 79, 80, 82, 92, 93n5, 93n9
equations, 78–79
GATT effects, 26–27, 32n13, 77–78, 86–91, 88t, 94n20
history, 78–81, 93nn37
institutional effects, 80–83, 92, 93nn46
interwar trade study, 83–85, 86t
logged trade values, 79
multilateral trade resistance, 81–85, 88t, 90–92, 93nn89, 94nn1014
ordinary least squares, 78, 85
panel data, 79
PTAs, 77–78, 86–91, 88t, 94n20
reg3hdfe, 85, 86t, 94nn1518
tetrad approach, 84, 85, 94nn1112
trade agreements, 80, 82
trade costs, 78, 94n10
trade-diverting effects, 80–81
trade flows, 79
WTO membership analysis, 385
year fixed effects, 81
Great Britain. see Europe, European Union
The Great Illusion (Angell), 422
Greece, 246
Greenhill, B., 502, 504
Greif, A., 529
Grieco, J. M., 422
Grix, J., 246
Grossman, G., 8, 63, 65, 122, 166, 263, 276n1, 282, 300, 311
Grossman-Helpman model. see PFS model (protection-for-sale)
Grubel, H. G., 184, 192n6
GSP+ programs, 483–84
Guisinger, A., 112
Gulotty, R., 207
(p. 545) Güngör, H., 247
Gutmann, J., 220
Guzman, A., 152n8
Hadenius, A., 304
Hafner-Burton, E. M., 152n2, 502, 503, 505
Haftel, Y. Z., 139, 142
Hainmueller, J., 106, 523
Hankla, C. R., 287, 288, 303, 305–8, 311, 328
Hansen, W., 125
Hanson, G., 129, 523
Harrelson-Stephens, J., 502
Harrison, A., 244
Hart, J. A., 235
Haskel, J., 131
Hatch, W., 13, 238, 241
Hathaway, O., 123
Hatton, T. J, 519, 525, 528
Hauk, W. R., 288
Hawkins, H. C., 25–26
Hayakawa, K., 240
Hays, J. C., 107, 126
Head, K., 84, 90, 94n12, 94n18
Hearn, E., 107
Heckscher, E., 5
Heckscher-Ohlin (factor endowments) models, 5–6, 120, 164–65, 172n13, 178
Heiduk, G., 13
Helbling, M., 530
Helfer, L. R., 152n2
Helpman, E., 8, 63, 65, 122, 128, 166, 201, 263, 276n1, 282, 300, 311, 385
Henderson, J., 236
Henisz, W. J., 123–24, 263
Henn, C., 386
Hertel, S., 504
Heterogeneous firms
comparative advantage theory, 205–6, 210n37
export behaviors, 200, 202–3
foreign direct investment, 200–201
import behaviors, 200
intra-industry product differentiation, 206, 210n37
lobbying, 203, 204, 207
new new trade theory, 127, 171n3, 198–200
nontariff barriers, 203–4, 207
offshoring, 208
PFS model (protection-for-sale), 197
policy implications, 206–7
policy preferences, 202–5
producer associations, 208–9
producers in trade politics, 197, 208
profitability, 199, 202
protectionism/labor interests, 127–29
tariffs, 203–5, 207
total factor productivity (TFP), 198–99, 201–2
trade liberalization, 196–97, 202–3, 206–8
trading behaviors, 200, 208
Hicks, R., 83, 85, 108, 113, 338, 366
Hillman, A., 166, 173nn1718
Hiscox, M. J., 101, 105, 106, 110, 121, 123, 320, 523
Hobson, J. A., 425
Hoda, A., 26
Hoekman, B., 31, 162, 222, 370, 372, 376n4
Hofmann, T., 139, 142, 143, 148, 388
Hollyer, J. R., 150
Horn, H., 338, 365, 366, 406, 407
Hudec, R., 387, 402
Hull, Cordell, 22, 380
Human Development Index, 503
Human rights-trade relationships
activism, 504
causality, 503
data sets, 503
developing countries, 511
digital trade, 507–8
GATT/WTO provisions, 498–500, 500t
globalization effects, 503–4
information access, 506–7
labor rights, 503–4
literature review, 501–4
market access, 495, 499
multinational corporations, 504
NAFTA, 496, 506
national treatment principle, 498
overview, 14–15, 493–94, 494f
personal integrity, 494, 502–3
privacy, 506–8
PTAs, 502, 505–6
quality of life, 501
state rights, responsibilities, 494–95
(p. 546) trade agreements covering, 495–96, 497–98t
trade encouragement, 506
trade sanctions, fines, 510
women's rights, 501–2
WTO membership, 508–9
Hume, David, 40, 41
Hungary, 246, 247, 266t, 392
Hutcheson, Frances, 41
Hwang, W., 126
Hymer, S. H., 234–35
Iacobucci, E. M., 227n4
Imai, K., 101–2, 385
Import-substituting industrialization (ISI), 4, 242, 425, 477–79, 487–88, 489n1
Income inequality
authoritarian regimes, 301
aversions, individual attitudes, 111–12
democratic regimes, 272–74, 277n18
Europe, European Union, 128
globalization, 132
inter-industry trade, 128
intra-industry trade, 128
migration-trade relationships, 525
new new trade theory, 128–29, 132
protectionism/labor interests, 128–29, 132
United States, 128
war-trade relationships, 424
India
antidumping laws, 60, 61t
foreign direct investment, 488
globalization/income inequality relationships, 132
global production networks, 239
immigration policy, 530
import-substituting industrialization (ISI), 488
MFN import tariffs, 67, 276n10
PTAs, 353
WTO dispute resolution, 353
Individual attitudes
agricultural protection, 111
