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date: 18 August 2019

(p. 861) Index

(p. 861) Index

abandonments, 8, 49, 272, 311, 313, 697. See also migration
agricultural landscapes and, 708
climate and, 752, [link] , 758
of district of Valencia site, 342
as great event in southwestern prehistory, 96, 99
of kivas, 813
northern San Juan, 20, 718
Paquimé, 405, 406
in the Phoenix Basin, 357
violence and, 830
accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS), 24
and radiometric dating of maize, 259
acculturation
Redfield’s method and theory for studying, 482
as theoretical focus in Navajo archaeology, 489
acequia irrigation, 202. See also irrigation
activism, 199
allocation of irrigation water by associations, 202n2
modern acequia systems
multifunctional agricultural landscapes in, 257
social organization and, 258
Acoma
built environment and social identity, 603
contested places, 741
cosmology, 734
Historic Preservation Office, 171, 174
Language Retention Program, 171
Mount Taylor
as Kawestima, 731
protection, 174
religion
fire use in, 691
Mount Taylor, 731–732, [link]
TCPs associated with, 178, [link]
trips to Zuni Salt Lake, 776
Adams, Chris, 635–636
Adams, E. Charles, 128
on ritual use of animals, 813
on spread of religious movements, 842
Adovasio, J. M., 646, 648, 650
advisors, cultural, 81
Hopi, 431
and identification of traditional cultural places, 180–181
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 183–184
Agate Basin, 211
projectile points, [link] , 633
agates, 772, 773
agave
cooking, 613–614
as crop, 792–793
dental wear from, 827
exchange of, 795
fermentation, 619
agency and conflict
impact of NAGPRA on, 43
nonhuman, 840, 841–843
agent-based modeling, 146
aggregation (village formation), 417. See also villages
of ancestral Hopi populations, 430
elite leader’s competition for prestige goods, 518
on Hopi Mesas, 434, 435
in Protohistoric period, 515
agriculture. See also animals; beans; cotton; maize; plants; squash
Ancestral Pueblo, 420–421
archaeology and, 570
arrivals and dispersals of tropical cultigens
chronology, 249
(p. 862)
modes of, 250–252
artiodactyl populations and, 811
built environment for, 603
in Chaco Canyon, 292
in Chihuahua, 399
climate/climate change and, 749, 758
droughts, 753
cooking technologies and, 614
fire use in, 689–690
as formative part of the Southwest economy, 570
Hohokam, 331
impact on social organization, 257–259
infrastructure, 797
introduction, 252–253
landscape modification and, 697–714
in Late Archaic, 240
by Medio people, 403
migration associated with, 252, 715–716
in nineteenth century, 569
potential in Mesa Verde, 308
radiocarbon dating and, 24
research on Ancestral Pueblo field systems, 421
in Sonora, 384–385
subsistence prior to, 789
Tewa, 701–707
types of farming, 253–254, 292
burn plot, 689–690
flood-plain agriculture, 403
floodwater farming, 292
Zuni, 453–454
Airlie House Report, 37
Akeaj, Sam, 36
Akimel O’odham (Pima), 111–112, 338
fire use in plant management, 688
pottery, 615
projectile points, 635
salt sources, 776–777
in Sonora, 383
traditional history, 370, 371
Akins, Nancy J., 291, 830
A:łashshina:kwe, Zuni traditions of the, 79
Albuquerque Basin, Paleoindian sites in, 219
Algaze, Guillermo, 158–159
Alianza Federal de Mercedes, La (Federal Alliance of Land Grants), 194
alibates jasper, 775
alliance model of Upham, 113
alluvial sequences and soils, 212
Alta Vista (Zacatecas), 470
Altschul, Jeffrey H., 184
amaranth, 239
at Cerro Juanaqueña, 399
cooking, 613
domesticated, 792, 793
in subsistence diet, 789
Amargosa I projectile points, 633, 634
American Indian Movement (AIM), 39
American Museum of Natural History
research in Chaco, 288
Amerind Foundation, 35
Amerind language, 126
Amsden, Charles Avery, 16
analogy, 101
ethnographic, 110–111
Analytical Archaeology (Clarke), 32
Anasazi. See also Ancestral Pueblo
as archaeological creation, 25
Dean’s behavioral model on, 752
Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi)
agricultural landscapes, 698
built environment, 585–610
changes in religion of, 672
chronology, 413–414
Classic period, 414
Coalition period, 414
Developmental Pueblo period, 413–414
in Cibola region, 445
deconstruction of built environment, 599, 601–602
depopulation of, 716, [link]
distinguished from Mogollon, 454
fire use in agriculture by, 690
iconography, 669–670, 675
immigration to Hohokam world, 362
influence on Salado polychrome pottery, 364
masonry construction, 602
(p. 863)
Mesa Verde
departure at end of the 1200s, 317
farming communities in, 308
migrations, 718, 720–721
niches in, underworld connections via, 852
open spaces, 598–599
pithouses, 588, [link] , 590
pottery glaze materials, 771
social identity, 602–603
social organization, 29
andesite, 772, 773, 775
Anglo undertaking, 8
Angostura, 211
animals, 807–823. See also specific animals
in Chacoan subsistence strategies, 293
cooking, 613
figurines, 651
iconography depicting, 666–670, [link]
ritual use of, 651, 812–814
“spirit,” 844
Annales school, 98, 99
Anschuetz, Kurt F., 185
on landscapes as atlases of memory, 848
research on Ancestral Pueblo field systems, 421
Antelope Creek Phase, 516, [link]
Antelope Hill (Arizona), 178, 184
Antelope House
basketry, 646
perishable artifacts, 650
Antelope Mesa. See also Awat’ovi; Kawayka’a
large villages on, 435
production of yellow ware, 436
Antevs, Ernst, 22, 23
anthropogenic ecology, 794–795
anthropology
on agriculture, 698
American archaeology and, 31, 84, 91, 109
on the built environment, 586–587
in Europe, 109
and renaissance of historical analysis, 78
sociocultural, 139–140
of the Southwest, 13
of water, 201
Antiquities Act (1906), 10
CRM and, 35
Anyon, Roger
on burning of Mimbres Valley great kivas, 268
on mobility, 271
on pueblo room blocks, 267
Apache (Ndee) archaeology, 495–512
advantage of, 499–500
dating of important events, 495, 497
impediments to, 498
research recommendations, 506–507
Apache languages, 127, 128, 130
Athapaskan origin, 482
Apaches, 568. See also Jicarilla Apaches; Kiowa-Apaches; Plains Apaches; Western Apaches
aboriginal territories and tribal trust lands, [link]
adoption of Spanish horses, 535
ceramics, 503
clays used by, 768
containment of, 497
cooking technologies, 614
culture pattern, 498
and federal policy of self-determination, 500
fire use
in agriculture, 689, 692
in warfare, 690
impact of rise of Comanche on, 515, 535
importance of place, 498
Mescalero Apaches, 535
raiding versus warfare, 498
sacred landscapes, 853
traditions
stories linked to a place, 80
violent histories, 82
Apache Wars, 500
Appadurai, Arjun
on commodities, 842
definition of imagination, 198
on ethnographic archive of human habitation, 196
on nostalgia, 198
aqueducts, 699. See also irrigation
archaeohistory, 96
Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act (1974), 35
archaeological chemistry, 815
(p. 864) archaeological sites. See also sites by name
early documentation, 9
eligibility for National Register, 181
archaeologists
avocational, 51
behavioral, 31, 842
collaboration with ethnohistorians, 539
Navajo, 490
archaeology. See also bioarchaeology; evolutionary archaeology; historical archaeology; New Archaeology; Processual Archaeology; salvage archaeology
and anthropology in the Americas, 31, 84, 91, 109
climate and, 749–765
as complement or contravention to oral history, 77–78
