Abstract and Keywords
This chapter discusses the Hohokam Classic Period (ca. 1200–1450 ce) in southern Arizona. Two perspectives are presented for observed archaeological patterns. One perspective is from the Phoenix Basin center, a densely populated region on a trajectory of overexploitation and decline throughout much of the interval, despite the construction of massive irrigation works and architectural buildings that left impressive ruins. The other perspective is from the outlying valleys to the north and east of Phoenix that had much lower population densities. Here intense interaction between local majorities, and small, but socially resilient, Kayenta immigrants from northeast Arizona led to the development of an inclusive Salado ideology that transcended the identities of both groups. This ideology ultimately penetrated the Phoenix Basin when the latter was on the verge of collapse. This collapse was so complete that few pre-contact archaeological sites have been identified in the Hohokam region after 1450 ce.