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date: 18 June 2019

(p. 499) Index

(p. 499) Index

Page references followed by a “t” indicate a table; “f” indicate a figure.

A
abnormalities. See also endocrine abnormalities, in depression
brain functional, 216–21, 221f
brain structural, 215–16, 215f, 218–19, 221f
cognitive, 180
neurochemical processes, 198
in neuroendocrine processes, 191–93, 197–98
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), 6, 101, 415
empirical support for, 440–41
MBCT compared to, 435–40
outcome research, 440–42
process research, 441
acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions (AMBI)
on ACT and MBCT, 436–40
future directions, 443–44
acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), 195, 202
adaptation
causal structure of, 27f
disorders and, 25–26
sickness behavior and, 4, 24, 25t, 27–28, 29f
social partners and, 32
starvation depression and, 4, 24, 25t, 27, 29f
suicidal behavior and, 32–33
trait function, 25
adaptive treatments, 479
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 32
adolescence
double depression and dysthymic disorder in, 229
dysfunctional attitudes, 146
FFT-A for, 293, 294
gender and depression, 5, 278–79
interpersonal and neurobiological processes in, 51
neuroticism personality trait peak, 155
persistent depressive disorder of, 229
sexual orientations and depression risk, 50
adolescent bipolar disorder. See youth bipolar disorders
Adolescent General Behavior Inventory (A-GBI), 292
adoption studies, of BD genetics, 112–13
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 192
adults. See also older adults
BD in, 5, 288–90, 288t
low-income, prevention programs for, 363, 365–66
neurobiological processes of, 51–52
prevention programs for general, 365
advanced age. See older adults
affective bias, 203
affective disorders, 17, 72, 112. See also seasonal affective disorder
Affective Go/No-go test, CANTAB, 183
affective network (AN), MDD and, 217–18
affective processing bias, 202
affective syndrome, of Alzheimer’s disease, 300
age
BD and, 133
as PMDD risk factor, 240
suicide and, 62
agreeableness personality trait, 154
alienists, melancholia treatment, 15
Alzheimer’s disease, affective syndrome of, 300
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), 243
amygdala, 160–61, 207
in emotional processing, 216
fMRI on fear processing and, 205
PFC and, in BD, 219–20
reduced activation following SSRI, 205
analysis, 33
cost-benefit, 30, 30t
HD, of mental disorder, 85
of melancholic depression, 29–30
of rumination, 29
analytical rumination hypothesis (ARH), 29, 33
bereavement, 30–31
complex problems triggering depression, 30
resource management dilemmas, 30
social dilemma, 30
triggering problem and, 31–32
The Anatomy of Melancholy (Burton), 13–15
ancestral environments, 26
anhedonia, 180, 184, 208
anorexia nervosa (AN), suicide and, 63
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 160–61
antidepressant medications (ADMs), 31, 244–45
action, in neuropsychological mechanisms, 203–5, 377
for BD, 377, 386–87, 388
classes of, 374–77
clinical trials on, 377–78
cognitive impairment and, 182
cognitive neuropsychological model of, 5, 185, 203–6
cold cognition and, 182–83
combination strategies, 379–80
5-HTT or NET transporters blockade, 201
future directions in treatment development, 380–81
for late life mood disorders, 303–5
maintenance medication treatment, 380
for medical comorbidities, 350–53
monoamine system target, 201–2
neural plasticity effect, 202
neurogenesis dependence, 202
for persistent depressive disorder, 233
for PPBD, 268
for SAD, 260
severity and, 388
suicide risk and, 6, 378–79
therapeutic lag of, 379
(p. 500) anxiety
environments shared with depression, 318–20
genetic factors shared with depression, 318
melancholia linked with, 12, 14
neuroticism personality trait and, 155
anxiety disorders
comorbidity with BD, 5, 40, 98
GAD, 87, 88, 317, 320
SSRIs and SNRIs use in, 376
youth BD comorbidity with, 289–91, 290t
anxiety disorders comorbidity, with depression, 5, 98, 313
explanations for, 316–20
future directions, 320–21
genetic liability shared, 318
mechanisms of, 320
rates of, 314, 315t, 316
SUD and, 40, 156
anxiolytics, as PMS treatment, 246–47
anxious attachment, 170
anxious depression symptom-based subtype, 42
Aretaeus of Cappadocia, on melancholia, 13, 72
aripiprazole and quetiapine augmentation, 304
assessment, 4. See also outcome assessment
CFI, on EE, 173
for late-life mood disorders, 300–301
of life events, 123
life stress, 124, 129
of mood disorders, 95–104
of PDs, 326–27
of SUD and mood disorders, 336–37
suicide risk, 66–68
of youth BDs, 291–92
for youth depression, 277
association
between medication conditions and depression, 350–55
between personality and depression, 155–57, 160–61
attachment, 167, 170, 282
attention deficit disorder (ADD), BD shared susceptibility, 114–15
attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), youth BD comorbidity, 289–90, 290t
Attributional Style Questionnaire, 146
atypical depression symptom-based subtype, 42
avoidant attachment, 170
B
“Beating the blues,” 472
Beck, Aaron, 61, 65
Beck Community Initiative Training Program in Cognitive Therapy, 419
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), 102, 103, 301
Beck’s Theory of Depression, 142–46, 150, 411
Bedford College Life Event and Difficulty Schedule, 136
behavioral activation (BA), 423, 471
evidence base, 429
theoretical foundation, 428–29
treatment overview, 429–31
behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), 428, 429
behavioral interventions, 5, 247
Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF), 220
behavior therapy (BT), 6, 432
CWD course, 365–66, 423, 426–28
historical roots of, 6, 423–24
belongingness, 65
bereavement
ARH and, 30–31
depressive reaction triggered by, 84–85
in DSM-III, 20, 84
duration, 90
NCS on, 85
triggered depression, 85–86
bereavement exclusion (BE), in DSM-5, 12, 20, 22, 84–85
Berkson’s fallacy, 337–38
bias
CBM techniques, 206–7, 208
emotional, 183, 185, 186
mood dissociation with, 203
negative emotional processing, 185, 202–3
bidirectional models, for SUD and mood disorders, 340f, 341–42
biological explanations, for suicide, 65
biological risks, for youth depression, 281
Bipolar Affective Disorder: Lithium/Anticonvulsant Evaluation (BALANCE), 389–90
bipolar disorder (BD), 38–39, 385. See also mania; pharmacotherapy, of BD; postpartum bipolar disorder; youth bipolar disorders
ADMs use for, 377, 386–87, 388
of adults, 5, 288–90, 288t
anxiety disorder and SUD comorbidity, 40, 98
brain abnormalities, 218–21, 221f
CBT for, 490–94
characteristics of, 37
course of, 43–44
cultural context of, 76–77, 79, 137
environmental factors in, 4, 43, 132–39
family functioning, EE in, 134–35, 138
genetics of, 4, 111–15, 112t, 114f
GWAS on, 111, 113–14, 114f, 116
heritability of, 4, 115, 138
lithium for, 179, 389, 392
MDD overlap and distinction from, 40–41
with mixed features specifier, 41, 337
prevalence of, 75, 267
psychosocial impairment, 97
rapid cycling, 44, 392–93