attitude/behavior relationships, 112–13
attitude/policy outcome relationships, 113–14
collective actions, 100, 105–7
consumer goods consumption, 101
cosmopolitanism, 104
cultural threat perception, 111
democratic regimes, 113, 261, 276nn23
economic self-interest, 100–106, 103t, 114n1
education, 106
electoral systems, 107–8
embedded liberalism, 107, 126
experimental approaches, 109–12, 114n3
factor-based trade theorem, 100–101
finite mixture modeling, 101–2
framing experiments, 109–10, 114n3
free trade vs. protectionism, 101–12, 114nn13, 126
gender, 105–6
homeownership, 101
ideational factors, 104–5
identification strategies, 106–7
income inequality aversions, 111–12
international politics, 108–9
issue framing, 108–10
legislators ideology, 104, 107–8
marriage, 105
media market structure, 108
mobility, 101
occupational scores, 114n3
outer-group anxiety, 104–5
political origins, 107–9
political persuasion, 108
priming experiments, 111–12
protectionism, industry-level, 159–60, 163–65, 172nn1015
religious beliefs, 105
research limitations, 102–4, 103t, 114n2
research on generally, 99–100
risk orientation, 106–7
service trade liberalization, 102–3
skill specificity, 101
socialization through group membership, 105–7
socio-tropic formation, 105–7
Stolper-Samuelson theorem, 100–101
survey instruments, 102, 103t, 112, 114n2, 114nn45
unionization, 105
(p. 547) Indonesia, 61t, 237, 266t, 271
Industry interests. see protectionism, industry-level
Inter-industry trade. see also intra-industry trade
alliances, 190
comparative advantage theory, 121, 180
income inequality, 128
intra-industry vs., 190
patterns, 177–80, 183
International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), 450
International Social Survey Program (ISSP), 100–101, 103t, 106–8, 164
Intra-industry trade. see also inter-industry trade
alliances, 189–91
benefits, 180
comparative advantage theory, 178–79, 192n1
conflict, 189
democratic regimes, 188–90
dispute settlement procedure (DSP), 188
heterogeneous firms product differentiation, 206, 210n37
horizontal vs. vertical, 183–84, 192n5
income inequality, 128
inter-industry trade vs., 190
international politics models, 184–85, 192nn67
lobbying, 179–80
migration-trade relationships, 518, 528–29
new trade theory, 121, 123, 160–61, 171n3
overview, 13, 177–78, 191–92
product-level aggregation, 181–83, 182t, 192nn24
protectionism, 121, 123, 160–61, 171n3, 179–80
PTAs, 186–88, 192n8
rivalry, 189–91
state vs. dyad level, 184
Stolper-Samuelson theorem, 179
third parties, 187–88
trade partner specialization, 187
Iraq, 392
Irwin, D. A., 23, 27, 59, 69, 73n8, 112, 216, 321, 463, 493
Itskhoki, O., 128
Jackson, Henry, 327
Jackson, J. H., 384
James, S., 320
Japan
antidumping laws, 61t
EPAs, 360
female protectionism, 106
free trade vs. protectionism, 103–4, 204
global production networks, 236–41
Kodak-Fuji dispute, 376n6
MFN tariff studies, 66
priming experiments, 111
privacy laws, 508
proportional representation, 327
RTAs, 376n6
survey instruments, 103t
voluntary export restraints (VERs), 61–62, 72n4, 73n5
WTO dispute settlement, 144
Jennings, K., 124
Jensen, J. B., 198, 322
Ji, Z., 240
Johns, L., 14, 142, 146, 152n6
Jones, K., 391
Judkins, B., 122
Kaltenthaler, K., 104
Kant, I., 422, 430
Karacaovali, B., 68
Karol, D., 288
Kastner, S. L., 433
Katzenstein, P. J., 236, 281
Kayser, M. A., 107, 283
Kee, H. L., 222
Keohane, R. O., 519
Keynes, J. M., 51
Kim, S.- Y., 14, 25, 26, 29, 139, 142, 143, 148, 203, 204, 206, 235, 338, 366, 367, 383, 385, 386, 388, 391
Kimura, F., 241
Kindleberger, C. P., 319, 383
Kleinberg, K. B., 119, 433
Kletzer, L. G., 322
Klienberg, K., 106
Knowles, V., 246
Kodak-Fuji dispute, 376n6
(p. 548) Kohler, W., 28
Kokkinou, A., 246
Kono, D. Y., 13–14, 179, 263, 308, 309, 310
Kortum, S. S., 198
Kostecki, M. M., 31, 370
Kotschwar, B., 364, 376n5
Krasner, S., 22
Kreickemeier, U., 128
Kriesi, H., 530
Krishna, P., 160, 164, 166, 169
Kronthaler, F., 220
Krugman, P., 7, 15n8, 201, 317, 318, 330nn12
Kubota, K., 9, 262, 303, 305, 306
Kucik, J., 142, 148, 338, 388, 392
Kume, I., 103, 106, 107, 111
Kuno, A., 108
Kuo, J., 12
Kuthy, D., 305–8, 311
Labor interests. see protectionism/labor interests
Lake, D., 320, 383
Lang, A., 504
Latin America
Brazil (see Brazil)
Chile, 266t, 294n8, 352, 441, 496, 497t, 510
democracy formation by country, 266t
electoral systems, 294n8
foreign direct investment, 242–44, 483
