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date: 16 February 2020

(p. 609) Index

(p. 609) Index

A
abuse
substance, 173, 178, 201, 515, 516, 553, 562, 563
academic achievement
biological influences, 349–350
cognitive and motivational influences, 350–354
cultural and social-structural influences, 354–355
gender, 348–355
gender differences, 350
gender schemas, 350–351
gender-typed goals and values, 351–352
opportunities and practice, 352
parental influences, 352
peer influences, 353–354
prosocial behavior, 307
teacher influences, 352–353
theory of mind, 416–417
acetylcholine, 144
active gene-environment effects, gender, 329
activity, 119
activity level, temperament, 123–124
activity setting, children’s everyday activities, 445
adaptability, play, 282
Adaptive Calibration Model, stress, 59
adaptive systems
agency and mastery motivation, 594
attachment relationships and families, 592–594
human resilience, 592–597
learning and intelligence, 594–595
additive model, peer rejection, 260
adolescence
cortisol levels, 54
depression, 65–66
prosocial behavior development, 303–304
reactivity of HPA axis, 54–55
adoption
antisocial behavior, 519
stress in children, 68–69
adrenal cortex, 47, 49
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 46–47, 48, 49, 52, 53
Adult Attachment Interview, 62–63, 201
adulthood, Big Five model, 121–122
Adult Temperament Questionnaire, 129
adversity, biological targets for intervention, 471
affective mirroring, infancy, 404–405
affiliation, 336–337, 393
affiliativeness, 120, 127
African-Americans, 264
African-Canadian children, 264
Africans, temperament, 157
age changes
aggression and prosocial tendencies, 306–307
children’s prosocial behavior, 303–304
agency, resilience, 594
aggression, 507. See also antisocial behavior
children, 127
children’s thinking about friendships, 247
definitions, 508–510
developmental trajectories, 511–512
direct, 356–357
empathy, 359
family influences, 360
gender development, 356–362
gender schemas, 359
genetic influences, 359
hormonal influences, 358–359
indirect, 356–357, 514–515
interpersonal goals and values, 359–360
media influences, 360–361
media violence, 178–179
peer influences, 360
peer rejection, 253–254, 267
perceived popularity, 255
physical, 512–513
prosocial tendencies, 306–307
sexual harassment, 357–358
social-cognitive model, 257
social withdrawal, 251
stress reactivity, 175
television, 361
videogames, 361
agreeableness, 121, 122, 126–127, 131–132
Ainsworth, Mary, 194
alcoholism, developmental psychopathology, 463
Alexander, Richard, 294
allostasis, 48
allostatic load, 48
altruistic behavior, 301
American Psychiatric Association, 551
amygdala, 158
activation, 28–29, 30
basic emotion systems, 103
emotional responses, 83, 105–106
evaluation (4-month), 150
fearfulness, 105
neurochemistry, 149–150
neuronal clusters, 149–150
psychopathy, 104–105
stress response, 49
victim-based moral judgments, 101–102
anatomical studies, specific language impairment (SLI), 495
anger
negative emotionality, 125
social self, 57
temperament, 21
Anglo-American children, 180
angry expressions, social conventional norms, 102
Animal Play Behavior, Fagen, 277
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 600
(p. 610) antisocial behavior, 507–508. See also aggression
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and, 515–516
breaking rules, 514
causal factors, 517–518
comorbidity, 515–517
definitions, 508–510
developmental psychopathology, 517–518
developmental trajectories of conduct problems, 511–512
deviant peer group affiliation, 518
dopamine receptor genes, 34, 519
gender issues, 517, 518
genetically informative studies, 519–520
gene-times-environment interaction, 33–34
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 520
indirect aggression, 514–515
informants, 510
lying and fraud, 513–514
monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, 519–520
oppositional behavior, 516
peer selection, 539–541
personality characteristics, 518–519
physical aggression, 512–513
prevalence, 510–511
prevention, 520–521
questions for future research, 521
risk factors, 518
social environment, 528–529
stealing, 513
substance abuse and, 516
subtypes and specific behaviors, 512–515
vandalism, 514
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), 515
anxiety
amygdala response to fear, 29
comorbidity with ADHD, 555
emotion regulation, 87–88
gene X environment interactions, 32–33
peer rejection, 261
appeasement, embarrassment function, 107–108
appetitive conditioning, neural circuitry, 25, 26
appraisals, emotion regulation, 82, 84
approach behavior, social interactions, 130
arginine vasopressin (AVP), 46
arousal, temperament, 146–147
Asian children, 315
Asians, temperament, 157
Asperger disorder, 224
Assertion, gender schemas, 336–337
assertiveness, 124
asset, 581
asset gradient, 581
athletic participation, gender, 346–348
attachment
childhood mental health, 210
clinical implications of research, 209–211
development, 193–194
factors for secure or insecure, 200–202
outcomes of secure or insecure, 204–207
parental socialization, 311–312
parent-child relationship, 55, 61–63, 430, 530
parent-infant relationships, 173, 176
peer interaction, 266–267
relationships and families, 592–594
security changes over time, 202–204
Attachment Q-sort, 196
attachment theory, 191–193, 211–212
assessing development, 197–198
assessing security of, 194–197
biological foundations, 198–199
culture, 199–200
emotion regulation, 87
internal working models, 194, 204, 207–209
overview, 193–194
questions for future research, 212