screening scales for diagnosis of, 97–98
sub-syndromal manic symptoms during MDE, 40–41
suicide and, 63
treatment, 390, 406, 490, 493–94
underrecognition, 97–98
bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS), 288, 290, 291
bipolar I disorder (BPI), 290–91
diagnosis criteria, 38
DSM-5 on, 133
episode features, 38–39
NCS-R on, 42, 43
prevalence rate of, 385
bipolar II disorder (BPII), 38, 290, 291, 385
antidepressant monotherapy for, 6
DSM-5 on, 133
MDE and hypomanic episode in, 39
NCS-R on, 42, 43
bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs), 287
borderline personality disorder, 63, 98
bottom-up processing, 180, 185
Bowlby, John, 89
BPI. See Bipolar I
BPII. See Bipolar II
brain. See specific areas
brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), 192
brain functional abnormalities
in BD, 219–21, 221f
in MDD, 216–18
brain stimulation treatments, 407
definition, 398–99
EpCS, 406
FEAST, 401–2
MST, 401–2
rTMS, 6, 207, 402, 404
subdural, 406
TMS, 398, 402–4
VNS, 398, 404–5
(p. 501) brain structural abnormalities
in BD, 218–19, 221f
in MDD, 215–16, 215f
Bridges to High School intervention, 365
brooding, 31–32, 148, 149
burdensomeness, suicide and, 65
burdensomeness-to-kin hypothesis, 33
Burton, Robert, 13–15
C
calcium, for PMS treatment, 247
Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), 173
Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), 181
Affective Go/No-go test, 183
Cambridge Gambling Task, 184
cancer, 6
causal associations with depressive syndromes, 350
depression prevalence, 349
risk factors for depressive syndrome and, 350
treatment of depression and, 350–51
candidate mechanisms of change, in DT, 450
cardiovascular disease (CVD), 6
causal associations with depressive syndromes, 351–52
depression prevalence, 351
risk factors, 351
treatment of depression and, 352
Cassidy, Walter, 18
catecholamines, 195–96, 198
Categorization of Affective Meaning States (CAMS) coding system, on EE, 465
Cattell’s 16-factor model, 155
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 191
change model, 126, 127
child- and family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CFF-CBT), 294, 494
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 277, 292
children
maltreatment and adversity of, 5, 229–30, 233
persistent depressive disorder, 229
PPD consequences for, 271
sexual abuse of, 53–54
Children’s Depression Inventory, 277
Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), 291–92
Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Child and Parent Forms (ChIPS/P-ChIPS), 191
chronic depression, 5
CBASP and IPT for, 232–33
dysthymic disorder, 227
HPA axis and, 230–31
MDE, chronic subtype, 227, 228
neuro-imaging studies on, 231
predictors and correlates of, 229–32
chronicity, of PDs and mood disorders, 330
chronic strains, gender roles and, 54–55
chronic stress, persistent depressive disorder and, 232
cinguloinsular-opercular (CIO), brain connectivity in, 220
circadian pacemaker, within SCN, 256–57
circadian rhythm, melatonin and, 192–93
Claiming Your Connections intervention, 365
client centered therapy (CCT), 459–60, 463–64
Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), 103, 104
clinical management, of PMDD or PMS, 247–48
Clinical Outcomes in MEasurement Based Treatment (COMET), 100, 101
clinical significance criterion (CSC), of uncomplicated depression, 90–91
clinician-rated treatment outcome measures
HAMD, 101, 103, 218, 404
MADRS, 101, 103
Cloninger’s concept of harm avoidance, 155, 159
clozapine, 386, 390
Cluster B personality disorders, neuroticism personality trait and, 158
Cochrane Collaborative, on SSRIs for PMDD, 244
cognitive abnormalities, 180
cognitive/affective processes, 52–53
Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), 232–33
cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), for HIV/AIDS and depression, 355
cognitive behavioral theories of suicide, 65
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 179, 185–86, 343, 414
EFT compared to, 464
for emotional processing, 206–8
IPT and, 452
for late life mood disorders, 301, 302
for medical comorbidities, 351–55
for PDs and mood disorders, 331
PET studies on, 207
for PPD, 272
for pregnancy depression, 367
for youth depression, 283
cognitive behavioral therapy, for BD, 490
empirical evidence, 492–94
group, 493
individual, 492–93
MBCT, 493–94
for pediatric BD, 494
treatment characteristics, 492
cognitive behavioral therapy, for SAD (CBT-SAD), 260–61
cognitive bias modification (CBM) techniques, 206–7, 208
cognitive control network (CCN), 217
cognitive factors
for persistent depressive disorder, 231
for youth BD, 292–93
cognitive function
in depression development, 4, 202
melancholic depression evolution and, 28–29, 33
cognitive impairment, from ECT, 401
cognitive model of antidepressant treatment, 205–6, 209
cognitive neuropsychological model, 184, 186
ADMs and, 5, 185, 203–6
CBT and, 185
on emotional bias, 185
negative expectations, 185
on reward processing, 185
schematic processing, 185
cognitive restructuring, in self-help interventions, 471
cognitive risks, for youth depression, 281–82
Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ), 145, 146, 147
cognitive therapy (CT), 6, 411
acute outcomes, 413–14
behavioral strategies, 412
in clinical practice, 418–19
cognitive change role, 416–17, 419
cognitive strategies, 412–13
collaborative empiricism, 413
fixed-duration treatment limits, 415–16
future directions, 419–20
long-term outcome, 414–15
process of change in, 416–18
session structure, 412
(p. 502) therapeutic alliance in, 418
therapist behaviors and therapeutic relationship, 417
training and implementation, 419
treatment procedures, 412–13
Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS), 417–18
cognitive vulnerability, unipolar depression and, 142, 145–49
Beck’s Theory of depression, 143
design considerations in evaluation of, 144
future directions for, 150
Hopelessness Theory, 143
Response Styles Theory, 143–44
Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) project, 145, 148
cold cognition, 185, 186
ADMs and, 182–83
CANTAB test for, 181
computerized tests for, 181–82
deficits, 181, 182
impairment in mood disorders, 180–82
RVIP test for, 181
Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS), 67
collaborative care, 478, 493
Collaborative Depression Study, 44
collaborative empiricism, 413
Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study, 169
college students prevention programs, 363, 366–67
Common Cause model, 157–61
communication enhancement training, 494
comorbidity. See also personality disorders comorbidity; substance use disorders comorbidity
anxiety disorder, 5, 40, 98
anxiety disorders with depression, 5, 40, 98, 313–21, 315t
from artifacts of diagnosis criteria, 317
from base rates or sampling, 316–17
diagnostic, underrecognition in depressed patients, 98–99
from etiological relationships between disorders, 318–20
with MDD, 98, 327, 328, 330
medical conditions, 5, 348–55
of persistent depressive disorder, 234
from poor placement of diagnostic boundaries, 317–18