free trade areas (FTAs), 11, 62
globalization/income inequality relationships, 132
global production networks, 242–45, 250
import-substituting industrialization (ISI), 4, 242, 425, 477–79, 487–88, 489n1
Mexico (see Mexico)
multilateral tariff reductions, 68, 73nn1213
Peru, 266t, 387
policy preference formation, 321
PTAs, 352, 352f, 483
RTAs, 11, 62, 368, 371, 373–74
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 407
trade policy historically, 4, 262
Uruguay, 62, 266t, 469n3, 496
WTO dispute resolution, 407
Latvia, 266t
Lawrence, R. Z., 361, 375
Lee, H., 126
Lee, J.-W., 161
Lee, M. -J., 386
Lenin, V. I., 425
Lesotho, 266t
Levi, M., 105
Li, Q., 123, 235, 273, 428
Life and Writings of Adam Smith (Stewart), 43
Lim, H., 372
Limão, N., 65–66, 67, 68
Lindert, P. H., 162
Lipset, S. M., 272
Lipsey, R., 244
List, Friedrich, 48
Lithuania, 266t
Liu, X., 386
Lloyd, D. J., 184, 192n6
Lobbying
authoritarian regimes, 122
democratic regimes, 122, 133, 261
domestic geography, 322, 324, 329, 331n5
exchange rates, 465–68
heterogeneous firms, 203, 204, 207
intra-industry trade, 179–80
migration-trade relationships, 525–26
protectionism, industry-level, 160, 163, 165, 166, 168–69, 172n11, 172n15, 173n19
protectionism/labor interests, 124, 125
United States, 204
United States trade unions, 124
WTO membership, 384
Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995, 204
Lohmann, S., 9, 303, 306
Londregan, J., 126
Long, A. G., 190
Lopez, R., 527
Lopez-Cordova, E., 273
Lu, X., 103–4, 111, 172n4
Ludema, R., 66
Madagascar, 266t
Madeira, M. A., 179
Maestas, C., 106
Magee, C., 123, 169
Maggi, G., 65, 67, 73n10, 167
(p. 549) Malawi, 266t
Malaysia, 237–38, 240, 241, 488
Malhotra, N., 524, 530
Mali, 266t
Manger, M. S., 14
Mangioni, G., 386
Mankiw, N. G., 130
Mansfield, E. D., 104, 105, 121, 123–24, 149, 180, 189, 190, 263, 284, 285, 305–6, 338, 374, 386, 434, 461
Maoz, Z., 429
Marchetti, J., 372
Margalit, Y., 104, 105, 111, 112, 126, 130, 173n23, 322, 524, 530
Markusen, J. R., 518, 522
Marshall, A., 318
Marshall Plan, 432
Martin, L., 21
Marx, Karl, 44
Mateev, M., 247
Matschke, X., 124
Matsushita, 235
Maur, J. C., 365, 373
Mauritania, 505
Mavroidis, P. C., 23, 27, 59, 338, 365, 366, 406, 407
Mayda, A. M., 66, 100, 106, 164, 170, 523
Mayer, T., 84, 90, 94n12, 94n18, 300–302, 311
Mayer, W., 164
McCallum, J., 81
McGillivray, F., 276n1, 287, 288, 294n11, 294n13, 328
McKeown, T., 121
McKinley tariff, 214
McKinnon, R. I., 459
McNamara, K., 461
Meissner, C., 273
Melitz, M. J., 102, 127, 171n3, 198–201, 385
Mercosur, 11, 62, 351, 469n3, 497t
Mexico
antidumping laws, 60, 61t
democracy formation, 266t, 501
development-trade relationships, 486–87
export-processing zones, 486–87
foreign direct investment, 242–44, 486–87
globalization/income inequality relationships, 132
government export promotion, 478–79
human rights in trade agreements, 495–96, 497–98t, 506
party organization, 304
RTAs, 368
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 407
trade shares in GDP, 476
tuna-dolphin decisions, 407, 412, 447–49
WTO membership, 393–94
Migration-trade relationships
capital-intensive goods, 521, 522, 525
complementarity, 522
developing countries, 527–28, 531
economic threat, 524
education/tolerance, 523–24
factor mobility model, 518, 521–22
foreign direct investment, 527
free trade, 526, 528
high vs. low-skilled labor, 523, 524
home goods preferences, 528
immigration policy, 519, 524–26
import-competing sector, 526, 527
income inequality, 525
increased information effects, 528–29
intra-industry trade, 518, 528–29
labor-intensive goods, 521, 522, 525
lobbying, 525–26
migrant networks, 529
NAFTA, 520, 528
nontradable vs. tradeable sectors, 523
open economy politics, 519
overview, 15, 518–20, 529–32
public opinion, 519, 522–24, 530–31
Stolper-Samuelson model, 518, 520–21, 524, 527, 528, 531–32
trade contracts, 529
trade flows, 519–20, 527–32
wages, prices effects, 521–23, 526, 528
welfare state argument, 525
Mihov, I., 385
Mill, John Stuart, 44, 48
Milner, H. V., 9, 73n9, 108, 113, 114n1, 122, 123, 149, 162, 172n4, 172n14, 196, 197, 262, 303, 305, 306, 338, 519
Milner, W., 502
Mitra, D., 122, 128, 172n12, 300–302, 301, 312n7
(p. 550) Mitsubishi, 240
Mo, C., 524, 530
Mongolia, 266t
Montinola, G. R., 308
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 450
Moore, M. O, 331n8
Moran, T. H., 235
Morrow, J., 429
Mosley, L., 235, 503, 504
Most-favored nation (MFN)