attention. See also joint attention
autism, 220–221, 223
infancy, 404–405
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 10–11, 34, 549–551
age-related changes, 563–564
biopsychosocial perspective, 568
brain function and neuropsychology, 560–561
brain structure, 559
causes, 556–561
clinical phenotype, 561–562
cognitive deficits, 560
comorbidity, 554–555, 563–564, 565
comorbidity with antisocial behavior, 515–516
concept of adult, 563
development across lifespan, 561–564
developmental considerations, 561–567
developmental synthesis of research of causes, 564–566
diagnostic approaches, 551–552
endophenotype, 564
environmental factors, 557–559
epigenetic processes, 568
equifinality, 565–566
etiology, 556–559
future directions, 567–568
gene X environment interactions, 559
genetic factors, 556–557
heterogeneity, 554, 555–556
historical roots, 551
hyperkinetic disorder (HKD), 551–552
hyperkinetic syndrome, 551
as mental disorder, 552–554
multiple deficit models, 561
neurochemistry, 559–560
nondevelopmental fixed-core-deficit model, 565
nosology and diagnosis, 566–567
pathophysiology, 559–560
peer rejection, 260
postnatal factors, 558
prenatal factors, 557–558
questions for future research, 568–569
social world, 528, 535
state-dependent and dynamic nature of impairment in, 560–561
attention processes, temperament, 20
attitudes, interpersonal judgments, 181–184
authoritative parenting, social environment, 533
autism
attention, 220–221, 223
broken mirror hypothesis, 414
comorbidity with ADHD, 555
developmental disorder, 460, 482, 485, 486
intervention, learning and motivation in, 234–235
morality, 106, 107
theory of mind and imaging research, 414–416
autonomy, children’s motivation, 180
B
Baldwin Effect, play, 282
Bateson, Pat, 280
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 284
bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), 48, 49
behavior
interpersonal judgments, 181–184
peer acceptance, 252–253
peer rejection, 253–255
perceived popularity, 255
sibling relationships, 536–537
status, 255–256
terminology “a gene for X,” 501n.3
behavioral approach system (BAS), 129–130
behavioral control, 180
behavioral flexibility, locomotor play, 285
behavioral inhibition, 21, 125
behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 130–131
behavioral plasticity, play, 281–282
behavior genetics
antisocial behavior, 519–520
gender, 329
parent and child effects, 535–536
parenting, 170–171
belief-desire reasoning, theory of mind, 416
beliefs
interpersonal judgments, 181–184
mental states, 400–401
(p. 611) benevolent sexism, 337
Berkeley Puppet Interview, 510
Bernstein, Basil, 293
bidirectional nature, development, 5
Big Five. See also temperament and personality traits
agreeableness, 126–127, 131–132
conscientiousness, 126, 131
developmental changes, 132–133
extraversion, 124, 129–130
neuroticism, 124–126, 130–131
openness/intellect, 128, 132
personality trait model, 114, 118, 121–122, 134
temperament and personality traits, 129–133
Big Five Aspect Scales, 122, 123
biobehavioral influences, same-gender peer preferences, 341
biological foundations, attachment, 198–199
biological influences
children’s gender schemas, 338
gender and academic achievement, 349–350
gender and aggression, 358–359
gender and athletic participation, 346–347
gender play preferences, 344–345
gender theories, 328–329
biological processes, integrating into preventive interventions, 470–472
biological sensitivity to context, stress reactivity, 58, 585
biological variables, temperament, 152–156
biopsychosocial model, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 565, 568
biosocial theory, gender, 328
Birch, Herbert, 20
Blatchford, Peter, 283
Bock, John, 287
body schema at birth, minimal self, 383–384
Botswana, play and tool use, 287
bounded substance, 385
Bowlby, John, 173, 193–194, 593
brain
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 559
behavior, 3
cognitive deficits, 560
developmental psychopathology, 459
illustrations of cerebral cortex areas of joint attention, 222
individual learning experiences, 89–90
reducing stigmatization of disorders, 472–473
role of emotion in development, 93–94
specific language impairment (SLI), 494–496, 499
brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), 468–469
brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAER), 152, 153
Broca’s area, specific language impairment (SLI), 494
broken mirror hypothesis, autism, 414
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 181
Buhler, Charlotte, 243
bullying, targeted victimization, 538
Buss, Arnold H., 119
C
Calvin, John, 157
Cambodian refugees, 155
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 515
Campos, Joseph, 19, 20
Canadian children, 156
cardiovascular system, sympathetic tone, 152
caregiving, infant development, 428–429
Caring School Community, 316
cascading constraints, development, 92
catacholaminergic drugs, 560
catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), 144
categorical self-concept, 391, 391–392
categorization task, Williams syndrome, 489–490
Caucasian infants, 149, 150
Caucasians, temperament, 157
central nervous system (CNS), event uncertainty, 147–148
challenge model, risk and resilience, 588
change-of-location paradigm, false-belief, 406, 408
characteristic adaptation, 115
cheating behavior, evolutionary psychology, 484
Chess, Stella, 19–20, 115, 119
childcare
attachment development, 197–198
cortisol, 63–64
emotion and temperament, 31
secure attachments, 201
child development
comparison of contemporary views, 434–435