study importance, 339–40
treatment errors for unaddressed, 99
treatment for, 342
in youth BD, 289–91, 290t
in youth depression, 279
comorbidity models, for SUD and mood disorders, 5, 6
bidirectional models, 340f, 341–42
causal models, 341
secondary psychiatric disorder models, 340f, 341
secondary substance abuse models, 340f, 341
third variable or common factor models, 340f, 341
complex problems, melancholic depression triggered by, 30–31
Complication model, 156–57, 161
Composite International Diagnostic Interview, on SAD, 255
Concreteness Training, 32
conduct disorder (CD), youth BD comorbidity, 289–90, 290t
conscientiousness personality trait, 154
co-occurrence, 313, 325
coping with depression (CWD) course, 365–66, 423
evidence base, 427
RCPR and, 427
theoretical foundation, 426–27
treatment overview, 427–28
Cornell Scale for Depression, 301
cortical-subcortical imbalance, in MDD, 214, 216
corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), in CSF, 191
corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), 191
cortisol
hypersecretion, depression and, 191, 192
saliva sampling, 191
cost-benefit analysis, 30, 30t
course
of BD, 43–44
of depressive disorders, 44–45
of grief episodes, 89–90
of mood disorders, 42–45
of PDs and mood disorders, 329–30
of persistent depressive disorder, 227, 228–29
of suicidal behavior, 60
of youth BD, 290–91
Course and Outcome of Bipolar Disorders in Youth (COBY) study, 288, 290
Cox proportional hazards analysis, 31
Coyne’s interpersonal model of depression, 168
C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammation marker of, 193
cross-sectional correlational designs, 150, 278
Beck’s Theory of Depression and, 144–45
in Hopelessness Theory of Depression, 146–47
for Response Styles Theory of Depression, 148–49
on rumination, 148–49
cultural context, of mood disorders, 4, 71, 78–79
group variations, 73–77
history, 72–73
cultural group variations
etiological beliefs, 73–74
incidence and prevalence, 75
stress and vulnerability, 74–75
symptom presentation, 75–77
cultural neuroscience, 78–79
cultural scripts, 77–78
culture, 71–72
BD and, 76–77, 79, 137
in cultural studies of mood disorders, 77–79
culture-mind-brain, 77–78
cumulative burden, in unipolar depression, 121
Cushing’s Disease, 190, 192
cyclothymic disorder (CYC), 38, 39, 133
D
daily mood monitoring, 492
dawn simulation, for SAD, 261
deep brain stimulation (DBS), 186, 208–9, 405–6
default mode network (DMN), MDD and, 217–18, 231
delusions, in psychotic depression, 42
dementia, 300, 301
Dementia Mood Assessment, 301
dementia praecox (schizophrenia), Kraepelin on, 15
dependent SLEs, 170, 174
depression. See also chronic depression; coping with depression (CWD) course; interpersonal perspectives on depression; late life depression (LLD) patients; melancholic depression; neuropsychological mechanisms, of depression and treatment; nonpharmacological depression treatments; personality, depression and; postpartum depression; rational model, of depression treatment; (p. 503) uncomplicated depression; unipolar depression; youth depression
anxiety disorder and SUD comorbidity with, 40, 156
anxiety disorders comorbidity with, 5, 40, 98, 313–21, 315t
Burton on mood, cognition, and physical symptoms of, 13
cognitive function in development of, 4, 202
comorbidity underrecognition, 98–99
contagion, 168
core features of, 11
disability from, 3
disproportionate duration or severity, 11
double, 228–29
DSM-III and DSM-5 symptom-based criteria, 12
endocrine abnormalities in, 190–92, 197–98
geriatric, 182
interpersonal treatments of, 173–74
long-term depression, WM tasks and, 32
negative biases in, 185
onset of, 124–26, 128
overdiagnosis of, 96
psychotic, 17, 42
remitted depression designs, 143–47, 149, 150
starvation, 4, 24, 25t, 27, 29f
symptoms of, 11, 21, 72
vascular, 5, 300
winter, 254, 255
depressive conditions, Feighner criteria of, 3–4, 17–19, 20
depressive disorders, 39, 121–22, 201. See also major depressive disorder; persistent depressive disorder; premenstrual dysphoric disorder
course of, 44–45
DMDD, 38, 287–88
normal sadness compared to, 11–12, 16
symptoms, 37
depressive syndromes, medical comorbidities and, 348–55
design studies
cognitive vulnerability to depression evaluation by, 144
cross-sectional correlational, 144–47, 148–49, 150, 278
remitted depression, 144–47, 149–50
developmental psychopathology, 279–83
dexamethasone, HPA axis and CRH, 191
dexamethasone suppression test (DST), 191, 231
diagnosis, 4, 15
DSM-III MDD, 19, 20–21
of mood disorders, 95–104
of persistent depressive disorder, 227–28
of PMDD, 243–44
PPD, 269
research instruments and structured interviews for, 96–101
unstructured interview errors of, 96–97, 98
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
PPD diagnosis not in, 269
uncomplicated depression criteria, 85
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-I (DSM-I), 16–17
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-II (DSM-II), 16, 17
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III (DSM-III), 11
bereavement in, 20, 84
Cassidy criteria, 18
depression symptom-based criteria, 12
Feighner depression criteria and, 3–4, 17–19, 20
MDD diagnosis in, 19, 20–21, 84
PDs criteria and, 325
sources of, 17–19
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV), 96, 98, 326
DSM-5 differences from, 4
on uncomplicated depression, 88
on youth BD, 288
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5), 73–74
BE, 12, 20, 22, 84–85
on BPI and II disorders, cyclothymia, 133
clinicians disregard for, 95, 96
on cognitive process criteria, 180
on depressive disorder and BD, 38–39
DSM-IV differences from, 4
MDD criteria, 83–84
MDE criteria, 180
on mood disorders criteria, 337
mood disorders heterogeneity, 4
PDs categorical diagnostic system, 326
on persistent depressive disorder, 227–28
on PMDD, 239, 243
postpartum specifier in, 269
on RUP, 122
on SUD, 337
Diagnostic Inventory for Depression (DID), 102
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 294
diathesis-stress model, 145, 146
diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), 218
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), on MDD, 214–15
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 39
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), 38, 287–88
DNA pooling-based study, 113
dopamine, 190, 194, 195, 196
dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), 160
double depression, 228–29
dual vulnerability model, SAD and, 259
Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline, in Netherlands system, 485
duty to warn, 67
dynamic therapy (DT), 447
candidate mechanisms of change, 450–51
depression conceptualization evolution, 448
efficacy, 449
interventions, 448–49
LTDT, 448–49
STDT, 448–49
dysfunctional attitudes, 145–46, 150
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), 144, 145–46
dysfunctions, 25–26
dysmenorrhea, 239
dysphoric mania, pharmacotherapy for, 393
dysthymic disorder, 44, 227, 228
in childhood and adolescence, 229
PDs comorbidity with, 327
SSRI treatment for, 159
E