benefits, WTO membership, 385
development-trade relationships, 481–84
GATT, 21, 23, 59–60, 62
human rights provisions, 498
PTAs, 353
WTO membership, import tariffs, 66, 385
Mousseau, M., 422
Mozambique, 266t
Mukherjee, B., 13, 123, 162, 172n4, 172n14
Multidimensional Poverty Index, 503
Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA), 62
Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), 439, 450–52
Multinational corporations (MNCs)
automobile production, 240, 244
democratic institutions, 235–36
East Asia, 236–41, 250
electronics industry, 239, 244
Europe, 245–49, 250
foreign direct investment, 234–36, 242–43, 246–48
global commodity chains, 235, 238
global production networks, 233–36
global value chains, 235, 238, 480, 481
host country policies, 235–36, 240, 241
Latin America, 242–45, 250
nontariff barriers, 207
overview, 13, 15n7, 249–50
producers in trade politics, 197
production networks generally, 233–36
RTAs, 368
tariffs, 240, 241
wintelism, 235
Mundell, R., 234, 458–59, 518, 521
Murillo, M. V., 110, 321
Mutz, D., 104, 105
NAFTA
environment, 443–48
global production networks, 243, 244, 250
human rights, 496, 506
migration, 520, 528
as policy instrument, 62
protectionism/labor interests, 124
as PTA, 337–38, 340
as RTA, 11, 360, 368
Naoi, M., 12, 103, 106, 107, 108, 111, 125
Napier, M., 106
National Development Plan of 1982, 394
National Security Agency, 507
Nepal, 266t
Neuman, G. L., 525
Neumayer, E., 391
New new trade theory
development-trade relationships, 121
foreign direct investment, 127
heterogeneous firms, 127, 171n3, 198–200
income inequality, 128–29, 132
intra-industry trade, 121, 123, 160–61, 171n3
as policy instrument, 69–70
principles, 7, 15n8, 121
protectionism/labor interests, 123
Nielson, D., 263, 303
Nike, 235
Nontariff barriers (NTBs). see also tariffs
antidumping laws, 60, 61t, 67–69, 72n2, 73n5
benefits targeting, 170–71, 173nn1718, 284–85, 294n3, 480
countervailing duties, 341
democratic regimes, 259, 263, 275
domestic geography, 325, 326
electoral systems, 282, 284
Europe, European Union, 207, 325
heterogeneous firms, 203–4, 207
import licenses, 285
multinational corporations, 207
as policy instrument, 58, 66–67
protectionism, industry-level, 160–61, 164, 167
protectionism/labor interests, 123, 124
PTAs, 339–40
(p. 551) specific trade concerns (STCs), 152n10, 401, 405–8
subsidies, 71, 282–83, 285, 480
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 364, 366, 367, 375, 376n2, 401, 405–8, 448
United States, 325
voluntary export restraints (VERs), 61–62, 72n4, 73n5
North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, 446
North American Free Trade Agreement. see NAFTA
Nunn, N., 267, 276n10
Oatley, T., 388, 519
Obashi, A., 240, 241
Occupy Wall Street, 504
Ochs, J., 121
Of the Balance of Trade (Hume), 40
Of the Jealousy of Trade (Hume), 40
O’Halloran, S., 9, 303, 306, 320
Ohlin, Bertil, 5
Ohls, D., 391–92
Olarreaga, M., 169
Olson, M., 168, 323, 325
Oneal, J., 422, 426, 428, 429
Optimal tariff theory, 218
Optimum currency areas (OCA) theory, 458–59
Orefice, G., 366, 369
Ornelas, E., 68
O’Rourke, K. H., 100, 106, 172n13, 528
Osgood, I., 206, 207
Ossa, R., 69
Owen, E., 12, 130
Pakistan, 266t, 482
Panagariya, A., 365
Papaioannou, E., 262, 276n4
Paraguay, 62, 266t
Paul, J., 501
Pavcnik, N., 132
Peinhardt, C., 107, 126
Pelc, K. J., 14, 148, 150, 152n3, 152n10, 355n8, 388, 389, 391
Péridy, N., 183
Peritz, L., 14, 152n6
Peru, 266t, 387
Peters, M. E., 15, 519, 524, 525, 530, 531
Petersen, N., 220, 222
Peterson, T. M., 13, 181, 184, 188, 192n6
Pevehouse, J. C. W., 14, 142, 461, 462, 463
PFS model (protection-for-sale)
heterogeneous firms, 197
MFN import tariffs, 67
principles, 8, 13, 63, 122–23
protectionism, industry-level, 165–71, 173nn1622
protectionism/labor interests, 122–23
trade policy variation, 300
validation, 123
Philippines, 259–60, 264, 266t, 444
Piermartini, R., 364
Pincus, J. J., 324, 331n7
Pinto, P. M., 110, 321
Plouffe, M., 13, 201, 203, 204, 433
Polachek, S. W., 426
Poland, 266t, 392
Policy instruments. see also specific instruments
antidumping laws, 60, 61t, 67–69, 72n2, 73n5
electoral systems selection, 285
enforcement, 64, 67
exchange rates as, 70–71, 458–62
GATT/WTO system, 59–60, 72nn13 (see also GATT)
hold-up problem, 70
Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA), 62
NAFTA, 62
nontariff barriers, 58, 66–67
PTAs, 62
quantitative restriction (quotas), 63, 72n4