criticism of historical explanations, 31–32
in Europe, 109
grand narrative, 92
experimental
on cooking techniques, 620
Indigenous, 78
postcolonial, 78
U.S./Mexican collaboration, 393
U.S. researchers in Sonora, 381
Archaeology of the High Sierra of Sonora Project, 390
Archaeology of the Southwest (Cordell and McBrinn), 115
Archaeology Southwest, 48
archaeomagnetic dating, 532
Archaic hunters and gatherers
Central Coastal tradition, 385–386
iconography, 665
in the Mesa Verde, 308, 309–310
social identity, 649
Archaic period, 231–245. See also Early Archaic period; Late Archaic period; Middle Archaic period
built environment, 587
in Cibola region, 448
cultural and chronometric divisions, [link]
dating, 232
in Eastern Pueblo region, 413
projectile points, 633–634
radiocarbon dating, 23
Sulphur Springs, 24
architecture. See also pithouses; platform mounds
adobe construction, 602
Classic Hohokam, 355
Hopi, 433–434
sipapus, 435
multi-walled structures, 315
residential structures
above-ground, 590–592
deliberate destruction of, 601–602
Folsom, 587
ritual, 842
shift from pithouses to pueblos, 399–400
architecture, public. See also great kivas, plazas
Hohokam, 339, 355
platform mounds, 358, [link] , 360
areal connections and language contact, 127–129
Arellano, Estevan, 198
Arizona
historical archaeology on mining, 571
statehood, 569
Western Apache sites, 502
Arizona Snowbowl, 741
Arizona State Museum, 571
Arizona Territory, 568
Arroyo Cuervo, 232
Arroyo Hondo
analyses of burials, 423
black-on-white pottery, 418
land grant, 193, 195
skeletal deformation in, 829
Arroyo Hondo Project, 417
Arthur, Brian, 158
artifact assemblages
cooking technology, 611–612
Ndee, 503–504
spiritual agency of, 843
artifactual approaches to images, 670, 672–674
artiodactyls, 808, 810–811
fire use in hunting, 687–688
Ascher, Robert, 113
ash bed effect, 689–690
Atchison, Topeka, and Pacific Railroad, 571
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad, 569
Athapaskan languages, 127, 130, 482
Athapaskans (p. 865)
in dominant narrative of Navajo history, 481–482
expansion based on exchange of bison products, 521
fire use in plant management by, 688
institutions contributing to expansion of, 519
interactions with local horticultural settlements, 520
material innovations, 521
matrilocality, 520–521
migrations, 490, 515
Intermontane hypothesis, 483
and regional patterns of social change, 513–514
into the Southwest, 483, [link]
in Plains-Pueblo exchange, 513
as aggressors and innovations, 518
intermarriage, 520
Querechos as, 519
sites in the Four Corners, 317
atlatls, 627–628, [link] , 629
advantages of bows over, 629–630
grooved clubs and, 636
projectile points with, 633, 634
Augustin projectile points, 634, 635
Awat’ovi (Antelope Mesa), 431, 435
murals, 437
axis mundi, 729–730, 849
Chaco as, 734–736
Ayres, James E., 43–44, 571
Aztec
biological distance studies on, 827
great house community, 314, 315, [link]
in Mesoamerican contact, 464
migration events, 650–651, 655
perishable technologies, 645
Baboquivari Peak (Arizona), 178, 731, [link]
Badenhorst, Shaw, 812–813
Bahr, Donald, 82
Bailey, Wilfrid C., 755
Bailey Ruin
pottery glaze and pigment analysis, 769
Baisan, Christopher H., 755
Bajada, 234
projectile points, [link] , 634
Baker, Steven G., 573
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 79
baking pits, 612–613, [link]
Ball Court Regional System, 469
ball courts, 325
Hohokam, 328, 333–336, [link] , 356–357, 593–594
collapse of system, 340–342, 343, 357
falling out of use, 471
impact on economic differentiation, 337
Mesoamerican influence, 467
introduction of, 325
labor required to build, 592–593, 596
in and near Paquimé, 403, [link] , 405
as ritual environment, 592–593, 596
Ballenger, Jesse A. M., 212
on Clovis in Sonora, 381
Bandelier, Adolph, 411
on aggregation, 417
on agriculture, 698
direct historical approach, 110
in Hemenway Expedition, 11
and narrative, 93
Navajo culture change, 485
recording of Bavispe site, 391
on shallow history of Native Americans, 718
Bandelier Archaeological Survey, 420
Bandelier National Monument, 602
barley, domestication of, 793
Barlow, K. Renee, 141–142
Barter, Gift, or Violence: An Analysis of Tewa Intertribal Exchange (Ford), 514
Barzun, Jacques, 100
basalt, 772, 773, 775
BASIN I simulation, 145
Basketmaker, 93. See also Early Basketmaker; Eastern Basketmaker II; Western Basketmaker II
bow and arrow, 628–629
coiling techniques, 649
cordage, 649
hunting technology, 631
iconography, 667–669
migrations, 716
pithouses, 590, 591
projectile points, [link] , 635
violence and warfare in, 830
western vs. eastern, 650
(p. 866) Basketmaker I, 231
Basketmaker II
agriculture and, 251
sites in the Mesa Verde, 310
Basketmaker III, 433
baskets and basketry
Adovasio on, 650
at Antelope House, 646
bifurcated burden, [link]
Chaco, 294
chronological variability in, 650
coiled basketry, 648, 649
cooking with, 612
fire use in plant management for, 688–689
found at Cowboy Cave, [link]
Hopi, 437, 649
iconography on, 667–668
Jornada Mogollon, 650
in ritual use, 651
studies on, 646
wicker vs. coiled, 649
Basso, Keith H.
on Apaches, 503
on importance of place for Apaches, 498
place name study, 501, 504
on sacred places, 12, 729
Bat Cave, radiocarbon dating at, 24
Baugh, Timothy G., 516, 518
Southern Plains Macroeconomy model, 516
Bavispe site, 391
Bayham, Frank E., 140–141, 811
beans
cooking technologies, 617
drought and productivity of, 753
at early farming sites, 249
Hopi and, 433
in Mesa Verde, 311
strontium ratios in, 796
triad with corn and squash, 790–791
types of, 792
beehive ovens, 612, 614
beeweed, 793
Begay, Richard M., 487, 489
behavioral ecology, 259
Benedict, Ruth, 138
Berlin, G. Lennis, 776
Bernardini, Wesley
on Hopi
clans, 438
rock art, 851
hypothetical model of migration, 81
on migrations, 721–722
network analysis, 146
on plazas, 599
on population in Chaco Canyon, 290
on sight communities, 733
Berry, Michael S., 250
Bethsheba mine, 771
Biancaniello, Maggie, 775
Big Histories, Human Lives (Robb and Pauketat), 98
Binford, Lewis R., 141
Cordell and, 33
critique of “historical” explanations, 31
on ethnographic analogy, 111
influenced by Taylor, 29
transmission theory, 143
bioarchaeology
definition of, 825
future uses, 831
limiting factors, 825–827
pre-colonial health studies, 827–829
socially focused, 829–830
on warfare and conflict, 830–831
biological distance studies, 827
biomes, Southwestern, 684–686, [link]
Bird, Douglas W., 137
birds
garden hunting, 808
iconography, [link] , 666–667
ritual use, 811–812, 814, 816–817
birth, iconography representing, 665
bison hunting
in Protohistoric period, 515
by Querechos, 519
specialized, 518
bison kill sites
in Albuquerque Basin, 219
Clovis point from, [link]
Folsom, 213, 219
Murray Springs, 217
Bis sa’ani, 297
Black Mesa (Arizona), 487, 488
(p. 867) Black-on-white pottery, 418, [link] , 435
Classic Mimbres, 269, 816, [link]
Red Mesa, 778
Blackwater Draw, 213, 231
Blackwater Draw Locality 1, 23
Blake, Emma, 162
Blake, T. Michael, 267, 268
blankets, 294, [link] , 653
Blessingway narratives, 487
iconography, 670
Bliege Bird, Rebecca, 142
Blomberg, Belinda, 488
Boas, Franz, 138
Boca Negra Wash excavations, 219
Bohrer, Vorsila L., 688, 793
Bølling-Allerød interstadial, 213
bone tools, 294
Bonito Creek Cache, 291, 653, [link]
Bonito Phase settlement, 13
Born for Water, 670
Bostwick, Todd W.