education, MDD impairment in, 39
effortful control (EC), 280–81
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 6, 208–9, 398
adverse effects of, 401
(p. 504) continuance or maintenance, 401
for late life mood disorders, 305
for medical comorbidities, 354
theory, 400
for youth BD, 293
electrocortical stimulation (ECS), 401
electroencephalography (EEG), 52
emotional bias, 183, 185, 186
emotional episode (EE), CAMS rating of, 465
emotional processing
amygdala role in, 216
BD brain function and, 219–20
CBT for, 206–8
negative biases, 185, 202–3
neuropsychological model of ADMs action on, 5, 185, 203–5
pharmacological treatment, of depression for, 206
emotion-focused theory, 460–61
emotion-focused therapy (EFT)
CBT compared to, 464
EE using CAMS, 465
empty-chair tasks, 463
MEE in, 466
process-directive in, 462
process research on, 464–66
research on, 463–66
resolution in, 465
SEU use in, 462
therapeutic relationship in, 462
two-chair tasks, 462–63
emotions, 26–27
empty-chair tasks, 463
endocrine abnormalities, in depression
HPA axis, 190–92, 197–98
life stress influence on, 191
neuroendocrine mechanisms, 192–93
energetically expensive processes, 32
energy allocation, 28f, 32
Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients trial, 6
environmental factors, in BD, 4, 43
age, peer relationships and, 133
brain changes, 133
culture, 137
family functioning and EE, 134–35
future directions, 138–39
homelessness, 132
legal incarceration, 132
marital status and satisfaction, 135–36, 138
medical disability, 132
race and ethnicity, 137–38
recent life events, 136–37
social support, 134, 138
traumatic events, 136
unemployment, 132
environmental factors, in unipolar depression, 120
cumulative burden, 121
explanatory models, 126–27, 313
future prospects, 128–30
life stress, 123–26
recurrences of depression, 121–22
environments
ancestral, 26
anxiety and depression shared, 319–20
Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA), 86–90
epidemiology
of mood disorders in late life, 300
of persistent depressive disorder, 228
of PMDD, 239–41
of SAD, 255–56
of suicide, 61–64
epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation (EpCS), TRD patients and, 406
episodic memory, 181
ePrep program, 366
estrogen, for PMS treatment, 246
ethnicity, suicidal behavior and, 62
etiologically based subtypes, 41
etiology, 4, 73–74
of chronic depression, 5
of PMDD, 241–42
of SAD, 256–59
of suicide, 64–66
euthymic bipolar disorder, hypo-sensitivity to positive feedback in, 184
evidence-based treatment, 424–25, 427, 429, 469
Internet-based, 7, 440, 470, 471, 472
for youth BD, 293–95
evolution, 4
cognitive function influence on melancholic depression, 28–29, 33
of disorders, 25–26
excessive reassurance seeking (ERS), in youth depression, 282
executive processes, 180, 181, 182
exercise
for PMS, 247
for SAD, 261–62
explanatory models, of life stress and depression, 126–27, 313
expressed emotion (EE), 134–35, 138, 173, 494
externalizing disorders, 156
extraversion personality trait, 4, 154
depression association with, 155–56
SSRI treatment and, 158, 159
F
face-to-face therapy, 470, 472
faculty psychology, 72
family, 128, 172
EE, 173
functioning, EE in BD, 134–35, 138
perceived criticism, 173
persistent depressive disorder influences from, 230
family-focused therapy (FFT), 139, 496
for BD, 490
from EE research, 494
empirical evidence, 494–95
HPI of, 495
treatment characteristics, 494
family-focused therapy for adolescents (FFT-A), 293, 294
family studies
on BD and SZ shared susceptibility, 114–15
of BD genetics, 111–12, 112t
of RUP genetics, 115
of SZ and psychotic affective disorders genetics, 112
fear
conditioning, 161
melancholia linked with, 12, 14
processing, 205
Feighner criteria, DSM-III depression criteria from, 3–4, 17–19, 20
FFT-High Risk Version (FFT-HR), 496
5-HTT. See 5-HT transporter
5-HT transporter (5-HTT), 194, 201
Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality, 4, 154–55. See also extraversion personality trait; neuroticism personality trait
fluoxetine, 391–92
focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), 401–2
frequency, intensity, number, duration (FIND) criteria, for youth BD, 291
Freud, Sigmund, 11, 16–17
function, as gene-propagating effect, 25
functional contextualism, 438–39
functional impairment, in mood disorders, 39–40
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies
on amygdala and fear processing, 205
on chronic depression, 231
on MDD, 214–15, 217
G
(p. 505) gender-based subtypes, 41
gender differences, 4
chronic strain and, 54–55
interpersonal perspective on, 174
in youth depression, 5, 278–79
gender paradox, in suicide, 62
gene-by-environment (GxE) interaction, 128, 160, 280
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 87, 88, 317, 320
genetics, 128
anxiety and depression shared, 318
of persistent depressive disorder, 230
of personality, 160
of PMS and PMDD, 241
of SAD, 256, 258
of unipolar disorders, 4, 115–16
of youth depression, 280
genetics, of BD, 4
ADD shared susceptibility, 114–15
adoption studies, 112–13
BD and RUP shared susceptibility, 114–15
family studies, 111–12, 112t
genetic counseling, 115
GWAS, 111, 113–14, 114f, 116
SZ shared susceptibility, 114–15
twin studies, 112, 112t
genome-wide association studies (GWAS), of BD, 111, 113–14, 114f, 116
geriatric depression, psychological therapy for, 182
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), 301
geriatrics, defined, 299–300. See also older adults
Gestalt theory, 460
Global Burden of Disease, 75
glucocorticoid receptors, in HPA axis, 191
glutamate, 190, 197, 198
glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 190, 193, 196–98, 242
glycolysis, ATP and, 32
goals, life events and attainment of, 136–37, 138
gonadal steroids, PMS and, 242
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, as PMS treatment, 246
gray matter, 215–16, 215f, 218–19
Greeks, on mental disease humoral imbalances, 12, 14
grief, 84, 89–90
group CBT, for BD, 493
H
hallucinations, in psychotic depression, 42
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), 101, 103, 218, 404
Han Chinese study, on RUP GWAS, 116
harm avoidance, Cloninger’s concept of, 155, 159
harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis, 85
health
management interventions, for older adults, 369
MDD impairment in, 40
Health Promoting Intervention (HPI), of FFT, 495
Healthy MOMs Lifestyle program, 367–68
heritability
of BD, 4, 115, 138
of unipolar disorders, 4, 115–16
of youth BD, 292
heterogeneity, in mood disorders, 4, 40–42, 45
hippocampus, 32, 215
Hippocrates, 12, 14–15, 72
HIV/AIDS, 6, 354–55
homelessness, BD and, 132
hopelessness, 52–53, 65
Hopelessness Theory of Depression, 143, 146–48
hormonal basis, for PPD, 270
hormone treatment for PMS or PMDD, 245, 249
hot cognition, 186
emotional bias in mood disorders, 183
reward and punishment processing, 184–85
top-down compared to bottom-up, 185
humanistic and experiential psychotherapy (HEP), 6, 7
EFT research, 463–66
emotion-focused theory, 460–61
Gestalt theory, 460
introjection and, 461