retaliation capacity, 69
subsidies, 71
tariffs, 57–58, 63–68, 73nn713
temporary trade barrier policies, 60, 61t, 72nn23
trade agreements, 58, 63–67, 73nn910
voluntary export restraints (VERs), 61–62, 72n4, 73n5
WTO dispute jurisprudence, 69, 73nn1415
Polity V database, 276n7
(p. 552) Pollins, B. M., 434
Porche, S., 162
Portillo, Jose Lopez, 393–94
Powell, R., 421, 424
Powers, W., 240
Prakash, A., 502, 504
Prebisch, R., 477
Preferential trade agreements (PTAs). see also specific agreements
antidumping mechanisms, 142
antitrust provisions, 224–25
countervailing duties, 341
deep integration provisions, 360–65, 374–76, 376nn12
democratic regimes, 77, 108–9, 140–50
depth, 339, 346–47, 347f, 485, 489n6
design elements, 339–42, 344
design generally, 337–38, 355, 485
development-trade relationships, 475, 482–87, 489nn58
dispute settlement procedure (see dispute settlement procedure (DSP))
domestic political pressure, 343–46, 345f
domino effect, 350
equilibrium behavior, 344–46, 345f, 355nn78
Europe, European Union, 352–53, 352f, 483
exchange rate manipulation, 459–62
fair trade agreements, 341
flexibility provisions, 141–42, 152nn35, 341, 348–49, 348f
foreign direct investment, 483, 489n2
gravity model, 77–78, 86–91, 88t, 94n20
history, 4, 11, 23–24
human rights effects, 502, 505–6
institutionalization, 341–42
intellectual property provisions, 340
international politics, 108–9
intra-industry trade, 186–88, 192n8
membership, 340–41
most favored nation (MFN), 353
multilateralism, 354
multilateral tariff reductions, 68, 73nn1213
NAFTA, 337–38, 340
network complexity, 351–54, 352f, 356n12, 356n17
nontariff barriers, 339–40
North-South, 475, 482–87, 489nn58
overview, 14, 62, 138
political-economy model, small countries, 65
proliferation, expansion, 349–51, 350–51f
reciprocity, 338
rigidity, 141–42, 152nn35, 341, 348–49, 348f
safeguards, 341
scope, 339–40
state behavior impacts, 342–49, 345–48f, 355nn78
tariffs, 344–49, 345–48f, 355nn78
treaty commitments, 340–41
WTO membership, 87, 152n1, 338, 353
Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), 102, 103t
Protectionism
antitrust vs., 217–19, 228nn78
free trade vs., 42–43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 101–12, 114nn13, 126, 305–6
individual attitudes, 101–12, 114nn13, 126
intra-industry trade, 121, 123, 160–61, 171n3, 179–80
leader turnover, 145–46
Protectionism, industry-level
agriculture, 162–63, 172nn89
antidumping laws, 161–62
authoritarian regimes, 301–2
benefits targeting, 170–71, 173nn1718
countervailing duties, 161–62
democratic regimes, 162, 172n4, 172n14, 259–60, 275, 301–2
developed vs. developing countries, 161–62, 172n12
empirical analysis, 160–63, 171n3, 172nn49
factor endowments model, 164
import penetration, 161
individual attitudes, 159–60, 163–65, 172nn1015
likelihood of receiving, 160–61, 172n12
lobbying, 160, 163, 165, 166, 168–69, 172n11, 172n15, 173n19
low-wage/low-skilled labor, 161, 163, 172n4
(p. 553) mobility, 164
nontariff barriers, 160–61, 164, 167
overview, 159, 171n1
PFS model (protection-for-sale), 165–71, 173nn1622
political support function, 166
risk/loss aversion, 169–70
specific factors model, 164–65, 172n14
status quo conditions policy, 161, 168–69, 172nn56
Stolper-Samuelson theorem, 164
tariffs, 160, 164, 166–67
voting patterns, 164, 165, 172n12, 172nn1415
Protectionism/labor interests
antidumping laws, 125
collective action modeling, 122–23
compensation, 126–27
countervailing duties, 125
elasticity of demand, 130–31
exchange rates, 121, 123, 463–64, 469n3
factor mobility, 120–21, 123
factors of production, 121
firm-specific wages, 128
free trade agreements, 125, 130
heterogeneous firms, 127–29
income inequality, 128–29, 132
industry cleavages, 120–23
international vs. domestic firms, 123
lobbying, 124, 125
macroeconomic trends, 123–24
NAFTA, 124
nontariff barriers, 123, 124
offshoring, 128–30
partisanship, 122
politician's incentives, 122, 124
redistribution, 124–27
research on generally, 119–20
services offshoring, 129–30
Stolper-Samuelson theorem, 120, 128
tariffs, 123, 125
trade policy effects, 121–24
trade theory models, 120–21
unemployment, 121, 123–24, 127–28
unionization, 124, 131
Prusa, T. J., 372
Przeworski, A., 274
Psycharis, I., 246
Quinn, D., 126
Qvortrup, M. S., 286
Ranjan, P., 128
Rauch, J. E., 529
Rausser, G., 172n9
Real exchange rates. see exchange rates
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (RTAA) of 1934, 23