social and cultural nature of, 431–435
Child Development, 3, 8
Child Development and Personality, 16
Child Development Project, 316
childhood
Big Five model, 121–122
cross-gender peer interactions, 342–343
neuroimaging for bipolar disorder, 105
children. See also friendships; play
activity setting analysis, 445
aggression, 127
attachment development, 197–198
attachment security, 202–204
beliefs and biases, 182–183
Big Five model, 121–122
bullying, 538
childcare and cortisol, 63–64
choice and autonomy, 180
depression, 65–66
discussing past events with others, 440–442
disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), 66–67
early life stress, 67–69
event uncertainty, 148
exercise play, 284–285
family relationships, 173–174
foster care, 68–69
friendlessness, 250
friendship and adjustment, 250–251
gender behavior, 182
genetic polymorphisms, 70
individual differences with friendships, 246–247
inhibited and uninhibited, 147–148
intelligence, 148
language development, 409–410
locomotor play, 282–285
media violence, 178–179
object play, 285–289
outcomes of secure or insecure attachments, 204–207
parental socialization, 310–314
parent-child relationships, 61–63
participation in everyday activities and, 442–445
perceived popularity, 255
personality trait development, 114
posttraumatic stress disorder, 66
pretend play, 292–294
prosocial behavior development, 302–304
racial prejudices, 183–184
resilience, 463–465
self-categorizing and description in, 391–392
self-control, 126
social interaction and development, 432
social play, 290–292
temperament, 147
temperament and personality traits, 113–114
temperament and prosocial behavior, 307–309
temperament assessments at 14 and 12 months, 150–151
understanding of friendships, 246
zone of proximal development (ZPD), 427, 435–437
Children of Kauai study, 591
Children of the Great Depression, Elder, 463
Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, 21, 120, 122, 123
Chinese, temperament, 157
Chinese adolescents, 303
Chinese-American infants, 149
Chinese-Americans, 264
(p. 612) choice, children’s motivation, 180
chromosomes, 158
circadian rhythm, stress, 50–51
Civil Rights Act of 1972, 348
Civil Rights movement, 312
Clark, Kenneth, 181
Clark, Mamie, 181
clinical phenotype, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 561–562
cliques
peer group, 261, 262–263
peer rejection, 254
Cloninger, C. Robert, 120–121
Coaches, athletic participation, 348
coactive nature, development, 5
coding system, Darwin, 17
cognitions, social environment, 531–533
cognitive-developmental theory, gender, 332–333
cognitive influences
gender and academic achievement, 350–354
gender and aggression, 359–360
gender and athletic participation, 347–348
gender and communication, 355–356
gender and friendship, 363–364
gender play preferences, 345–346
gender theories, 330–333
modularity and disorders, 486–492
same-gender peer preferences, 341–343
cognitive profiles, modularity and developmental disorders, 484–486
cognitive psychology, internal working models, 207–209
cognitive stage theory, emotion regulation, 85
cognitive theories, specific language impairment (SLI), 496–497
common ingroup identity model, 184
common sequencing process, 492
communication, gender, 355–356
community service, parental styles, 312
comorbidity
antisocial behavior, 515–517
compensation, development, 485
compensatory model, risk and resilience, 588
competence, 581
computational models, language, 499, 501
conceptual change positions, morality, 100
conceptual nervous system, 130
conditioned freezing, 158
conditioned stimulus (CS), fear, 25
conduct disorder (CD), 508–510. See also antisocial behavior
comorbidity with ADHD, 554–555
definitions, 508–510
developmental trajectories, 512
prevalence, 510–511
social world, 528
subtypes, 509, 512–515
conscience development, attachment, 206
conscientiousness, 121, 122, 126, 131
constructive play. See object play
context, developmental psychology, 8
Context and Thought, Dewey, 8
controversies, resilience research, 597–600
conversations
adult-child, 442
discussing past events, 440
narratives, 441
parent-infant, 430
Cooley, Charles H., 243
cooperativeness, 120, 121
cortical efficiency, development, 92–93
cortical regions, development, 93
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), stress reactivity, 175
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 144, 145, 156
extrahypothalamic CRH and stress, 50
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system, 46, 49, 55
cortisol
childcare and, 63–64
depression, 65
diurnal rhythm, 51
emotion, 23
fox offspring, 153
HPA axis functioning, 52–53
levels from infancy through adolescence, 54
stress reactivity, 176
temperament and stress reactivity, 60–61
cortisol awakening response (CAR)
attachment anxiety, 62
depression, 65
HPA axis functioning, 50–51, 52, 53
cortisol receptors, physiology and behavior, 47–48
co-rumination, 178, 251, 362
criticism, 158
crowds, peer group, 261, 262–263
cultural influences
children’s gender schemas, 339–340, 340
gender and academic achievement, 354–355
gender and aggression, 360–362
gender and athletic participation, 348
gender and communication, 356
gender and friendship, 364
gender theories, 329–330
play preferences, 346
same-gender peer preferences, 343
cultural practices
child development, 431–432
guided participation, 442–443
participation in every day activities and, 442–445
cultural tools, human development, 432–434
culture
attachment, 199–200
behavior, 3
friendships, 264
gender and aggression, 361–362
participation in everyday activities, 442–445