process-directive in, 462
therapeutic relationship in, 461–62
humoral imbalances, 72
Greeks on mental disease from, 12, 14
Huntington’s Chorea, 197
hypomania, 38, 40, 385, 492
hypo-sensitivity to positive feedback, 184
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis
ACTH release, 192
chronic depression and, 230–31
cortisol hypersecretion, 191, 192
CRF in CSF increase, 191
depression sex differences and, 51, 52
dexamethasone, CRH and, 191
endocrine abnormalities associated with, 190–92, 197–98
glucorticoid receptors diminished, 191
vasopressin regulation of, 192
weakened immune system and, 349
youth depression and, 281
I
IL-6. See interleukin-6
Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) program, 418, 484–85
impulsivity, 6, 492
incarceration, BD and, 132
incidence
in cultural context, 75
of late life mood disorders, 300
independent SLEs, 170
index episode, in unipolar depression, 121–22
indicated prevention trials, 363–64
individual CBT, for BD, 492–93
Individual-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (IF-PEP), 294
individualized prevention programs, 369–70
indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), 193
inescapable shock, 25t
inflammation, 190, 193
information processing, 3, 4, 179
bottom-up, 5, 180, 185
cognitive abnormalities, 180
cognitive neuropsychological model, 5, 184–86, 203–6
cold cognition, 180–83, 185, 186
executive processes, 180, 181, 182
future directions, 186
hot cognition, 183–86
top-down, 5, 180, 185
information processing biases, youth depression and, 282
INF-α. See interferon-α
Institute on Medicine (IOM), on aging, 299
instrumental emotion, in emotion-focused theory, 461
Integrated Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (ICBT), 342–43
Integrated Motivational-Volitional (IMV) Model of Suicidal Behaviour, 66
intensive clinical management (ICM), of IPSRT, 495
interferon-α (INF-α), inflammation and, 193
interleukin-6 (IL-6), inflammation marker, 193
internalizing disorders, 156
internal working models, 170
International Classification of Disease (ICD-10), 73–74, 96
(p. 506) International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology, 75
International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPOG), PMS diagnosis, 243
Internet-based interventions, 7, 440, 470, 471
Beating the blues, 472
Moodgym, 472
research on, 472
Internet-based screening, 95, 103–4
interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), 294–95, 490
empirical evidence, 495–96
ICM, 495
treatment characteristics, 495
interpersonal characteristics, 4
anxious and avoidant attachment, 170
problematic interpersonal behavior, 168–69
reassurance seeking, 168
rejection, 168
social skills, 171
stress and stress generation, 169–70
interpersonal circumplex model, 168–69
interpersonal factors
for persistent depressive disorder, 231–32
for youth depression, 282
interpersonal perspectives on depression, 167–72, 175–76
depression treatments, 173–74
future directions, 174
gender difference, 174
IPV, 172, 280
interpersonal processes
in adolescence, 51
rejection sensitivity, 54
sex differences, 53–54, 56
violence and victimization, 53–54
interpersonal relationships, 4–5
family, 172–73
marriage, 39, 55, 171–72, 175
MDD impairment in, 39
interpersonal social rhythm psychotherapy, 7, 139
interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS), 64, 65–66
interpersonal therapy (IPT), 6–7, 173–74, 176, 272, 447–50, 454–55
acute efficacy, 452
acute process research, 452–53
acute recurrence prevention efficacy, 453
CBT and, 452
for chronic depression, 232–33
for late life mood disorders, 301, 302
for PDs and mood disorders, 331
for pregnancy depression, 367
treatment processes and techniques, 451
for youth depression, 283
interpersonal therapy maintenance (IPT-M), 453–55
interpersonal violence (IPV), 280
interview-based procedures, for life stress assessment, 124, 129
intimate partner violence (IPV), 172
intimate relationships, 167, 171–72
intracategory variability, 123, 124
intra-individual factors, 3
neurochemical processes, 4, 5, 190–98, 242
neuroendocrine processes, 4, 5, 190–98
investigator-based procedures, for life stress assessment, 124, 129
K
ketamine, 190, 209
kindling hypothesis, 31
Kraepelin, Emil, 11, 15–16, 72
K-SADS Depression Rating Scale, 291
K-SADS Mania Rating Scale, 291
L
lamotrigine, BALANCE study and, 389–90
late-life, defined, 299–300
late life depression (LLD) patients, 300
IPT-M for, 454
medication classes for, 303–5
smaller hippocampal volumes in, 215
WMH severity in, 216
lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB)
mental health, social policies impact on, 55
violence and victimization, 54
lexical approach, to personality research, 154–55
life course, 121–22
life events. See also stressful life events
assessment of, 123
depression onset and, 128
empirical status, depression onset and, 124–25
goal attainment and, 136–37, 138
interrelated experiences and, 124
negative, 136, 138, 280, 461
recent, BD and, 136–37, 138
schedule disruption and mania, 137
self-report checklists of, 123, 124
severe, depression onset and, 124–26
life-review intervention, 301, 368–69
life stress, 125
conceptual, method, and measurement issues, 123–24
DAS and, 144, 145–46
endocrine function influenced by, 191
explanatory models of, 126–27, 313
family history and genetic influences, 128
interview-based procedures for assessing, 124
investigator-based procedures for assessing, 124, 129
major, for unipolar depression onset, 121
nonsevere, 128–29
social support, 128
lifetime prevalence
of dysthymic disorder, 228, 229
sex differences and, 49–50
of youth BPSDs, 288
light therapy, for SAD, 257, 260
limbic-cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic pathway, 214, 215f, 293
lithium
BALANCE study on, 389–90
for BD, 179, 389, 392
Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS), 288, 290, 292
long-term depression, WM tasks and, 32
long-term DT (LTDT), 448–49
looping effects, cultural scripts and, 78
low-income persons’ prevention programs, 363, 366
Bridges to High School intervention, 365
Claiming Your Connections intervention, 365
CWD intervention, 365
SAAF program, 365
LTDT. See long-term DT
M
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
on chronic depression, 231
on MDD, 214–15
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
on GABA, 196, 197
on glutamate, 197
magnetic seizure therapy (MST), 401–2
maintenance treatment
ADMs, 380
ECT, 401
IPT-M, 453–55
persistent depressive disorder, 229, 233
relapse prevention and, 482
major depressive disorder (MDD), 11, 39, 73, 85, 96
anxiety disorders comorbidity with, 98
BD overlap and distinction, 40–41
brain structure reductions, 215–16
cortical-subcortical imbalance, 214, 216
destructiveness of, 121
DSM-5 criteria, 83–84
DSM-III diagnosis of, 19, 20–21, 84
fMRI on resting-state studies of, 217
(p. 507) MDE criteria, 38, 180
melancholic depression subtype, 19
mood pathology in, 214–16, 215f
most common of psychological disorders, 38
MRI, DTI, PET and fMRI on, 214–15
neural structure and organization in, 214–18, 215f