Redding, S. J., 201
Regional trade agreements (RTAs). see also specific agreements
Africa, 371, 373–74
baseline studies, 372–73, 376nn45
Brazil, 11, 62, 371
China, 371
common external tariff (CET), 361
deep integration measurement, 365–66
deep integration provisions, 360–65, 374–76, 376nn12
effects, 369–71
Europe, European Union, 360, 366, 367, 370–71, 461
foreign direct investment, 368
governance, regulatory disarray in, 373–74, 376n6
governance hubs, 370–71, 375
harmonization, 363–65, 367
history, 4
investment provisions, 364
Japan, 376n6
Latin America, 11, 62, 368, 371, 373–74
liberalization, 363–65
Mexico, 368
multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), 374
multilateralism, 369–70, 373–74
multinational corporations, 368
NAFTA, 11, 360, 368
production networks, 367–68, 376n3
protection, 363–65
roles, structures, 11, 14, 362, 363f
(p. 554) second unbundling, 367
state motivations, 366–68, 375, 489n3
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 364, 366, 367, 375, 376n2
United States, 366, 367, 370–71, 376n6
WTO classification, 365
Regional Trade Agreements Database, 338
Rehm, P., 126
Reinhardt, E., 122, 142, 143, 318, 325, 326, 331n9, 374, 386, 387, 392, 407
Remmer, K., 263
Resmini, L., 247
Resnick, A., 235
Reuveny, R., 273
Ricardo, D., 41, 43–44, 178, 214, 226
Ricardo-Viner model (specific factors approach), 7, 112, 120, 163–65, 172n13
Rickard, S. J., 13, 152n11, 263, 284, 285, 291, 294n1
Ries, J., 84, 94n12
Rieselbach, L. N., 320
Rivers, D., 27, 29, 33n19, 80, 87, 105, 385, 388, 395n5
Robert-Nicoud, F., 168, 170
Robertson, G., 132
Robinson, J. A., 272, 273, 301
Rocha, N., 366, 369
Rocke, D. M., 372, 389
Rodríguez-Clare, A., 65, 73n10
Rodrik, D., 100, 114n1, 160, 164, 166, 170, 171, 171n1, 485, 488
Rogers, J., 463
Rogowski, R., 9, 107, 120, 121, 130, 131, 190, 263, 276n1, 283, 287, 288, 303, 306, 327, 328
Romania, 247, 392
Ron, J., 503
Roosevelt, Franklin, 502
Rose, A., 25, 27, 32n13, 79, 86–87, 384, 385, 395n2, 463
Rosecrance, R., 435
Rosendorff, B. P., 12, 73n9, 144, 145, 149, 150, 343, 392
Roy, M., 372
Rubinstein, Y., 385
Rudra, N., 236, 273
Rueda, D., 122
Ruggie, J. G., 107
Russett, B., 422, 426, 428, 429
Russia (Soviet Union), 266t, 392, 395, 425, 508
Sachs, J. D., 310
Salamon, L. M., 327
Salinas de Gortari, Carlos, 243
Samsung, 239
Samuelson, Paul, 6
Sapier, A., 338, 365, 366
Sassen, S., 527
Sattler, T., 148, 152n8
Scalera, J. F., 385, 391
Schattschneider, E. E., 324
Schelling, T. C., 404
Scheve, K., 100, 101, 103–4, 109, 111, 127, 131, 164, 165, 172n4, 523
Schiff, M., 365, 527
Schiller, W. J., 329
Schonhardt-Bailey, C., 321
Schott, P. K., 201
Schwab, Susan, 392
Scott, A. J., 322
Sen, A., 496
Service trade liberalization, 102–3
Shadlen, K. C., 14
Sherlund, S., 124
Sherman, J., 213–14
Shirato, Y., 145
Shrimp-turtle case, 448–50
Shugart, M. S., 303
Shughart, W. F., 222
Siegfried, J. J., 327
Siemens, 235
Silverman, J. D., 222
Simmons, B., 21, 152n8
Simmons, E., 430
Singer, H., 477
Sinnott, R., 100, 106
Siourounis, G., 262, 276n4
Slaughter, M., 100, 101, 103–4, 109, 111, 127, 131, 164, 165, 172n4, 523
Slovak Republic, 266t
Slovenia, 211, 221, 266t
Smith, A., 144, 145, 284
Smith, Adam, 5, 38, 40–43, 48, 214, 226, 404
Smith, D., 123
(p. 555) Smith, J., 142
Smoot-Hawley tariffs, 59, 69, 73n8, 204–5, 320
Smuckler, R. H., 320
Snidal, D., 424
Snowden, Edward, 506–7
Social and Economic Empowerment Rights Initiative (SERF), 503
Sony, 238
South Korea
antidumping laws, 61t
democracy formation, 266t
global production networks, 238–39
government export promotion, 478–79
industrialization, 489n3
MFN tariff studies, 66
WTO dispute resolution, 401, 406
Soviet Union (Russia), 266t, 392, 395, 425, 508
Specific factors approach (Ricardo-Viner model), 7, 112, 120, 163–65, 172n13
Specific trade concerns (STCs), 152n10, 401, 405–8
Staiger, R. W., 64, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73n10
Steagall, J., 124
Stewart, D., 43
Stiglitz, J., 198
Stokes, S., 263
Stolper, W., 6
Stolper-Samuelson theorem
democratic regimes, 262, 273
individual attitudes, 100–101
intra-industry trade, 179
migration-trade relationships, 518, 520–21, 524, 527, 528, 531–32
principles, 6
protectionism, industry-level, 164
protectionism/labor interests, 120, 128
Story, D., 393
Stucki, P., 411
Sturgeon, T., 235
Subramanian, A., 26, 385
Subsidies, 71, 282–83, 285, 480
Suominen, K., 365