peer acceptance, 264–265
peer rejection, 265
peer relationships, 263–265
cumulative risk, 581, 582
D
Darwin, Charles, 17
Davis, Michael, 21
day-night Stroop task, 86
deficits in attention motor control perception (DAMP), 555
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 47
delay-of-gratification paradigm, rewards, 221
deontic reasoning, theory of mind, 417–418, 418–419
depression
comorbidity with ADHD, 555
developmental psychopathology, 461
gene X environment interactions, 32–33
maternal, 173
parental, 174
peer rejection, 261
preventive strategy, 466
self-attributions, 174
stress reactivity, 65–66
temperamental bias, 156
design, evolutionary psychology, 483–484
desires and intentions, mental states, 400–401
development
attachments, 197–198
modularity and, 483–484
neuroplasticity, 7
selfhood, 380
developmental disorders, 481–482. See also specific language impairment (SLI); Williams syndrome (WS)
future of modularity, 498–500
modularity and, 484–486
questions for future research, 501
developmental neuroscience, developmental and individual factors, 89–93
developmental phenotypic plasticity, stress-response, 58
developmental psychology
attachment, 193
hope and fear, 3
importance of context, 8
intervention for testing causal hypotheses about, 10–11
multiple levels of analysis, 6
multiple simultaneous causes, 8–9
new synthesis, 3–5, 11
(p. 613) plasticity, 6–8
probabilistic-epigenetic framework, 5
psychological phenomenon, 11n.1
reciprocal causality, 9–10
Developmental Psychology, 3–4
developmental psychopathology, 455–456, 457–459, 582
antisocial behavior, 517–518
definition, 457
developmental pathways, 461–463
evidence-based treatments, 472
future directions and challenges, 470–473
gene X environment interaction, 467–469
historical origins of, 456–457
integrating biological measures into design and evaluation, 470–472
interplay between normality and psychopathology, 460–461
multilevel approaches to resilience, 469–470
multiple levels of analysis, 466–470
parenting and family environment, 532–533
prevention and intervention, 465–466
reducing stigma, 472–473
resilience, 463–465
social environment, 529
social policy, 472
translational research, 465
developmental social cognitive neuroscience, 4
developmental systems, 5
developmental timing, 8
developmental trajectories, conduct problems, 511–512
dexamethasone, measurement, 53
diagnosis, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 551–552, 566–567
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), 344, 552, 553
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III), 551
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV), 508, 554, 556
Differential Emotions Theory (DET), 17, 18
differentiation theory, emotions, 17–18
direct aggression, 356–357
television, 361
videogames, 361
discipline, parental socialization, 310–311
disgust-based norms, morality, 102, 104
Dishion, Tom, 178
disruptive behavior
ICD-10, 510
peer rejection, 253–254
stress reactivity, 66–67
distress. See personal distress
distributed processing, joint attention, 236
diurnal rhythm
HPA axis functioning, 50–51, 52
patterns from infancy through adolescence, 54
domestic violence, 173
Dominic Interactive Assessment, 510
dopamine, 144, 559–560
dopamine dysregulation disorder, 559
dopamine receptor genes
antisocial behavior, 34, 519
polymorphism, 171, 199
social class of person, 146
dopamine receptors, 144
dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), 33–34, 556, 559
dot-probe task, fear or anger, 29
Doves, stress-response phenotype, 58–59, 60
Down syndrome, 148, 460, 491
developmental disorder, 482, 486
memory and speech, 492
drinking phobia, 155
dynamic, 434
dynamic systems perspective, emotion, 18–19
dyscalculia, modularity, 485
dyslexia
comorbidity with ADHD, 555
modularity, 485, 495
E
Early Social Communication Scales, 225, 226
EASI model: emotionality, activity, sociability, and impulsivity, 119, 120
East Asian-Canadians, 264
Eastwood, Clint, 156
ecocultural model of development, 444–445
ecological self, 384
ecological systems theory, 330, 434
education
gender and academic achievement, 348–355
prosocial behavior, 307
theory of mind, 416–417, 418
effortful control, 120, 126, 131, 172, 307–308
ego, self-regulation, 595
egocentric empathy, 302
Ekman, Paul, 17
electric shock, 158
electroencephalogram (EEG)
asymmetry, 152, 470
social cognition, 225–226
temperamental trait, 151, 156
electromyographic (EMG) activity
emotion, 23
fear, 28
embarrassment function, appeasement, 107–108
emergentism, modularity and development, 484
emotion
emotion regulation and brain development, 93–94
infancy, 405
measurement, 17
neural circuitry of, 24–27
parental socialization, 312–314
role in emotion regulation and brain development, 93–94
social environment, 530
stress, 57–58
emotional development
differentiation and integration, 17–18
emotion research, 17
future directions, 35
gene X environment interactions, 31–35
history, 16–17
key points, 15–16
measurement, 22–23
mental representations, 174
physiological measures, 23
questions for future research, 35–36
social psychology, 16–17
temperament, 22–23
theories of, 16–19
emotionality, 119
emotional learning system
norms, 108–109
victim-based norms, 101
emotional risk factors, secure attachment, 200–201
emotion-based positions, morality, 100–101
emotion-eliciting paradigm, 22
emotion regulation
attachment, 206
branching pathway of individual styles of, 92
conceptualizing, with neuroscience, 82–84
individual differences, 81–82
integrating developmental and individual factors with neuroscience, 89–93