on Hohokam petroglyphs, 667, 850–851
stone quarry locations, 775
bottle gourds, 249, 792
fermented liquids in, 619
boundaries, 794
shrines and, 733
of TCPs, 182
Bowen, Thomas, 386
bows and arrows, 241, 628–631
advantage over atlatls, 629–630
ceremonial, 652
magic and, 631
projectile points, 635–636
recurved bow of Athapaskans, 521
ritual use, 651–652
bowstrings, 629
Boym, Svetlana, 198
Bracken Phase, 521
Brandt, Elizabeth, 40–41, 51
Braun, David P., 615
bread ovens, 612, 614
“breath gate” line breaks, 670
Brenneman, Dale, 539
bridging the science-humanities divide, 47–49
British Neolithic sites, deposition of ritual objects in, 817
Brody, J. J., 269
Brookhaven National Laboratory, 779
Broughton, Jack M., 140
Brown, Tracy, 539
Brugge, David M.
on Gathering of the Clans, 489
Intermontane hypothesis of Athapaskan migration, 483
on Navajo
Catholic Church records on population, 487
emigration from Dinétah, 486
transition to pastoralism, 488
use of Navajo oral traditions, 489
Brunot Treaty, 318
Bryan, Kirk, 20
Buckles, Avi, 571
buffering strategies, climate and, 753–754
built environment, 585–610. See also architecture
construction techniques, 602
open space in, 598–599
for rituals, 592–595
sociopolitical complexity and, 598
bulk analysis techniques of pottery materials, 769
Bullen, A. K., 840
bundle-foundation coiled basketry, 649
Bunzel, Ruth L.
on ritual practitioners, 843–844
on ritual use of corn meal, 848
Bureau of American Ethnology, 431
Burgh, Robert E., 646
burial traditions. See also cremations
animals in, 814, 816
Arroyo Hondo, 423
bioarchaeology and, 826, 830–831
bows and arrows in, 631
ceremonial objects in, 816–817
at Cerro de Trincheras, 389
in Chaco Canyon, 291, 598
Hohokam, 338
Classic, 355
Classic Period, 362
(p. 868)
Mimbres, 276
mortuary analysis, 826
perishable artifacts in, 655
reburial of remains at Jemez Pueblo, 42
spiritually significant objects in, 845–847
structure burning, 601–602
textiles in, 647
turquoise and, 777–778
violence and warfare and, 830–831
burn plot agriculture, 689–690
Burnt Corn Pueblo, 419
Burton, James H., 775
Bustard, Wendy, 295
Butcher Homestead (New Mexico), 570
butternut squash, 792
Byrd, Rachael M., 252
Cabezon Peak, 733
Cabezon site, 240
cacao
at Chaco Canyon, 288, 470, 795
exchanges of, 795
Caddoan speakers, 126, 516
conflict with Apaches, 535
Cáhita speakers, 383
communities, 392
California Gold Rush, 497, 566
Calumet, 518
Cameron, Catherine M.
on Chaco migrations, 716
comparison of post-Chacoan trajectories, 161
use of commensuration, 103
Cameron Creek site, 275
Campbell, Lyle A., 126, 127
Camp Verde salt mine, 776
Canada
Athapaskan languages in, 482, 495
proto-Apachean population in, 317, 519
canal systems. See irrigation
cannibalism, 830–831, 842
Cannon, Michael D., 140, 141
Cantonment (New Mexico), 572
Canyon Creek Band, 501
Canyon Creek Mine, 779
Canyon Creek watershed, Apache sites in, 505
Canyon de Chelly
cotton agriculture, 796
migrations from western Mesa Verde, 317
Navajo settlements, 486, 487
patterns, 488
cardinal directions
celestial bodies and, 736
Chaco
great houses, 586
in rituals, 849–852
shrines and, 733, 734
Zuni view of, 734
cariogenic diets, 827–829
Carlson, Roy L., 486
Carmean, Kelli, 181, 184
Carpenter, John P., 250–251
Carretas polychrome, 390
Carson National Forest and contested places, 740
Casador stage, 235
Casa Grande, 341
terracing, 699
Casa Grande Ruins, 325
Casas Grandes (Di Peso), 96
Casas Grandes tradition, 390–391, 397, 472
agave, 793
baking pits, 612
cerros de trincheras in, 387
chiles in, 792
Di Peso on, 30, 95–96
effigy vessels, [link]
fermented beverages, 619
figurative pottery, 845
iconography, 670, 674–675
macaw breeding, 814
pottery, 389
lead paints, 771
Casitas Viejas, 554–555
Casserino, Christopher M., 406
Catholicism. See also missions and missionaries
rebellions and rejection of, 538–539
Spanish colonialism and conversion, 530–531
(p. 869) Caton, Steven
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., 140
caves. See also specific caves by name
access to underworlds via, 849
perishable technologies preserved in, 645
spirit engagement through, [link] , 851–852
celestial bodies, 736–737
cemeteries
excavation in Chaco Canyon, 291
placement of, 390
center place, the (Chaco), 734–736
centers, understanding growth of, 162
Central Arizona Project (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation), 572
Centro INAH Sonora, 382, 388
ceramics. See also black-on-white pottery
Apache, 503
Arroyo Hondo Black-on-white, 418
of Atil phase of Trincheras tradition, 387
Basketmaker Brown ware, 311
Casas Grandes tradition, 390
chronologies based on, 15–19
clays used in, 767–769
coil-and-scrape, 720–721
for cooking, 612, 614–618
Dinétah Gray, 488
diversity at Casitas Viejas, 554–555
Eastern Pueblo region
bichrome black-on-white, 418
Rio Grande Glazeware, 418
fermented liquids in, 619
glaze paints, 769–772
Hohokam, 326, [link]
buff ware, 341
Classic period, 358
distribution, 357
end of exchange, 358
Middle Gila Buff Ware, 355
red-on-brown ware, 364
red-on-buff tradition, 335–336, 355
Salado polychromes (Roosevelt Red Ware), 355, 362, 364, [link] , 367, 473, 670, 769
tripod vessel, [link]
Hopi
identity and, 435–436
katsina dancers’ masks on, 437
Huatabampo, 392
hunting scenes on, 636, [link]
iconography on, 663
Jeddito Orange Ware, 435-436
Jeddito Yellow Ware, 436
Medio period, 406
migrations and, 720–721
Mimbres, 265, 269, [link] , 275, [link]
black-on white pottery, 275–277
neckbanding on, [link] , 617–618
pastes, 768–769
perishable artifacts portrayed on, 648
plain ware in Early Ceramic period, 466
Ramos polychrome from Paquimé, 405, 406
raptor images on, [link]
ritual accompanying early maize in southern Arizona, 466
Salado, 670
Serrana tradition, 392–393
spirit engagement through, 847
spiritual agency of, 845
in study of Plains-Pueblos exchange, 518
study of social and economic interaction derived from analysis of, 418–419
surface textures, [link] , 617–618
Tierra Blanca Plain, 518
tripod/tetrapod vessels, [link]
turquoise and, 778–779
vessel forms, 614–617, [link]
ceramic seriation
in Cibola archaeology, 448
in Pueblo territories, 531
Cerrillos Hills
lead mining, 771
turquoise mining, 778
Cerrillos Mine (New Mexico), 571
Cerro de Trincheras (Sonora), [link] , 387, 388–389, 472
organization, 389
terracing, 699
Cerro Juanaqueña site (Chihuahua), 239, 240, 260, 398, [link]
corn agriculture, 790
Early Agricultural period, 383
terracing, 699
Cerro Pedernal, 775
Cerro Prieto terracing, 699
(p. 870) Cerro Rojo Complex, 516, [link]
cerros de trincheras, 387, 699
Chacoan Regional System, 716
Chaco Canyon, 285–305
agriculture
estimates of cultivable land, 292
irrigation, 698–699
and organization of production, 292–294
architecture
masonry construction, 602
baskets in ritual use, 651
bows and arrows, 652
built environment, 594, 595–597
cacao at, 288, 470, 795
as center place in cosmology, 734–736
Cibola architecture compared to, 450
as contested place, 741
dendrochronology and, 93
depopulation and drought, 757
directional layout of architecture, 586
dogs in, 816
as Eastern Ancestral Pueblo phenomenon, 114
great houses, 285–286
sites of, [link]
height of people at, 828
iconography, 674
macaw burials in, 816
matrilocality, 827
migrations, 650–651, 655