Svolik, M. W., 309
Swagel, P., 130, 161
Swinnen, J., 172n9
Switzerland, 29, 107
Sykes, A. O., 23, 27, 59, 69, 152n4
Taagepera, R., 286
Tabellini, G., 73n10
Taglioni, D., 82
Tahk, A. M., 531
Taiwan, 238–39, 488
Tajoli, L., 386
Takacs, W., 123
Tariffs. see also nontariff barriers (NTBs)
ad valorem, 73n8
authoritarian regimes, 298, 305, 306, 310
Brazil, 60, 259–60, 271, 276n10
common external tariff (CET), 361
defection, 344–46, 345f
democratic regimes, 259–60, 262–72, 265f, 266–67t, 271f, 275, 276nn614, 277n15
development-trade relationships, 476, 480, 481, 484
domestic geography, 320, 323, 324, 329, 331n10
electoral systems, 282–84
Europe, European Union, 321
exchange rates, 467–68
GATT, 20, 21, 23, 26–27
heterogeneous firms, 203–5, 207
McKinley, 214
MFN import tariffs, EU, 66, 67, 484
multilateral reductions, 68, 73nn1213
multinational corporations, 240, 241
optimal tariff theory, 218
as policy instrument, 57–58, 63–68, 73nn713
protectionism, industry-level, 160, 164, 166–67
protectionism/labor interests, 123, 125
PTAs, 344–49, 345–48f, 355nn78
retaliatory, 405
settlement, 345–46, 345f
skilled vs. low skilled in democratic regimes, 272, 276nn910
Smoot-Hawley, 59, 69, 73n8, 204–5, 320
treaty depth impacts, 346–47, 347f
United States, 59, 69, 73n8, 204–5, 320, 324, 329, 384
WTO membership, 384, 385
Technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 364, 366, 367, 375, 376n2, 401, 405–8, 448
Teh, R., 364, 365, 372
(p. 556) Teitelbaum, E., 132
Temin, P., 493
Teorell, J., 304
Thailand
democracy formation, 266t
global production networks, 237–40, 250
human rights, 505–6
multinational firms role, 487
Thies, C. G., 13, 162, 181, 184, 188, 192n6
Thomakos, D. D., 300–302
Thompson, P., 435
Tinbergen, J., 362
Tingley, D., 101–2, 108, 113
Tollison, R. D., 222
Tomz, M., 27, 29, 33n19, 80, 87, 385, 388, 395n5
Tovar, P., 67, 169
Toyota, 236–38
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), 107, 126, 322
Trade barriers. see nontariff barriers (NTBs); tariffs
Trade policy generally
comparative advantage theory, 5
democratic regimes, 9, 13, 259–60, 274–75, 276n1
factor-based trade theorem, 100–101
finite mixture modeling, 101–2
framing experiments, 109–10, 114n3
Heckscher-Ohlin (factor endowments) models, 5–6, 120, 164–65, 172n13, 178
history, 3–5, 15n3
HOSS model, 6–7, 15n7
industrialization, 3
international negotiations, agreements, 10–11
mercantilism, 3
optimal tariff theory, 218
optimum currency areas (OCA) theory, 458–59
protectionism, 3, 8–10
Ricardo-Viner model (specific factors approach), 7, 112, 120, 163–65, 172n13
social institutions, 9
Stolper-Samuelson theorem (see Stolper-Samuelson theorem)
trade barriers, 10–11
World War I, 3
World War II, 4
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 360, 362, 363f, 507
Trebilcock, M. J., 216
Trefler, D., 73n11, 161, 267, 276n10
Trindade, V., 529
Tsekov, I., 247
Tsutsui, K., 502
Tucker, D., 39, 41, 48
Turkey
antidumping laws, 60, 61t
democracy formation, 266t, 300–302
EC customs union, 353
foreign direct investment, 488
GATT/WTO trade effects, 29
import-substituting industrialization (ISI), 488
MFN import tariffs, 67
PTAs, 353
WTO dispute resolution, 353
Turtle-excluder devices (TEDs), 448–50
Ulubasoglu, M. A., 300–302
UNCTAD, 27, 71, 483, 503
United States
antidumping laws, 61t, 125, 464
antitrust law, 213–14, 222, 227n2, 228n11
bilateral investment treaties (BITs), 370
citizen trade preferences, 100
coalition-building, 329, 331n8
competitive need limitations, 484
countervailing duties, 125, 394
currency unions, 463
elasticity of demand, 131
electoral district size, 288, 302
environmental policy in trade agreements, 447
female protectionism, 105–6
framing experiments, 109–10
GATT (see GATT)
global production networks, 238–40, 242, 250
GSP preferences, 483, 484
hostile foreign policies, 433–34
human rights in trade agreements, 495–96, 497–98t, 509–10
immigration policy, 523, 525, 528, 530
(p. 557) income inequality/unemployment, 128
international cooperation in trade agreements, 452
Kodak-Fuji dispute, 376n6
labor unions, 9
lobbying, 331n5
lobbying legislation, 204
McKinley tariff, 214
Mexico WTO membership case study, 393–94
MFN tariff studies, 66
multilateral tariff reductions, 68, 73nn1213, 93n6
nontariff barriers, 325
online communications monitoring, 507
partisan effects, 329, 331n8
policy preference formation, 319–22
political persuasion, 108
political system responsiveness, 328
