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date: 22 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter argues that the link between trade and development needs to be understood in the broader context of industrialization strategy and development, and that this is only partly reflected in the existing body of research. Trade policy evolves quite differently in developed and developing countries. We maintain that scholars need to keep in mind the overarching commonalities with regard to the role of the state in late development, which we illustrate with a fresh examination of 20th Century experiences with “import-substitution” and “export-orientation” industrialization. We also emphasize the particular challenges that developing countries have faced when they adopt more explicitly export-oriented strategies to secure greater integration into the global trade regime. We examine how, following periods of rapid, unilateral liberalization in the aftermath of economic crises, many developing countries have chosen a particular route of integration: preferential trade agreements (PTAs) between North and South. We discuss the salient role of exporters in trade politics, and point to the limitations of applying existing models of trade policy choices to developing countries. The chapter closes with a typology of countries that it is hoped will stimulate future research.

Keywords: Exporters, import-substitution, export-orientation, industrialization strategy, state, liberalization, integration, preferential trade agreements (PTAs)

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