moon tracking by, 736–737
mortuary practices
turquoise in, 777–778
obsidian use, 773
ornaments and ritual paraphernalia, 286, [link] , 288
outlying communities, 296–298
perishable technologies preserved in, 645, 650–651
as pilgrimage center, 142–143, 739–740
pottery and feasts, 852
prayer sticks, 653
regional relations, 296–298
religious importance of, 289
resource depletion, 795
ritual artifacts, 653
ritual depositing behaviors in, 852
ritual use of animals in, 812–813
roads, 596–597, [link] , 736
spirit engagement via, 850
scarlet macaws in, 811–812
shell bracelets in, 469
use of commensuration and, 103–104
Chaco Culture National Historical Park, 602
Chaco Research Archive, 288
chalcedony, 772, 773
Chama region
shrines and rock art in, 733
Ute, Navajo, and Comanche raids on frontier villages, 554, 555–556
“Change Is Hard: The Challenges of Path Dependence,” 159
Chapalote corn landrace, 790
Chavez, John, 195
chemical turquoise, 779
chenopods, 793
in subsistence diet, 789
chert, 772, 773
Chetro Ketl great house, 598
Chetro Ketl Great Kiva, [link]
Chicano studies, 195
Chihuahua, 397–409
agriculture, 399
early techniques, 254
flood-plain, 403
early ceramic era, 399–401
Plainware period, 399
Viejo period, 400–401, [link]
fermented drinks, 619
fire regimes, 684–685
lack of colonial-period archaeology, 531
late ceramic era, 401–407
Medio period, 401
pre-ceramic era, 397–399
regional survey of sites in the northwest, 403
Chihuahua tradition, 232
Childe, Gordon, 92
chiles, 792
Chimney Rock, 737
Chimney Rock National Monument (Colorado), 178–179
Chinese, historical archaeology on, 573
(p. 871) Chiricahua
projectile points, [link] , 634
Southern Athapaskan cultural tradition, 495
cholla, 613, 793
Church, Minette C., 573
Chuska chert, 775
Chuska Mountains, 735
Cibola region. See Zuni/Cibola region
Cibola White Ware, 367
Cielo Complex, 516, [link]
Cienega
open spaces, 599
points, 629, 635
ritual use of animals, 814
Cieneguilla, Battle of (1854), 572
civilization
built environment and, 585
civilization/savagery dichotomy, 530–531
sedentism as, 723–724
Civil War, 567–568
clan, complexity of concept, 438
Clark, Bonnie J., 573
Clark, Grahame, 109
Clark, Jeffery J., 720
Clark, Tiffany, 812, 813
Clarke, David, 32
class warfare, post-colonial, 572
clays, 767–769. See also ceramics
climate, 749–765. See also drought; floods
conceptual models of climatic impacts, 751–754
fire regimes and, 684–686
impact
on agricultural landscape, 698–699
on Hohokam irrigation, 360, 361
in the Mesa Verde, 309–310, 315, 750
on social change, 271
in late Holocene, 247–248
pan-regional changes and
bison population movement, 517
perishable technologies and, 656
clothing. See also sandals
iconography showing, 667
cloud bowls, 847
Clovis, 234
in Chihuahua, 398
model of colonization, 214
projectile points, [link] , 631, [link] , 633, [link]
distribution, 214, 215–217, 218
radiocarbon dating, 23
sites
Lucy site, 219
Mockingbird Gap Clovis site, 220
in Northern Sonora, 218
in Sonora, 381
in Upper Rio Grande Valley, 219–220
in the Upper San Pedro Valley, 215–217, [link]
technologies, 210–211
points, [link]
clubs, grooved, 636
coal, 436
Coalfield Strike of 1913–1914, 52, 572
Cochise tradition, 232
Cochiti, 415, 422
Cochiti Dam flood pool survey, 420
code-switching, 128
Cody Complex
in Chihuahua, 398
projectile points, 633
colonialism
climatic influences in, 758
cooking technologies and, 612
impact
on Eastern Pueblo world, 414
on indigenous populations, 112
on Western Pueblos, 414
impact of NAGPRA on studies of, 43–44
plants introduced through, 788
problem terminology, 527
Spanish, 530
motivators of, 536
Native responses to, 537–539
reports on Athapaskan and Pueblo relations, 514
tribute demands, 648
Colorado
archaeology of Coalfield Strike of 1913–1914, 52, 572
historical archaeology on mining, 571
statehood, 569
Territory, 567
Uncompahgre River Valley, 570
(p. 872) Colorado Plateau
agriculture
corn, 790
cotton, 796
early cultivation techniques, 254
baskets in ritual use, 651
bows and arrows, 652
clays, 768
cooking
technologies, 614, [link] , 617–618
griddle stones, 618
hunting and landscape change in, 809
lack of radiocarbon dates from Middle Archaic sites, 236
migrations to, 716
perishable technologies preserved in, 645
prayer sticks, 653
sacred landscapes in, 730, 731–732, [link]
subsistence plants on, 789
vertical loom on, 649
colors, values associated with in pottery, 673
Colton, Harold S., 15, 24
on branches of Pueblo society, 144
on effects of the Sunset Crater eruption, 20
Columbian exchange and Indians as passive agents, 112
comals, 473, 474, 798
cooking with, 618
Comanches
in Early Colonial trade, 535
raids on Chama frontier villages, 554, 555–556
rise of, 515
rivalry with Apaches, 535
Comca’ac people, 383, 385
commensuration, 103–104
commodities, 842
commons
early, 257
local and global, 200–202
community-based integrative architecture, 592
community organization and identity, 257–259
Companion Rock, 737
complex adaptive systems (CAS)
and path dependence, 156
research, 137, 145–146
Congreso de las Acequias (Santa Fe), 199
conjunctive approach to archaeological interpretation, 111
Connelly, John, 435
construction techniques, 602
contemporary past, archaeology of, 52
Convento site (Chihuahua), 400
Cook, Harold, 22, 23
cooking
Hopi use of piki stones, 437
technologies, 611–625
cookstones, 612–614
copper bells, [link]
in Chaco Canyon, 288, 298
Mesoamerican imports, 270, 467, [link] , 469, 470
Trincheras tradition and, 389
coprolite data, 825–826
Cordell, Linda S., 33
critical of historical explanations, 45
The Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory, 97
on Eastern Pueblo settlement, 413
on Mimbres population, 267
on New Archaeology, 30
new look of the past, 34
Prehistory of the Southwest, 96
on Southwest archaeologists, 21, 50
on study of relationships between Eastern Pueblo communities, 417
Core Zone of Medio period, 403–405
corn. See maize
Coronado, Vázquez de, 528
Coronado’s expedition (1540), 371, 528, 530
determining route of, 530
Cortaro projectile points, 634–635, 635
Corúa (snake), 737
Cosgrove, Harriet S., 267
cosmologies, 79
architectural functions and, 840
bioarchaeology and, 826
iconography representing, 674, [link]
pottery narratives of, 847
(p. 873)
Pueblo, 738
sacred landscapes in, 729, 730, 733–734, 848
spirits in, 840
Costall, Alan, 664
costly signaling theory, 142
Cotter, John, 23
cotton
domesticated, 792, 793
at early farming sites, 249
exchanges of, 796
introduction to the Southwest, 648
sourcing, 656
specialization in, 797
cottontails, 809, [link]
Coulam, Nancy J., 237
counterfactuals, 104
Cowboy Cave, 235
basket from, [link] , 648
hearths in, 587
cradleboards, head shape altered by, 826
craft production
Athapaskans, 521
at Cerro de Trincheras, 389
craft specialization
Chaco, 293–294
Hohokam, 335, 357
craniometry, 826–827
Creel, Darrell, 275
on burning of Mimbres Valley great kivas, 268
on macaw burials, 814
on production sites of Mimbres pottery, 276
cremations
at Cerro de Trincheras, 387, 389
Hohokam, 338, 355, 367
Crested Butte (Colorado), 571
Cristobal de la Serna land grant, 193
critical junctures, concept of, 159
Crook, George, 497
Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, 48
Crown, Patricia L.