interactions between normative and individual factors, 88–89
neural functions, 84–85
normative advances, 81–82
normative vs. individual accounts of development, 85–88
parental socialization, 313
prosocial behavior, 307–309
role of emotion and brain development in, 93–94
emotion research, theories of temperament, 19–22
emotion understanding, attachment, 206
empathy
egocentric, 302
gender and aggression, 359
global, 302
interventions, 315–317
(p. 614) parental socialization, 310–314
personal distress, 305–306
prosocial behavior, 301
quasi-egocentric, 302
social competence and problem behaviors, 306–307
endophenotype, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 564
environmental factors
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 557–559
emotion and temperament development, 31
environmental structures, social cognitive theory, 330–331
epinephrine (Epi), 46
equifinality, 455
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 565–566
developmental psychopathology, 461–462, 463
EQUIP program, 315
ethnic and racial identity, 393
ethnicity
friendship, 264
similarities between friends, 248
temperament and, 157–158
ethological theory, peers, 245
etiology, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 556–559
European-American children, 315
European-Americans, 264
European-Canadians, 264
Europeans, temperament, 157
event-related potentials (ERPs), 152–153, 156
late slow wave (LSW), 415–416
social cognition, 226
event uncertainty, 147
everyday activities
culture and participation in, 443–445
guided participation, 442–443
human evolution, 427–431
participation, 442–445
evidence-based treatments, developmental psychology, 472
evocative gene-environment influences, gender, 329
evolution
behavioral flexibility, 285
Darwin, 279
play in influencing, 282
evolutionary history, social signals, 17
evolutionary psychology
cheating behavior, 484
design, 483–484
gender, 328
modularity and development, 483–488
evolutionary theories, stress reactivity differences, 58–59
executive function (EF)
ADHD, 560
cognitive activity, 82
emotion regulation, 85–86
hot and cool, 83, 85–86
language development in children, 410
exercise play, 283–284
expectancy-value theory, gender, 331–332
experience-dependent changes, 90
experience-expectant changes, 90
extended contact hypothesis, 183
extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), stress, 50
extraversion, 121, 122, 124, 129–130
eye direction detector (EDD), 228
F
Facial Action Coding System (FACS), 17, 22
facial expression
emotion, 17
fear, 28
facial recognition, infants, 429–430
Fagen, Robert, 277
failure, 158
faith, resilience, 596
false-belief understanding
change-of-location task, 406, 408
infancy, 404
infant/toddler years, 405–407
preschool years, 408–411
school-age years, 411–413
second-order task, 411, 412
theory of mind, 398, 399–400
unexpected-contents task, 408, 409
families
attachment relationships and, 592–594
life stress and risky, 67–69
parenting and children’s behavior, 532–533
relationships of children, 173–174
family influences
children’s gender schemas, 338–339
friendship intimacy, 364
gender and aggression, 360
gender and athletic participation, 347
gender and communication, 355–356
gender play preferences, 345
fear, 3, 158
negative emotionality, 125
neural circuitry of, 24–25
neuroimaging and, 27–29
temperament, 21
fear circuitry, 15
fear conditioning, 25
fearfulness, 105, 172
feedback, neural events, 84
Fels Research Institute, 149
fifth waveform, biological measure, 152, 153
fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), 130–131
figurative language, Williams syndrome, 488–490
fluoxetine, anxiety and depression, 32
foster care, children, 62, 68–69
FOXP2 gene mutation, 482, 493
fractionation, Williams syndrome, 490–491
Fragile X, developmental disorder, 482
fraud, antisocial behavior, 513–514
friendships, 242. See also peer relationships
children, 245–251
children’s understanding of, 246
children without, 250
cross-gender, 363
culture and, 264
dissolution, 248
functions of, 245–250
gender, 249–250
individual differences, 246–247
interactions between friends, 249
interpersonal attraction theory, 248
intimacy by gender, 362–364
peer selection, 539–541
prevalence and stability of, 247–248
same-gender, 362
short- and long-term considerations, 250–251
significance of peers, 244
similarities between friends, 248–249
within-gender variability, 362–363
frontalization, development, 92–93
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 84, 99, 102, 107, 223, 415
G
Galda, Lee, 294
Garcia-Coll, Cynthia, 149
gastrin-releasing peptide, 144–145
gaze processing, responding to joint attention (RJA), and ventral social brain, 221–224
gender, 327
academic achievement, 348–355
antisocial behavior, 517, 518
children learning behavior, 182
friendship and, 249–250
object play, 287–288
prosocial behavior, 309
rough-and-tumble (R&T) play, 291–292
sexist attitudes, 337–338
sexual harassment, 357–358
similarities and differences, 334–335
similarities between friends, 248
social role theory, 279
social withdrawal, 255
gender development, 326–327, 364–365
athletic participation, 346–348
biological theories, 328–329
cognitive and motivational theories, 330–333
communication style, 355–356
cultural and social-structural theories, 329–330
friendship intimacy, 362–364
gender schemas, 336–340
play, 343–346
(p. 615) temperament, 335–336
theoretical frameworks, 327–334
gender-egalitarian society, 346
gender identity disorder (GID), play preferences, 344
gender schemas
academic achievement, 350–351