postwar trading regime formation, 383
priming experiments, 111–12
privacy laws, 507–8
proportional representation, 327
protectionism, demands for, 123, 164
protectionism vs. free trade, 103–4, 109–10, 126
PTAs, 352, 352f, 483
RTAs, 366, 367, 370–71, 376n6
sectionalism, 320
Smoot-Hawley tariffs, 59, 69, 73n8, 204–5, 320
specific trade concerns (STCs), 405–8
tariffs, 59, 69, 73n8, 204–5, 320, 324, 329, 384
trade agreements generally, 109, 110, 447
trade models, 6–7
trade policy historically, 3–4, 9–10, 49–51
trade shares in GDP, 476
trade union lobbying, 124
tuna-dolphin decisions, 407, 412, 447–49
voluntary export restraints (VERs), 61–62, 72n4, 73n5
WTO dispute resolution, 388, 401, 406, 411–13, 447–50
WTO membership benefits, 386
Uno, S., 503
Urata, S., 108
Urbatsch, R., 113, 321
Urpelainen, J., 483
Uruguay, 62, 266t, 469n3, 496
USA Patriot Act of 2001, 507, 508
US v. Tuna I/II, 407, 412, 447–49
Van Wincoop, E., 81, 93n8
Van-Zandt, T., 385
Verdier, D., 322
Vietnam, 387–88, 508
Voigt, S., 220
Voluntary export restraints (VERs), 61–62, 72n4, 73n5
Wage differences. see income inequality
Waked, D. I., 220, 222
Waldkirch, A., 244
Wallace, N. C., 214
Wallerstein, I., 47, 49
Walmart, 235
Walter, S., 107, 126, 459–60
Waltz, K., 424
Wang, Z., 240
Ward, M. D., 429
Warner, A., 310
War-trade relationships
analysis methods, 433
anarchy, 424
asymmetric information, 420–21
bargaining theory, 420–21
capitalism, 425
causal mechanisms analysis, 433
commitment problem, 421, 431
competition, 421–23, 425, 426
dependency theory, 424, 425
economic development, 421, 423–24
empirical findings, 426–28, 427t
endogeneity, 429
firm level differentiation, 433
foreign direct investment, 435
foreign policy determinants, 433–34
gains distribution, 32n6
globalization, 424
income inequality, 424
indivisibility problem, 421
information mechanisms, 431
interdependence analysis, 433
liberalism, 421–23, 426
(p. 558) Marxism (socialism), 421, 425
militarized interstate disputes (MIDs), 426, 429
networks, 430
opportunity costs, 430–31
overview, 14, 419–20, 434–35
power relations, 420–21, 424, 425
realism, 421, 423–24, 426
third parties, 429–30
trade constraints, 430–31
trade share vs. openness, 428–29, 428t
transformation mechanisms, 432
variable selection artifacts, 428–29, 428t
Wei, S. -J., 26, 240, 385
Weinstein, D. E., 65–66
Wellisz, S., 166, 173n18
Werfel, S., 464
Weyland, K., 262
Wijkstrom, E. N., 406, 407
Wilf, M., 14, 392
Williamson, J. G., 519, 525, 528
Wilson, B., 387
Winters, L. A., 365, 372
World Bank, 503
World Trade Organization (WTO). see also GATT
Agreement on Antidumping, 73n5
Agreement on Safeguards, 73n5
antidumping laws, 60, 61t, 67–69, 72n2, 73n5, 227n4
compliance monitoring, 24
dispute jurisprudence, 69, 73nn1415
dispute settlement procedure (see dispute settlement procedure (DSP))
Doha Round negotiations, 11
effects, 25–28, 32n13, 33n15, 33n17
exchange rate manipulation, 459–62
history, 4–5, 19–20, 215, 380, 481
human rights provisions, 498–500, 500t
membership (see WTO membership)
national security exception, 499
RTA classification, 365
subsidies, 71
sustainable development, 448
technical barriers to trade (TBTs), 364, 366, 367, 375, 376n2, 401, 405–8, 448
trade agreement flexibility provisions, 141–42, 152nn35
World Value Survey (WVS), 100–101, 103t, 164
Wright, J., 307, 308
WTO Analytical Index, 401
WTO membership
accession processes, 390–91, 395n5
alliance ties, 29, 392
analysis methods, 29, 385, 395n2
antidumping laws, 392
benefits generally, 382
developing countries, 387–88
dispute resolution (see dispute settlement procedure (DSP))
economic, political determinants, 391–93
effectiveness, 388–90
effects generally, 25, 29, 66, 87, 388–89, 394–95, 395n2
enforcement, 383, 384, 386–89
expansion, 381, 382f
free trade effects, 380–81, 381f, 384–86, 391
gravity model analysis, 385
human rights-trade relationships, 508–9
legalization, legitimacy, 384
lobbying, 384
market access, 391–92
Mexico, 393–94
MFN benefits, 385
MFN import tariffs, 66, 385
motivations to form, 383–84
motivations to join, 390, 392
negotiation outcomes, 66
network complexity, 353–54
ordinary least squares analysis, 25
preference changes, 389–90
PTAs, 87, 152n1, 338, 353
selection bias, 389
spillover effects, 389
tariffs, 384, 385
trade openness effects, 380–81, 381f, 384–86, 391
Wu, W. -C., 301, 306
Yamamura, K., 238
Zeile, W. J., 233
Zhang, J. J., 14