OCPD comorbidity with, 327, 328, 330
outpatient populations criteria of, 20–21
PDs comorbidity with, 327
research and, 19, 21
sgACC reduced volume, 215
SSRIs for, 21, 159
subthreshold bipolar symptoms in, 40
suicide and, 63–64
WMH in, 215
major depressive episode (MDE), in BD, 39–41, 385, 388, 390, 393
major depressive episode (MDE), in MDD, 38
chronic subtype, 227, 228
DSM-5 criteria for, 180
lower relationship quality and, 172
SAD and, 255
SLEs as risk predictors for, 170
maladaptive emotions, in emotion-focused theory, 461–62
malfunction, 25–26
maltreatment and adversity, of children, 5, 229–30, 233
mania, 71
acute, pharmacotherapy for, 387–88, 388t
BD symptoms, 38
cognitive impairment in, 182
life events and schedule disruption, 137
marital relationship distress and, 135
MSs for acute, 387–88, 388t
recurrent, pharmacotherapy for, 389–90
social circumstances and stress, 133
manic-depressive conditions, 15–16, 18
manic episode, 6, 39
manic symptoms, 40–41, 289t
marital status, 135–36, 138
marriage, 39, 55, 171–72, 175
maternal impairment, from PPD, 270–71
measurement-based care, 95, 100–103
Measure of Expressed Empathy (MEE), in EFT, 466
mechanisms, 313, 320, 450. See also neuropsychological mechanisms
medical comorbidities, depressive syndromes and, 5
cancer, 6, 349–51
CBT for, 351–55
CVD, 6, 351–52
HIV/AIDS, 6, 354–55
MS, 6, 352–54
prevalence of, 348
research on, 349
medical disability, BD and, 132
melancholia, 4
alienists and psychiatrists treatment of, 15
anatomy of, 13–15
anxiety and fear linked to, 12, 14
Aretaeus of Cappadocia on, 13, 72
Burton on, 13–15
Kraepelin classification and diagnosis of, 15
from seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, 15–16
melancholic depression, 21, 24, 25t
analysis, 29–30
ARH, 29–33
biological changes and clinical features of, 41
cognitive function evolution, 28–29, 33
complex problems triggering, 30–31
energy allocation and, 28f, 32
as MDD subtype, 19
phylogeny of, 29f
REM sleep increase, 28, 41
rumination in, 28–29, 31
melancholic features symptom-based subtype, 41–42
melatonin hormone, circadian rhythm and, 192–93
mental disorders
Greeks on humoral imbalances of, 12, 14
HD analysis of, 85
suicide associated with, 63–64
mental health services, 55, 469
self-directed interventions outside, 470–71
methodological issues, for PDs and mood disorders, 331–32
Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, 98
on Internet-based screening, 104
mild disorder, normal sadness compared to, 88–89
military suicide rate, 62
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
ACT compared to, 435–40
for BD, 493–94
empirical support for, 441–43
for medical comorbidities, 354
outcome and process research, 441–42
Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE), 301
minorities
BD and SZ misdiagnoses, 137, 138
BD inadequate treatment, 137
mirtazapine, 304–5
mixed affective states. See dysphoric mania
monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), 194–95, 305
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), 193, 374–75
catecholamines, 195–96
depletion of, 195–96
dopamine, 190, 194, 195, 196
function in depression, 194–96
SSRIs interaction with, 375
tyrosine depletion, 196
monoamine system, ADMs target of, 201–2
monoamine theories, 5, 190
Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), 101, 103
mood, bias dissociation with, 203
Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ), 317
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, 277
mood disorders, late life, 299
access to care, 305–6
ADMs for, 303–5
affective syndrome of Alzheimer’s disease, 300
assessment for, 300–301
CBT for, 301, 302
ECT for, 305
epidemiology of, 300
IPT for, 301, 302
medication management, 303–5
PST for, 301, 302
psychotherapy, 301–3
somatic treatments, 305
Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), 97
Moodgym, 472
mood induction studies, in Hopelessness Theory of Depression, 147
mood pathology, neural structure and organization of
in BD, 218
brain functional abnormalities, in BD, 219–21, 221f
brain functional abnormalities, in MDD, 216–18
brain structural abnormalities, in BD, 218–19, 221f
brain structural abnormalities, in MDD, 215–16, 215f
in MDD, 214–15
mood stabilizers (MSs), 386, 392
for acute BD MDE, 388
for acute mania, 387–88, 388t
long-term administration of, 391t
(p. 508) morbidity, of PMS, 240
mortality, suicide rates of, 62
“Mourning and Melancholia” (Freud), 16
Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP), 294
multiple sclerosis (MS), 6, 354
causal associations with depression, 353
depression prevalence, 352–53
risk factors, 353
treatment of depression and, 353
N
National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), 49
on SAD, 255
uncomplicated compared to complicated MDD episodes, 85
on uncomplicated depression, 89, 90
National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), 49
on BD prevalence, 75
on BPI and II disorder, 42, 43
DSM-IV diagnoses analysis, 38
on sex difference lifetime prevalence, 50
on uncomplicated depression, 89
National Disease & Therapeutic Index, on ADMs for BD, 386–87
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), 49, 325
on sex difference lifetime prevalence, 50
on SUD and mood disorders, 338
on uncomplicated depression, 86–90
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III (NHANES III), 50–51
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 478–79, 484, 485
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 61
DNA pooling-based study, 113
RDoC use, 45, 180, 295, 319, 321
TDCRP, 414, 447, 452
on TMS coil placement, 403
negative air ions, for SAD, 261
negative attribution style, 52–53
negative core beliefs, 143
negative emotionality (NE), 230, 234, 280–81
negative emotional processing biases, 185, 202–3
negative inferential style, 146, 150
components of, 143
prospective studies of, in Hopelessness Theory, 147–48
retrospective studies of, in Hopelessness Theory, 147
negative life events, 136, 138, 280, 461
nervous disorders, 15
nervous exhaustion, 72
Netherlands system, 483–84
Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline, 485
neurasthenia, 72–73, 76
neurobiological factors, for persistent depressive disorder, 230–31
neurobiological processes, 154, 160–61
in adolescence, 51
of adults, 51–52
in depression sex differences, 51–52
early pubertal onset, 51
HPA and, 51, 52
sexual orientation and, 52
neurochemical processes, 4, 5
abnormalities, 198
GABA, 190, 193, 196–98, 242
glutamate, 197
monoamines, 193–96
neuroendocrine processes, 4, 5, 194–96
endocrine abnormalities in depression, 191–93, 197–98
inflammatory mechanisms, in depression, 190, 193
melatonin hormone, 192–93
oxytocin hormone, 192
neurogenesis dependence, ADMs and, 202
neuro-imaging studies, 5, 196, 197, 205, 217–18. See also specific neuro-imaging types
on chronic depression, 231
on depression and personality, 160
on MDD, 214–15
neuromodulatory treatments, ECT and DBS, 208–9
neuropsychological mechanisms, of depression and treatment
cognitive model of antidepressant treatment, 205–6, 209