affiliation and assertion, 336–337
athletic participation, 347
awareness of sexist discrimination, 338
communication, 355
developmental trends, 336
family influences, 338–339
friendship intimacy, 363
gender and aggression, 359
linguistic biases, 339–340
media influences, 339
peer influences, 339
sexist attitudes, 337–338
gender schema theory, 332, 341
gender segregation, peer groups, 340–343
gender theories
behavioral genetics, 329
biosocial theory, 328
cognitive-developmental theory, 332–333
ecological systems theory, 330
evolutionary psychology theory, 328
expectancy-value theory, 331–332
gender schema theory, 332
gene X environment interactions, 329
neuroscience approaches, 329
social-cognitive theory, 330–331
social identity theory, 333
social role theory, 330
theory bridging, 333–334
genes
behavior and experience, 9–10
stress reactivity, 69–70
genetics
antisocial behavior, 519–520
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 556–557
developmental disorders, 482, 500
gender and aggression, 359
mental disorder, 459
parenting, 170–171
prosocial behavior, 309–310
specific language impairment (SLI), 493
terminology “a gene for X,” 501n.3
three-way interaction, 468–469
gene X environment (GxE) interactions, 9
antisocial behavior, 33–34
anxiety and depression, 32–33
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 559
developmental psychopathology, 467–469
environmental influence, 31
gender, 329
genes, environment and psychopathology, 32–35
social development, 170–171
stress reactivity, 69–70
German Observational Study of Adult Twins, 118
global empathy, 302
glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), 47
goal-corrected partnership, 208
Goldsmith, Hill, 20, 21
go/no-go task, emotion regulation, 29
Gottlieb, Gilbert, 5, 9
grammatical specific language impairment (GSLI), 493
Grass, Günter, 294
Greek model, temperament, 115
Group Socialization Theory, peers, 245
guided participation, everyday activities, 442–443
Gustafson, Kathy, 287
H
Hall, G. Stanley, 243
Halliday, Michael, 293
Handbook of Child Psychology, 243, 277
harm avoidance, 120, 121
Harris, Judith Rich, 170
Harris, Paul, 294
Hawks, stress-response phenotype, 58–59
heart rate, emotion, 23
Hebbian learning model, social cognition, 232–233
hedonistic reasoning, 305
Heschl’s gyrus, 495
heterogeneity, ADHD, 554, 555–556
homophily hypothesis, friendships, 248
hope, 3
hormonal influences, gender and aggression, 358–359
hostile sexism, 337
human behavior
developmental psychology, 3–5
emotion, 15–16
human brain development, social processes, 428–430
human evolution, sociocultural context, 427–431
human intelligence
social mediation, 427
use of signs and tools, 432–434
human pedagogy, social-ness, 169
Hume, David, 379
11 b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 47
hyperactivity, amygdala response, 29
hyperkinetic disorder (HKD), 551–552, 556
hyperkinetic syndrome, 551
hypersocial personality profile, Williams syndrome, 488
hypocortisolism, 55
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 145
antisocial behavior, 520
behavior, 21
depression, 65–66
genes and stress reactivity, 69–70
parent-child relationships, 61–63
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 66
reactivity from birth through adolescence, 54–55
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system
anatomy, 46
basal levels and diurnal patterns from infancy through adolescence, 54
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 46, 49
cortisol awakening response (CAR), 50–51, 52
cortisol receptors, 47–48
development of, 51, 53–55
diurnal rhythm, 50–51
extrahypothalamic CRH and stress, 50
measuring HPA axis functioning, 52–53
neuroanatomy and physiology, 46–51
pharmacological assessments, 53
prenatal and neonatal development, 53–54
psychobiology of HPA reactivity and regulation, 55–59
psychological theories of stress, 56–58
reactivity of, from birth through adolescence, 54–55
schematic of brain structures in activation and inhibition of, 49
stress, 51, 53, 176
systemic and processive stressors, 48
temperament and stress reactivity, 60–61
I
identification, 386
illness, 158
impulsivity, 119, 335
incidental model, peer rejection, 259–260, 265
Indian-Canadians, 264
indirect aggression, 356–357, 361
individual accounts
child development, 428, 431–432
emotion regulation development, 81–82, 85–88, 94
interaction with normative factors in emotion regulation, 88–89
Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 221
infants, 283
amygdala, 150
assessing attachment security, 194–197
attachment, 173, 197–198
attachment security, 202–204
attention and intention, 404–405
caregiving and development, 428–430
cortisol levels, 54
Down syndrome, 460
event uncertainty, 148
(p. 616) parent-child relationships, 61–63
prosocial behavior development, 302–303
reactivity of HPA axis, 54–55
social attention coordination behaviors, 219
social brain, 169–170
temperament, 147, 202
temperament assessments at 4 months, 150
theory of mind accomplishments, 403, 404
world-inconsistent goals, 405–408
infant temperament. See also temperament
Campos, Joseph and Goldsmith, H. Hill, 20
Rothbart, Mary, 20–21
Thomas, Alexander and Chess, Stella, 19–20
inferior frontal cortex, basic emotion systems, 103
informants, antisocial behavior, 510
information-processing model
initiating joint attention (IJA), 218, 224–227
joint attention, 218–220
joint attention and social cognition, 228
responding to joint attention (RJA), 218, 221–224
social attention, joint attention and social cognition, 230