on learning processes, 672
on Salado iconography, 670
on spread of religious movements, 842
crucillo shrub, 793
Cueva de Ochoa site, 390–391, [link]
cultural landscapes, 183
cultural resource management (CRM), 34
on Apache archaeology, 501–502
concept of traditional cultural properties, 180
fieldwork mandated by, 254
historical archaeology and, 565, 573
legislation and, 35
and Navajo archaeology, 489
plant analysis in, 788
rise of, 35–38
shift in focus, 51
and study of Hohokam world, 326, 370
tribal programs, 38
culture
as adaptive subsystems, 841
defining separate, 840
migration and, 721–723
stress model of, 828, 829–830
Culture History, 24, 93, 94
in the 1960s and 1970s, 29–30
“Curatca lights the fires” ceremony, 691, 692
cushaw squash, 792
Cushing, Frank Hamilton
on agriculture, 698
and Americanist understanding of archaeology, 10
direct historical approach, 110
leader of Hemenway Expedition, 11
and oral tradition, 14, 77, 93, 431
on shallow history of Native Americans, 718
and Zuni oral histories, 447
Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (Deloria), 39
Cyark, 433
Dairy Site Canal System, 699
dams, 698, 708
Darling, J. Andrew
on Hohokam pilgrimages, 740
on O’odham trails, 184
on San Lorenzo, 557
on vecino identity, 197, 573
data
on climate, 754–756
collected by CRM projects, 37
GIS data on conflict and violence, 830
Hohokam plant resource recovery, 796
oral narratives and archaeological, 81
on plants, 787–788
skeletal, 831
smoothing of climate, 757
Datil projectile points, 634–635
dating. See also ceramics: chronologies based on; dendrochronology; radiocarbon dating
relative method, 129–130
techniques of, 531–533
Davis, Irvine, 126, 129
Dean, Jeffrey S.
Anasazi Behavioral Model, 752
on climate–human behavior, 751, 752
new look of the past, 34, [link]
simulation of farmer settlement, 145
on tree-ring retrodictions, 755
Dean, Rebecca L., 808
deer
garden hunting of, 808
social status and hunting of, 810
defensive sites, 592–593, 596
Defiance Plateau, Navajo settlements on, 486
De León, Jason, 52
Delight Makers, The (Bandelier), 11
Deloria, Vine, Jr., 39
on Native traditions’ privilege of space over time, 80
demographics. See also depopulation; population
macro-regional trends in the Southwest, [link]
perishable technologies and, 656
stress model of, 828
dendrochronology, 19–21, 93
ceramic seriation link with, 531
direct historical approach and, 110
on fire regimes, 685
at San Miguel del Vado, 557
studies
climate change and, 757
climate proxy data from, 754–755
drought and agricultural productivity and, 753
Dene, 519. See also Diné
depopulation. See also abandonment
agricultural landscapes and, 697, 708
climate extremes and, 757–758
climatic influences on, 749–751
destruction/deconstruction of built environment and, 599, 601–602
Dinétah, 488
drought and, 757–758
in Mesa Verde, 311
in mid-1200s, 318
San Juan, 719
social inequality in, 829
Der, Lindsay, 158
Desert Land Act (1875), 568
de Sosa, Castaño, 707
Determination of Eligibility for Inclusion in the National Register, 180
Diamond, Jared, 51, 145
Dick, Herb, 8
diet. See also subsistence
cariogenic, 827–829
social inequality and, 829–830
Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR), 815
Diné. See also Dene, Navajo
erroneous tenets about culture, 482
versus Western concept “Navajo,” 481
Dinétah, 488
Navajo expansion from, 486–487
Di Peso, Charles C., 30
on Chihuahua Plainware period, 399
on dissolution of Paquimé system, 405–406
excavations in Casas Grandes River Valley, 400
grand narrative by, 95–96
on Medio Period, 401
on Mesoamerican connections, 462, 463
diplomacy and alliances, Athapaskans’ skill at, 520
direct historical approach, 101, 109–119, 431
based on homology, 114
defined, 109
in Navajo archaeology, 489
relationships based on descent as central tenet, 115
disability scores, 829
(p. 875) disease, epidemic, 533–534
Hohokam decline and, 533
impact on demographic landscape prior to arrival of Europeans, 528
Dismal River Complex, 514, 516
Dittert, Alfred E., Jr., 487
diversity in Southwest archaeology, 51
Dobyns, Henry F., 112
Doelle, William Harper, 573
dogs
domestication, 627, 816
husbandry, 519, 521
Dollinger, Harold, 267
Dolores site, 828
domestic realm, Mesoamerican influence on, 474
Doolittle, William E., 253, 391
dot-in-square design, 671
Double Butte Cave, 851
Douglass, A. E., 19, 20
Downer, Alan S., 183
Downum, Christopher, 593
Doyel, David E., 471
Dozier, Edward, 13
Drennan, Robert D., 103
Driver, Jonathan C., 809, 812, 813
drought
assumptions on in climate–human behavior models, 753
Bailey on tree rings and, 755
definitions of, 756
depopulation and migration due to, 750, 751, [link] , 757–758
human vulnerability to, 759–760
paleoclimate retrodictions on, 756
population growth rates and, 752
predictions of increasing, 759–760
dual inheritance theory (DIT), 140, 143–144
Duff, Andrew I., 455
on Chaco migrations, 716
comparison of post-Chacoan trajectories, 161
use of commensuration, 103
dune-farming, 292
Dunn, Michael, 123
Dunnell, Robert
on neutral variability and variability subject to selection, 143
selectionism, 139
Durand, Kathy Roler, 812–813
Durand, Stephen R., 812–813
Durango Rockshelters, 645
Dutton, Bertha, 415
Dutton Plateau, 735
Duwe, Samuel G., 733
Dykeman, Douglas, 489
Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory, The (Cordell and Gumerman)
no mention of ethnographic literature, 33
sequence of periods in, 97
earliest people in the Southwest. See Paleoindians
Early Agricultural period, 247–264. See also Late Archaic
acquisition of marine shell, 466
cooking pots, 614
early sites, [link]
plants, 789
amaranth, 792
corn, 790
projectile points, 631, 633
in Sonora, 383
Early Archaic period, 234–236, 398
Early Basketmaker, 93, 310
Early Ceramic period
plain ware ceramics, 466
populations, 399–400
Early Colonial period, 527–547
defining spatial scope, 528, [link]
defining temporal scope, 527–528
disease, 533–534
historical context, 530–531
introduction of new goods in trade, 534–535
labor and market integration, 536
migration, 534–535
Native agency, 537–539
research on gap from pre to post-contact
in Pimería Alta, 533
in Pueblo territories, 531–533
“Early Man” sites, 22
(p. 876) earth rituals, 670
Eastern Basketmaker II, 144
Eastern Pueblo world, 411–428. See also Rio Grande Pueblos
aggregation: connections and boundaries, 416–419
anthropological definition, 413–414
geographical area, 411–413
migration, 415–416
northern Rio Grande area, [link]
settlement