future challenges, 208–9
neuropsychological model of ADMs action, 5, 185, 203–6
treatments, 206–8
understanding of, 201–2
neuropsychological model of ADMs action
affective bias change, 203
bias and mood dissociation, 203
on emotional processing, 5, 185, 203–5
negative emotional processing biases, 203
SSRI studies, 203–4
validity of, 205–6
neuroticism personality trait, 154
adolescent peak of, 155
anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors, 155
Cluster B PDs and, 158
depression association with, 155–66
fear conditioning responses, 161
psychopathology and, 156
SSRIs improvement in, 4, 158
neurotransmitter alterations, for SAD, 258
next-step interventions, 481–82
N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, 197, 381
non-mood symptoms, in depressive disorders, 37
nonpharmacological depression treatments. See also cognitive behavioral therapy
CBM, 206–8
for PMS and PMDD, 247, 249
rTMS, 6, 207, 402, 404
vitex agnus castus, 247
nonsevere stress, 128–29
noradrenaline and serotonin ( 5-HT), 190, 198
in depression, 194–96
PMS and, 241
SAD role, 258
tryptophan for synthesis of, 193, 195
noradrenaline transporters (NET), 190, 194
no-suicide contracts, 67
O
obesity, as PMS risk factor, 240
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
DBS for, 405
MDD comorbidity and, 327, 328, 330
olanzipine, 390
older adults. See also mood disorders, late life
depression prevention programs for, 368–69
health management interventions, 369
life-review intervention, 368–69
lifetime prevalence of dysthymic disorder in, 229
mood disorders in, 5
psychosocial treatments for, 368, 369
reminiscence interventions for, 368
SC trials, 368
suicide and, 62
WHO, IOM on, 299
onset
of BD, 4, 42
of depression, 124–26, 128
(p. 509) early pubertal, 51
of PDs and mood disorders, 329
openness to experience personality trait, 154
oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), youth BD comorbidity, 289–90, 290t
Optimization of TMS (OPT-TMS) trial, 403
oral contraceptives (OCs), 238, 240, 245–46
outcome assessment, 413–15
ACT and MBCT research, 440–42
in routine practice, 99–101
semistructured and unstructured interviews, 96–97
treatment, 101–3
Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45), 100, 101
oxytocin hormone, 192
P
Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-item mania short form (P-GBI-10M), 292, 293
Pathoplasty model, 156–58, 161
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), 301
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), 100, 101, 102
pediatric BD, CBT for, 494
peer relationships, BD and, 133
perceived criticism, 173
perinatal depression (PD) prevention programs, 367–68
persistent depressive disorder, 38
acute phase treatment, 232–33
ADMs for, 233
chronic depression, 229–32
chronic stress, 232
cognitive factors, 231
comorbidity, 234
course and prognosis, 227, 228–29
diagnosis and classification, 227–28
epidemiology, 228
familial and genetic influences, 230
future directions, 233–34
interpersonal factors, 231–32
maintenance treatment, 229, 233
maltreatment and adversity of children, 5, 229–30, 233
neurobiological factors, 230–31
temperament and personality, 230
treatment, 232–33
personality, depression and
anxiety and depression shared traits, 318–19
association consequences, 157
association of, 155–56
Cattell’s 16-factor model, 155
Common Cause model, 157–61
Complication model, 156–57, 161
FFM, 4, 154–55
genetic associations, 160
models, 156–57
neurobiological associations, 160–61
Pathoplasty model, 156–58, 161
persistent depressive disorder and, 230
personality change with treatment, 159–60
Predisposition/Vulnerability model, 156, 157, 161
Scar model, 156–57, 159, 161
Spectrum model, 157, 161
treatment studies, 158–59
personality disorders (PDs)
assessment of, 326–27
borderline, 63, 98
dimensional and categorical models of, 326
neuroticism personality trait and Cluster B, 158
personality disorders comorbidity, with mood disorders, 5–6
assessment, 326–27
with BD, 328–29
course of, 329–30
methodological issues, 331–32
prevalence of, 327–29
SSRI treatment for, 158
treatment of, 330–32
personality research, lexical approach to, 154–55
pharmacological treatments, 293, 374–77, 380–81. See also selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
ADMs and suicide risk, 6, 378–79
chronic, 232–33
for emotional processing, 206
ketamine and scopolamine, 190, 209
for PDs and mood disorders, 331
plus CBT, for SUD comorbidity, 343
of PPBD, 268
of PPD, 272
for youth depression, 283
pharmacotherapy, of BD, 6, 293
of acute BD depression, 388
of acute mania, 387–88, 388t
ADMs for, 386–87
ADMs for acute BD MDE, 388
introduction, 385–86
medication-induced manic episode, 6, 39
mixed affective states, 393
MSs, 386, 386t, 391t
MSs for acute BD MDE, 388
polarity continuum, 386
pregnancy and postpartum period, 393–94
prophylactic therapy, 389–91
psychiatric comorbidity, 393
rapid cycling BD, 392–93
phase shift hypothesis, on SAD, 256–57
phenomenology
of HEP, 461
of mood disorders, 37–45
of suicide, 64
photoperiod environmental risk, of SAD, 5, 256
photoperiodic hypothesis, of SAD, 257–58
phototherapy, for youth BD, 293
polarity continuum, 386
positive affectivity, 319
positive emotionality (PE), 234, 280–81
persistent depressive disorders and, 230
positron emission tomography (PET), 402
on CBT studies, 207
on MAO-A, 194–95
on MDD, 214–15
postpartum bipolar disorder (PPBD), 5
pharmacotherapy for, 393–94
risk factors, 267–68
treatment, 268
postpartum depression (PPD), 5, 266, 273
consequences of, 270–71
definition, 268–69
hormonal basis for, 270
maternal impairment, 270–71
as PMS risk factor, 240–41
prevalence of, 269
RCTs on, 272
relative risk of, 269–70
risk factors for, 270
treatment of, 271–72
postpartum psychosis, 266–67
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 317
predictive validator, 86–88
Predisposition/Vulnerability model, 156, 157, 161
predominant polarity, 386
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
amygdala and, in BD, 219–20
MDD and, 216
pregnancy
depression prevention programs, 363, 367–68
pharmacotherapy for, 393–94
premenstrual disorder (PMD), 239
morbidity of, 240
(p. 510) premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), 38
diagnosis, 243–44
DSM-5 on, 239, 243
epidemiology of, 239–41
etiology of, 241–42
5-HTTPLPR and, 242
risk factors, 240
summary, 248–49
symptoms and subtypes, 238–39
treatments, 244–49
premenstrual exacerbation (PME), 239, 249
premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 238–39, 243
GABA receptors and, 242
gonadal steroids and, 242
risk factors, 240
serotonin modulation of, 241
SSRIs for, 244–45, 248
treatment, 245–49
prescriptive variables, 158
prevalence, 49. See also lifetime prevalence
of BD, 75, 267
of BPI, 385
in cultural context, 75
of late life mood disorders, 300
of medical comorbidities with depressive syndromes, 348–54
of PDs and mood disorders, 327–29
of persistent depressive disorder, 228
of PMDD and PMS, 239
of PPD, 269
of SAD, 255–56
of SUD and mood disorders, 337–39
of youth BD, 287, 288