inhibited children, uninhibited and, 147–148
insecure attachment, 194
insecurity
attachment, 200–202
contributions to attachments, 200–202
insula, basic emotion systems, 103
Integrated Emotion Systems (IES) model, 101
integration theory, emotions, 18–19
intelligence
children, 148
praise, 180
resilience, 594–595
self-theories, 181
social development, 168, 169
standardized test, 501n.1
Williams syndrome, 487
intention
infancy, 404–405
toddlers, 407
intentional causation, 401
intentionality detector (ID), cognitive modules, 228
interactive specialization approach, 93, 170
interactivity, cognitive system, 485
interdisciplinary integration, temperament and emotion, 21
intergroup theory, gender, 333
intermittent explosive disorder (IED), 515
internal working models, attachment theory, 194, 204, 207–209
international adoption, stress, 68–69
International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 551, 552, 553
International Classification of Diseases 10threvision (ICD-10), 508, 510, 511, 517, 556
International Personality Item Pool, 123
interpersonal attraction theory, friendships, 248
interpersonal goals and values
friendship intimacy, 363
gender and aggression, 359–360
interpretation
internal working models, 208
understanding in school-age years, 411–413
intervention
developmental psychopathology, 464, 465–466
empathy and prosocial behavior, 315–317
integrating biological measures into preventive, 470–472
mental representations, 174–175
risk and resilience, 581, 584, 586, 591, 595–596, 599
testing causal hypotheses about development, 10–11
intuitive vs. reflective, theory of mind, 402
Iowa Test of Basic Skills, 179
irritability, negative emotionality, 125
Izard, Carroll, 17
J
James, William, 16, 243, 381, 383
Japanese, temperament, 157
joint attention
characteristics in early development, 218–220
co-active system, 232–234
development, 233, 236
dissociation of, in development, 220–221
gaze processing, 221–224
illustrations of cerebral cortex, 222
initiating joint attention (IJA), 218–220, 224–227, 235
integration of, and social cognition, 227–228
learning from phase, 233
multi-process model of, 233
parallel and distributed information-processing model (PDPM), 218, 227, 235–236
responding to joint attention (RJA), 218–220, 221–224, 235
social cognition, and PDPM, 228–230
joint perception, 228
Jones, Blurton, 290
joy, temperamental, 20
judgments
immorality, 106–107
interpersonal, 181–184
moral domain positions, 100
morality, 99
K
Kagan, Jerome, 120
Kearsley, Richard, 149
Klein, Melanie, 193
Kramer, Franz, 551
Kuhn, Thomas, 158
L
Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), 20, 21, 22
laissez-faire response, aggression, 267
language. See also specific language impairment (SLI)
cultural tool, 433–434
development in children, 409–410
figurative, in Williams syndrome, 488–490
fractionation, 490–491
gender stereotypes, 339–340
reversible sentences, 496–497
scaffolding, 440
specific language impairment (SLI), 497–498
Williams syndrome, 487–488
language centers, 93
Latina-American girls, 264
Lazarus, Richard, 16
learned helplessness, 594
learning
disabilities and ADHD, 555
guided participation, 443
Hebbian model of social cognition, 232–233
human evolution, 428
infants, 404
mental functioning, 427
neuroplasticity, 7
norms, 108–109
parallel and distributed information-processing model (PDPM), 234–235
resilience, 594–595
scaffolding, 427, 438–440
social environment, 529
Williams syndrome, 487
zone of proximal development (ZPD), 427, 435–437
LeDoux, Joseph, 21
Lewis, Michael, 18, 19, 391
lifespan, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 561–564
Like-Me hypothesis, 168–169
Likert scale, 22
linguistic biases, gender schemas, 339–340
locomotor play. See also play
behavioral flexibility, 285
exercise play, 283–284
functions of, 284–285
(p. 617) rhythmical stereotypes, 283
rough-and-tumble (R&T), 282–283
loneliness, peer rejection, 258–259, 261
Luther, Martin, 157
lying, antisocial behavior, 513–514
M
Maccoby, Eleanor, 178
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 494, 495
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 6
Marshall, Helen, 243
Massachusetts General Hospital, 155
mastery motivation, 594
maternal sensitivity, attachment, 200–202
maternal stress or illness, 143
math, gender and academic achievement, 349
Maximally Discriminative Facial Coding System (MAX), 17
Meaney, Michael, 36
means-ends knowledge, 18
measurement
developmental psychopathology, 470–472
dexamethasone, 53
emotion, 17, 22–23
HPA axis functioning, 52–53
peer acceptance, 252
resilience, 599–600
temperamental bias, 154–155, 158–159
Me-But-Not-Me dilemma, 389
media, 167
gender and aggression, 360–361
gender and athletic participation, 348
gender schemas, 339
socialization agent, 178–179
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), theory of mind research, 415
Meditations, Descartes, 379
melatonin, pregnant mother, 143
Melhuish, Ed, 293
memory
measuring brain function, 6
short-term, 492
mental disorder, ADHD as, 552–554
mental functioning, learning, 427
mental health, children and attachment theory, 210
mental illness, reducing stigmatization, 472–473
mental representations
children’s social experiences, 172–174
emotional experiences, 174
interventions, 174–175
mental states
awareness in infancy, 404–405
beliefs and desires, 400–401
individual differences in preschooler development, 410–411
representational theory of mind, 400–401
second-order false-belief task, 411, 412
mental working models, 208
meta-awareness, 390
metatraits, 114, 128–129
methodological promiscuity, 4