cultural landscape, 419–422
history, 413
macro-patterning, 417
models, 416
East Pass site, 214
Eckert, Suzanne, 813
eclipses, 737
ecological models
based on dendrochronology, 20
fire use in, 687–688
of Plains-Pueblo exchange, 515
economics
Chaco, 595–596
fire reliant economies and, 688
path dependence and, 156
ritual practices and, 850
ecosystems, Mimbres impact on, 271
Eddy, Frank, 37
Eden, 211
projectile points, 633
effigy vessels
Casas Grandes, [link]
Huatabampo, 392
spiked, 798
as spirit entities, 844, 845
Eggan, Fred, 13
on effects of Spanish acculturation, 112
on Hopi social organization, 431
Eiselt, B. Sunday
on Jicarilla Apaches, 506, 573
on San Lorenzo, 557
on Southern Athapaskan separations, 499
on vecino identity, 197, 573
El Bajio site, 218
El Fin del Mundo site, 218
Eliade, Mircea, 49, 729–730
elk hunting, 808, 810
Elko projectile points, 235, [link] , 634, 635
Ellis, Florence Hawley, 19–20, 26
on bows and arrows, 631
collaboration with Native groups, 40
in Hopi research, 432
on origin of Pueblo people, 415
Pueblo traditional histories compiled, 718
El Morro Valley, 813, 814
El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, 571
El Paso Natural Gas Pipeline, 36
El Paso Polychrome ollas, 619
El Pueblito site, 405
Elson, Mark D., 358, 601–602
El Tiradito Shrine (Tucson), 179
Empire projectile points, 635
Emslie, Steven D., 808
enamel hypoplasia, 828, 830
ensoulment, 849
entanglement, concept of, 157–158
entradas, 530
entrapment, concept of, 158
entry boxes, 362
equinoxes, 736–737
Escalante-Dominguez expedition of 1776, 317–318
“Escaping the Confines of Normative Thought” (Cordell and Plog), 417
Escapule mammoth, 217
Escavada, 293
Escobar, Arturo, 201
Espejo expedition, 613–614
Estancia Basin
salt deposits, 776
Estey City (New Mexico), 571
ethnocentrism
iconography and, 663–665
on progress and reason, 840
ethnogenesis, 416
captive women and, 535
Navajo, 317
and production of locality, 196–198
ethnography, 10
on agriculture, 698
archaeology and, 13–14
on cooking technologies, 611
(p. 877)
image analysis and, 672
Indian criticism of, 41
informant biographies in, 842
on plants, 788
on sacred landscapes, 730
in the Southwest, 40–41, 51
spirits in, 840
ethnoscape, 198–200
Eventful Archaeologies, 98, 99
evolutionary and complexity theory, 137–153
evolutionary archaeology
CAS approaches compared to, 145
current approaches
behavioral ecology, 140–143
dual inheritance theory, 140, 143–144
evolutionary processes, 40
evolutionary theory, 138
and comparative perspective on history, 137
neoclassical, 841
path dependence and, 156
on spirits, 839–840
excavations
radiocarbon dating and improved methods, 23
sampling bias in, 591
skeletal remains, 826–827
stratigraphic, 15
of Western Apache sites, 503
exchange. See trade
“extended human phenotype,” 139
Fajada Butte, 735
Sun Dagger petroglyph, 736
farmer settlement simulation, 145–146
farming. See agriculture
farming/language dispersal hypothesis, 250–252
feasting at Hohokam ball court events, 335
Feather Cave, [link] , 851–852
feathers
ritual use of, 845
turkey-feather blankets, 294
Feldman, Marcus W., 140
Ferguson, T. J., 81, 776
fermented beverages, 618–619
Fernandini, Francesca, 158
fetishes, 845
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 11
direct historical approach, 110
Hopi research, 431, 438
and oral tradition, 14, 77, 438
on shallow history of Native Americans, 718
on spirits and cosmology, 840
field houses, 603
as boundary, 794
Figgins, Jesse, 22
figurines
accompanying early maize, 466, 614
Archaic, 234, 235
fired-clay, 241, 767
Hohokam, 338, 667
Preclassic, 467
from Las Capas, [link] , 259
Mogollon, 667
spirit associations with, 845–846, 852
split-twig, 237, [link] , 651, 665
fire use in plant management for, 688
stick, 688
fire regimes
definition of, 684
history of Southwestern, 684–686
scale of, 691–692
fire use
destruction of built environment with, 601–602
for food production, 794, 795
in hunting, 687–688
for landscape modification, 683–696
scales of, 687–691
First Mesa large villages, 435
Fish, Paul
on burned Hohokam houses, 601–602
on cerro de trincheras, 387, 593
Fish, Suzanne, 387, 593
Fleming, Robin, 100
floods
paleoclimate data on, 755–756
population growth rates and, 752
Flower World, 469, 655
folk tales, 77
(p. 878) Folsom, 231, 234
artifacts from the Rio Rancho site, [link]
in Chihuahua, 398
dating, 211
houses, 587
projectile points, [link] , 633
distribution, 214
sites, 22
in the Albuquerque Basin, 219
bison kill site, 213, 219
Lucy site, 219
radiocarbon dating, 22, 23
in Tularosa Basin, 220
in Upper Rio Grande Valley, 220
Fontana, Bernard, 565
food preparation
drying, 611–612
fermentation, 618–619
technologies for, 611–625
food provisioning
assumptions on in climate–human behavior models, 753–754
climate and, 749
climate extremes and, 757–758
drought and, 751, [link]
paleoclimate data on, 755
food storage
climate impacts on, 751, 754
ritual offerings and, 847–848
foraging and foragers
and agriculture, 253
agriculture and persistence of, 787
Barlow on farming versus, 141–142
Bayham’s foraging theory, 140–141
fire use in plant management by, 688–689
landscape modification by, 794
models
evolutionary and behavioral ecologists and, 140
methods of optimal foraging theory, 259
shift between big-game hunting and, 232
social identity among, 649
Ford, Richard I, 514
forests. See also Tonto National Forest
vegetation and fire regimes in, 686
formal approaches to images, 670–671
Fort Apache Indian Reservation
Apache reunion of 2013, 497
documented pre-reservation sites, [link]
Western Apache sites, 502, [link] , [link]
Fort Bowie, 572
Fort Burgwin (New Mexico), 572
Fort Huachuca, 572
Fort Stanton (New Mexico), 572
Fort Wingate (New Mexico), 572
Foucault, Michel, 599
Fourmile Ruin (Arizona), 852
Fowler, Don D., 11
Fowles, Severin M., 52, 157, 421
on cosmology and archaeology, 733
on link between Tiwa pueblos and Picuris and Pot Creek Pueblo, 422
on religion as social action, 815–816
on sacred in everyday life, 729
on trails in Tewa cosmology, 850
Fox, Jake R., 103
Fox, James J., 438
Francis, Harris, 184
Frank, Ross, 196–197
Fratt, Lee, 775
Fremont, 141–142, 144
as archaeological creation, 25
Fremont question, 29–30
French Archaeological Mission to Mexico, 737
frequency seriation and direct historical approach, 110
Fritts, Harold C., 755
Fruitland Project, 484
functionalism
in archaeology, 111, 431
in sociocultural anthropology, 139–140
on spirits, 840
funerary practices. See burial traditions
Funkhouser, Gary S.