of youth depression, 50, 277–78
prevention programs, 6
for college students, 363, 366–67
definitions, 363–64
of FFT-HR for youth BD, 496
future directions for, 369–70
for general adult population, 365
for low-income persons, 363, 365–66
for older adults, 368–69
during pregnancy, 363, 367–68
primary and universal, 363
RCTs of, 364
for youth depression, 364–65
primary emotion, in emotion-focused theory, 460
primary prevention, 363
problem-solving skills, in self-help interventions, 472
problem-solving skills training, in FFT, 494
problem solving therapy (PST), 423
evidence base, 424–25
for late life mood disorders, 301, 302
for medical comorbidities, 351
theoretical foundation, 424
treatment overview, 425–26
process-directive, in EFT, 362
process research, 417
on ACT, 441
on acute IPT, 452–53
on EFT, 464–66
on IPT-M, 454
on MBCT, 441–42
progesterone
PMS and PMDD deficiency of, 242
for PMS treatment, 246
prognostic variables, 158
progressive worsening, in BD, 43
prophylactic therapy
of ADMs, 390–91
of BD MDE, 390
of BD recurrent mania, 389–90
prospective studies, 144
of dysfunctional attitudes, 145–46
of negative inferential style, in Hopelessness Theory, 147–48
of rumination, 149–50
psychiatric comorbidity, pharmacotherapy for, 393
Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ), 98–99
Psychiatric Genetics Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group, 114
psychiatrists, melancholia treatment, 15
psychodynamic therapy, 6, 447–55
psychoeducation, 471, 490–91, 494
psychological autopsy procedure, 64, 68
psychological disorders, stigma regarding, 4, 134
psychological factors, for SAD, 258–59
psychological therapy, for geriatric depression, 182
Psychological Wellbeing Practitioners (PWP), 484, 485
psychoneuroses, in DSM-II, 17
psychoneurotic disorder, in DSM-I, 15–17, 21
psychopathology
anxiety and depression shared dimensions of, 319
cognitive theories of, 142
developmental, 279–83
neuroticism personality trait and, 156
psychopharmacology. See pharmacological treatments
psychosocial treatments, 7, 364
for older adults, 368, 369
for unipolar depression, 363
psychosocial treatments, for BD
future research, 496
IPSRT, 490
psychoeducation, 490, 491
RCTs on, 490
psychotherapeutic interventions, 266
for late life mood disorders, 301–3
for PPD, 272
for youth BD, 294–95
psychotherapy
for chronic depression, 232, 233
HEP, 6, 7, 459–66
psychotic affective disorders, genetic family studies, 112
psychotic depression symptom-based subtype, 17, 42
pubertal onset, early, 51
punishment, 184–85
Q
Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), 102–3
R
race
environmental factors, in BD, 137–38
as PMDD risk factor, 240
suicidal behavior and, 62
randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
on BD psychosocial treatments, 490
on CWD course, 427
for EFT and CBT comparisons, 464
on EFT and CCT, 463
on PPD, 272
of prevention programs, 364
on youth BD, 293
rapid cycling, of BD, 44, 392–93
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, melancholic depression increase in, 28, 41
Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) test, 181
rational model, of depression treatment
access improvement, 482–83
adaptive treatment, 479
collaborative care, 478, 493
components, 479
implementation, 478, 485–86
initial treatment selection, 480–81
introduction, 478–79
maintenance and relapse prevention, 482
need for treatment determination, 479–80
Netherlands system, 483–85
research, 486
response monitoring and next-step interventions, 481–82
SC trials, 368, 478
United Kingdom system, 484–85
reactive/endogenous distinction, 85
reassurance seeking, 168, 175
recurrence rate
in depressive disorder, 44, 121–22
in uncomplicated depression, 86–87
(p. 511) recurrent depressive disorder, risk factors, 121
recurrent unipolar disorders (RUP), 111, 114
DSM-5 on, 122
family studies, 115
GWAS, 116
Han Chinese study, 116
twin studies, 115–16
reflective pondering, 31–32
rejection, 167, 168
rejection sensitivity, 42, 54
relapse
in depressive disorder, 44–45, 201
EE as predictor of, 173
PDs and mood disorders rate of, 331
in persistent depressive disorder, 229, 233
relapse prevention, 482
relational frame theory (RFT), 438–39
reminiscence interventions, 368
Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ), 103
remitted depression designs, 144, 150
Beck’s Theory of Depression and, 145
Hopelessness Theory of Depression and, 143, 146–47
rumination and, 149
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 6, 207, 402, 404
research, 45, 262, 273, 349, 496. See also process research
on BD, environmental factors and, 138
on EFT, 463–66
instruments, for diagnostic practice, 96–101
on Internet-based interventions, 472
life stress and depression implications, 127
of MDD, 19, 21
personality, 154–55
on sex differences and sexual orientation, 55–56
SMART design, 486
Research Diagnostic Criteria, on grief-related depression, 89–90
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), NIMH use of, 45, 180, 295, 319, 321
residual symptoms, in uncomplicated depression, 88
resolution, in EFT, 465
resource allocation hypothesis, 28, 29, 32
resource management dilemmas, 30
response-contingent positive reinforcement (RCPR), 427
Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ), 148
Response Styles Theory of Depression, 143–44, 148–50
retinal subsensitivity to light, SAD and, 258
retrospective studies, 144, 145, 147
reverse engineering, for adaptation identification, 26
reward, 184–85, 186
risk factors, 121
for cancer and depressive syndrome, 350
for CVD, 351
for MS, 353
for PMS and PMDD, 240
for youth BD, 292–93
for youth depression, 279–83
routine diagnostic practice problems, 96
rumination, 33, 259
brooding, 31–32, 148, 149
cross-sectional research on, 148–49
factor analyses of, 31–32
in melancholic depression, 28–29, 31
reflective pondering, 31–32
Response Styles Theory and, 143–44
sex differences, 52, 56
stressors and depressive symptoms, 150
Rumination- Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, 32
Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), 148
S
sadness, normal, 31
depressive disorders compared to, 11–12, 16
mild disorder compared to, 88–89
as uncomplicated depression, 83–92
salience network, MDD and, 218
saliva cortisol sampling, 191
same-sex marriage, 55
say-it, show-it, do-it strategy, 303
SC. See stepped-care
Scar model, 156–57, 159, 161
schedule disruption, BD and life events, 137
Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS), 291
schematic processing, 185
schizophrenia (SZ)
BD shared susceptibility, 114–15
brain functioning, 219–20
genetic family studies, 112, 114–15
suicide and, 64
seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 242
definition, 254–55
dual vulnerability model, 259
epidemiology, 255–56
etiology of, 256–59
future research, 262
genetic variations, 256, 258
MDE in, 255
neurotransmitter alterations, 258
phase shift hypothesis of, 256–57
photoperiod environmental trigger for, 5, 256
photoperiodic hypothesis, 257–58
psychological factors, 258–59
retinal subsensitivity to light, 258
treatment,