on climate–human behavior, 751
streamflow retrodictions, 755–756
Gadsden Purchase, 8, 497, 566
Gah’nahvah/Ya Ti’ (2013), 497
Galaz site, 274, 275
(p. 879) Galisteo Basin. See also San Cristobal
agricultural landscapes, 700
iconography, 669
irrigation, 797
lead glazes in pottery, 772
Gallina
as archaeological creation, 25
head shape modification, 826
pitstructures, 590
Gallinas Springs site, 720
García, Angela, 195
garden game, 807–808
garden hunting, 636–637, [link] , 807–808, 811, 815
gardens, 698
Gary projectile points, 634
Garza Complex, 516, [link] , 518
Gasser, Robert, 796
gatherers. See foraging and foragers
Geib, Phil R., 238, 648
gender
and division of labor, 829–830
iconography and, 668–669
Munson on, 276
genetics
migration and, 723
monumental built environment and, 594–595
movement in, 717–718
Genízaros, 535, 552
archaeology, 552–553
and Hispano identity, 197
at San Miguel del Vado, 556
towns and buffer villages in northern New Mexico, [link]
gente de razon, la, 550
geoarchaeology, 21
geographic information system (GIS) data, 830
geologists
collaborations with archaeologists, 20
Geronimo, surrender of, 568
gift giving ritual, 844
Gila Bend area
ball courts, 334
Hohokam settlements, [link]
Gila Pueblo survey, 325
Gila River Indian Community, 178, 326
Cultural Resources Program, 37
Gila River Valley
and Hohokam canals, 328, 341
irrigation management, 339
pottery clays, 769
streamflow retrodictions on, 755–756
Gilman, Patricia A.
on Mattocks, 272
on Mimbres pottery, 276
on Mimbres Valley population, 268
on pit structure use, 590
Gilpin, Dennis, 487
Gladwin, Harold
beyond Pecos System, 94
excavations at Casa Grande and Snaketown, 325
History of the Ancient Southwest, 25, 95, 100
Glantz, Michael H., 756
Glassow, Michael A.
on bow vs. atlatl, 630
on Plains-Pueblo exchange, 516
glass projectile points, 631
glaze paints, 769–772
Glen Canyon Project, 36
Global Burden of Disease program, 829
global climate change, 759–760
Goat Hill site (Arizona), 700
Gobernador phase (Navajo), 488
Gomez, Laura, 197, 198
Gonzales, Robert O., 193
Goodman, Alan H., 830
Goodman, John D., 571
Goodwin, Grenville, 504
Gordon, Bryan C., 127
Gosser, Dennis C., 769
gourds. See bottle gourds
gowa, 503
Grand Canyon, 178
agave, 793
fire use in plant management, 688–689
iconography, 665
salt deposits, 776
spiritual significance of, 848
(p. 880) grand narrative, 92. See also History of the Ancient Southwest (Gladwin)
Post-Processualism and, 97
Gran Quivira pueblo, 758
grasses
domestication of, 793
in subsistence diet, 789
Grasshopper Plateau
turquoise mining, 779
women’s health, 829
Grasshopper Pueblo
multi-ethnic communities at, 827
Grass Mesa
great kiva, [link]
kiva, 592–593
gravel-mulching, 701, 704, [link]
Graves, Michael W.
on Apache sites, 501
on Ndee land use patterns, 504
Graves, W., 598–599
Gray, Marlesa A., 571
Graybill, Donald A.
on climate–human behavior, 751
on Navajo transition to pastoralism, 488
streamflow retrodictions by, 755–756
Great Basin
atlatls, 628
projectile points, 634
Great Bend Aspect, 514, 516
great houses
beyond Chaco Canyon, 288
in Chaco Canyon, 285–286
sites of, [link]
in Cibola region, 449, [link]
functions and scale, 595–596
functions and scale of, 594
labor for construction, 596
layout and orientation, 586
masonry walls, 602
in Mesa Verde, 313
not on the Hopi Mesas, 434
over-engineering of, 596
perishable technologies preserved in, 645
ritual use of animals in, 812–813
in sacred landscapes, 736
versus small houses, 294–295
social status and, 598
great kivas, 274. See also kivas
in Ancestral Pueblo architecture, 592, 593
in Chaco system, 595, 596
in Cibola region, [link] , 449–450
in Late Pithouse period, 268, 285
in Mesa Verde, 313, 315
Great North Road (Chaco), 597, 736
Great Period, 93
Great Pueblo period, 314–317
Great Southwest map, [link]
Grebinger, Paul, 114
Greenberg, Joseph A., 123, 126, 127
Greenleaf, John, 565
Gregory, David
on climate–human behavior, 751
sequence in circular mound construction, 471
streamflow retrodictions by, 755–756
use of triangulation, 102
Grewe site
courtyard occupation, 336, [link]
depopulation, 341
earth ovens, 335
plants at, 797
griddle stones, 612
cooking with, 618
Griffin, Daniel, 755
Grissino-Mayer, Henri D., 755
ground cherry, 793
ground stone, 232, 235
of Early Archaic, 235
of Middle Archaic, 236
ornaments, 772
quarries, 773, [link] , 775
tools
at Cerro Juanaqueña, 399
Homolovi III, 775
petrography on, 775
Guadalupe, ritual use of animals in, 813
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, 195, 497
Guarijio people, 383
Guernsey, Samuel J., 645
Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties (Parker and King), 173, 177, 180
(p. 881) Gumerman, George J., 33
on climate–human behavior, 752
The Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory, 97
new look of the past, 34
on process of cultural evolution, 45
simulation of farmer settlement, 145
Gunn, Joel D., 646, 650
Gunnerson, Dolores
on Athapaskans, 514
on Navajo entry into the Southwest, 483
Gunnerson, James H.
on Apache archaeology, 501
on Athapaskans, 514
on Plains-Pueblo exchange, 516
Gunnison (Colorado), 571
Gusave tradition, 392
Gypsum/Chiricahua projectile points, 237, 634, 635
Haas, Jonathan, 45–46
Haas, William Randall, Jr., 147, 649
Habicht-Mauche, Judith
analysis of Tierra Blanca Plain ceramics, 518
on Arroyo Hondo black-on-white ceramics, 418
Halona:wa excavations, 11
Hämäläinen, Pekka, 539
Hammack, Laurens, 631
“handicap principle,” 142
Hanson, J., 587
Hard, Robert J., 239, 399
Harrington, John Peabody, 420, 776
Harvey, Graham, 848
Haury, Emil
on dendrochronology, 19, 20
excavations
of the Naco Mammoth, 215
at Snaketown, 325–326
on figurines and cremations, 840
on Hohokam, 94
migrations, 462
origins, 30
on Lehner site, 217
on migrations, 719
Hohokam, 462
Kayenta, 718–719
Mesoamerican into Arizona, 466
on Mogollon, 94
definition, 454
work at Ventana Cave, 23–24
Havasupai, 178
Hawk, Charles, 635–636
Hawikku site, 15
Hawley, Florence. See Ellis, Florence Hawley
Hayden, Julian, 23, 209–210
Hayden Flour Mill complex, 572
Hayes, Alden C., 463
Haynes, Vance, 216
Hays-Gilpin, Kelley, 646, 668–669, 671
health
Hohokam in Classic period, 360, 361
pre-colonial, 827–829
hearths
Early Archaic, 587
Ndee, 503
uses of, 611
Hegmon, Michelle
on Chaco migrations, 716
complex adaptive systems research, 145
on the human experience, 831
on Mimbres people
Classic Black-on-white pottery, 269
migration, 270
pottery, 276
on organization at NAN Ranch and Mattocks sites, 273–273
overview of Mimbres research, 265
on plazas, 598
on ritual architecture, 842
height, of pre-contact people, 828
Heilen, Michael P., 571
Hell Gap, 211
Helm, June, 521
Hemenway Expedition, 11
Hero Twins, [link] , 277, 670, 674
Herskovitz, Robert M., 572
Heshotauthla excavations, 11
Hester, James J.
on Navajo/Pueblo initial contact, 485
on Navajo raids on Hopi and Zuni, 486
(p. 882) Heupel, Kaet, 52
hewe, 612, 618
Hewett, Edgar Lee, 411
Hicks, Dan, 842
hides, finished, 294
hierarchy
within Chaco Canyon, 295
Hohokam, 338
Hill, Asa T., 514
Hill, James, 29, 31
Hill, Jane H.
on introduction of agriculture, 250–251
loan words in Pueblo languages, 128
on Proto-Uto-Aztecan, 130
on Uto-Aztecan language spread, 716
Hill, W. W., 776
Hillier, B., 587
Himdag, 740
Hispanic people
fire use in warfare, 690
TCPs associated with, 179
views of “civilized people,” 585
Hispano
archaeological research on, 51
mutation of identity, 197
historical archaeology, 565
archaeohistory versus, 96
impact of NAGPRA on, 44
research themes, 569–573, [link]
urban, 571–572
historical contingency, 157
historical disjuncture/disjunction, 113
historical linguistics. See linguistics: historical
historical particularism, 431
definitions of culture in, 840
Historical Processualism, 98–99
Historical Sites Act (1935), 35
Historic period, 93
historic preservation, 179–180
histories, writing archaeological, 44–53
historiography and archaeology, 11
history
American archaeology and, 91, 97–98
archaeological methods for ( See commensuration; counterfactuals; triangulation)
climate influences on, 749–751
environmental, 195
path dependence and, 156, 161
scientific certainty and, 100
subsumed to evolution in New and Processual Archaeology, 97
writing without documents, 100
History of the Ancient Southwest, An (Gladwin), 25, 95
History of the Ancient Southwest, A n (Lekson), 91, 98, 101–102
Hodder, Ian, 157–158
Hodge, Frederick Webb
in Hemenway Expedition, 11
stratigraphic excavation at Hawikku, 15
and Zuni oral histories, 447
Hodges projectile points, [link] , 635
Hogan, Patrick, 487
hogans, 485, 486, 487, 490
forked-pole, 488
forked stick, 505
hog-potato, 793
Hohokam, 141. See also Hohokam, Classic period; Hohokam, Preclassic
adobe construction, 602
agriculture
agave crop, 792–793, 797
corn, 792
as archaeological creation, 25
artiodactyls in, 810–811
ball courts, economic role of, 850
cacao, 795
ceramics, 16
clays, 769
design elements replaced by Mimbres Classic Black-on-white, 269
minerals in, 768
change in settlement pattern, 342, 355, 357
changes in religion, 672
communities, 339
cooking technologies, 618
corporate descent groups, 338
cotton exchange in, 796
decline and path dependency, 159, 533
destruction of built environment, 601–602
figurines
and cremations, 840
spirit engagement and, 852
(p. 883)
hunting
garden hunting, 808
and landscape change, 809
iconography, 674
irrigation system, 159–160, [link] , 162–163, 699
in Classic period, 360
learning processes, 672
lock-in and, 159
Mesoamerican elements in region, 464–474
migrations, 716
monumental construction, 593–594
obsidian use, 773
O’odham and, 26, 81–82
petroglyphs,850–851
pilgrimages, 740
plant resource recovery data, 796
plant use, 797–798
platform mounds, 593–594
plazas, 599, [link]
population
climatic influences on depopulation, 758
demographic shifts at end of Sedentary, 357
pottery iconography, [link] , 666–667
projectile points, [link] , 635
region, [link]
Sedentary period, 356–357
shell bracelets, 466–467
systematics for, 94
villages, foundation settlements for, 588
Hohokam, Classic period, 353–379, 593–594
common material culture patterns, 354–355
courtyards, 355, 472
emerging leaders, 361
ethnic conflicts with immigrants, 364
fragmentation, overexploitation and decline, 356–361
Mesoamerican connection, 470
modeled spindle whorls, 472, [link]
platform mounds, 358, [link] , 360, 471
change in use of, 360–361
population decline, 368
regional reorganization, 358
Hohokam, Preclassic period, 323–351, 593
architecture
courtyards, 336–337
Mesoamerican similarities, 467
platform mounds, 467
ball courts, 328, 333–336, [link]
chronology, 326–328, [link]
community organization and leadership, 339–340
figurines, 845, [link]
historical background, 325–326
households and corporate descent groups, 336–338
irrigation systems, 328–331, [link]
Mesoamerican imports, 467
overlap with Mesoamerican Postclassic, 470
plazuelas, 338
transition to Classic period, 340–342
village formation and population growth, 331–333
Hohokam Core map, [link]
Hohokam Revitalization Movement, 469
Hokan hypothesis, 124
Holden, W. C., 514
Holocene Climatic Optimum, 309–310
Holocene period, 234, 235. See also Late Holocene
Homestead Act (1862), 568
homesteading, 570
homologies versus analogies, 113
Homol’ovi
iconography and color use, 673
ritual depositing behaviors, 852
ritual use of animals, 813–814
turkeys, 816
Homolovi II, cotton seeds at, 797
Homolovi III
ground stone tools, 775
Hopi
agave exchange, 795
basketry, 437, 649
ceramics, 435–437
Jeddito Orange Ware, 435–436
Jeddito Yellow Ware, 436
clans, 438 (p. 884)
tradition as topogeny, 438
collaboration with archaeologists since 1975, 431, 432–433
color use, 673
contemporary settlement patterns, 435
contested places, 741
cosmology, 734
Cultural Preservation Office, 81
Cultural Resources Advisory Task Team, 181
fluid pre-contact social landscape, 439
history
as clan histories, 429
prior to 1600, 429–443
history of research, 431–433
hunting, 808
technology, 636
iconography, 663, 669, 672, [link]
immigration to region, 439
kachina songs, 128
Mesas map, [link]
migrations, 721
oral narratives, 81, 438
as philosophy of living, 429
pilgrimages, 739, 776, 851
protection of Mount Taylor, 174
redrawing of reservation boundaries, 432
sacred landscapes, 737, 738
settlement of region, 433–435
sodality ownership, 115
as source for pre-colonial analogues, 112
TCPs associated with, 178, [link]
textile, 437
Hopi Cultural Preservation Office (HCPO), 433
Hopi language, 121, 127, 128, 718
Hopi “maiden shawl,” 437
Hopi Reservation, [link]
Hopi Salt Mine, 776
sacred landscapes, 853
Hopi Salt Trail, 739
Hopi Tutsqwa, [link] , 432
hornos (bread ovens), 612, 614
Hosta Butte, 13, 732,