methylphenidate, 559–560
Mexican-American families, 315
mindreading, social interaction, 430
minimal group paradigm, 182
minimalist innate modularity, 486
minimal self. See also self-concept
bounded and substantial embodied self, 384–385
differentiated ecological self at birth, 384
self-concept, 382–385
subjectivity and body schema at birth, 383–384
Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation, 206, 207
modeling, parental socialization, 310–311
moderated risk-adjustment model, peer rejection, 260
modularity, 500–501
cognitive perspective, 486–492
concept, 482–483
developmental disorders, 484–486
development and, 483–484
emergentism, 484
future of, 498–500
idea of, 481, 501n.2
shared resources, 491–492
specific language impairment (SLI), 492–498
Williams syndrome (WS), 486–492
molecular biology, 9
molecular genetics
attachment, 198–199
parenting, 170–171
monetary incentive delay (MID) task, reward, 30
monetary reward, neuroimaging, 30
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), 9, 144
MAO-A gene, 33, 171, 469, 519–520
moral domain positions, 100
moral grammar/organ positions, morality, 99–100
morality
attentional control, 105–106
basic emotion systems, 103
childhood bipolar disorder, 105
conceptual change positions, 100
defining, 99
development of, 98, 106–107
disgust-based norms, 102, 104
emotion-based learning systems, 103–104
emotion-based positions, 100–101
fearfulness, 105
Integrated Emotion Systems (IES) model, 101
moral grammar/organ positions, 99–100
neurocognitive architectures, 101–103
psychopathy, 104–105
social conventional norms, 102
Social Response Reversal (SRR) system model, 102
theories of, 99–101
theory of mind, 107–108
victim-based norms, 101–102
Violence Inhibition Mechanism (VIM) model, 101, 106
moral reasoning, prosocial behavior, 304–305
Moss, Howard, 148
mother-child interactions
attachment, 430
emotion, 19
motivation
choice and autonomy, 180
resilience, 594
motivational influences
children’s gender schemas, 338–339
gender and academic achievement, 350–354
gender and aggression, 359–360
gender and athletic participation, 347–348
gender and communication, 355–356
gender and friendship, 363–364
gender play preferences, 345–346
gender theories, 330–333
same-gender peer preferences, 341–343
multifinality, 455, 462–463
multigenic studies, three-way interaction (GxGxE), 468–469
multiple levels of analysis
developmental psychopathology, 455, 466–470, 471–472
gene X environment interaction, 467–469
risk and resilience research, 600
multiple simultaneous causes, development, 8–9
N
narcissistic personality disorders, 86
narratives, cultural values, 441
National Institute of Mental Health, 465
natural selection, Darwin, 279
Nature, 217
Nazi Europe, 312
negative emotionality/neuroticism, 120, 122, 124–126, 130–131, 585
neonatal development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system, 53–54
nervous system, emotion regulation, 84–85
neural circuitry
appetitive conditioning, 25, 26
emotion, 24–27
fear, 24–25
reward, 25–26
Neural Darwinism, 90
neural functions, emotion, 84–85
neural networks, joint attention, 217–218
(p. 618) neural plasticity, 6–8
neuroanatomy
stressors, 48, 49
systemic and processive stressors, 48
neurobiology
reward systems, 594
temperamental bias, 143–146
neurochemistry
amygdala, 149, 150
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 559–560
neuroconstructivism, 486
neurodevelopmental research
fear and reward, 27–31
neuroimaging and fear, 27–29
neuroimaging and reward, 29–31
translational research, 27
neuroimaging
brain structures in complex emotions, 36
childhood bipolar disorder, 105
fear, 27–29
psychopathy, 105
reward, 29–31
neuronal cell-adhesion molecule (NRCAM), 499
neuropsychology
brain function and, 560–561
comorbidity with antisocial behavior, 516–517
neuroscience
autism, 414–416
emotion regulation, 82–84
gender, 329
integrating normative and individual factors, 89–93
theory of mind research, 414–416
neuroticism, 121, 122, 585
temperament and personality, 122, 124–126, 130–131
withdrawal and volatility, 132
newborns, body schema, 383–384, 385
New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), 119, 120
NICHD Early Child Care study, 201, 204
nominations, sociometric, 252
No One Ever Asked Us, Festinger, 463
norepinephrine, 46, 145, 559–560
normative advances
emotion regulation, 81–82, 85–88, 94
interaction with individual factors, 88–89
Northern Ireland, resilience in children, 464
nosology, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 566–567
novelty seeking, 120
nucleus accumbens (NAcc)
appetitive learning, 26
neuroimaging and reward, 30–31
nucleus of tractus solitarius (NST), 48, 49
O
objectified self. See also self-concept
first signs of self-objectification, 386–388
self-concept, 382, 385–388
object play. See also play
children, 285–289
constructive play, 286
functions, 288–289
gender, 287–288
tool use, 286–287
object relations theory, 193
Okavango Delta, play and tool use, 287
Olympics, 348
online rejection sensitivity, 258
openness/intellect, 121, 122, 128, 132
opioids, 145
oppositional behavior, comorbidity with antisocial behavior, 516
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). See also antisocial behavior
comorbidity with ADHD, 554–555
definitions, 508–510
prevalence, 510–511
social world, 528, 535
subtypes, 509
versus ADHD, 552
orbital frontal cortex (OFC)
basic emotion systems, 103
emotion regulation, 83
reward, 30
victim-based moral judgments, 101–102
orienting sensitivity, 120
Oster’s Baby Facial Action Coding System (FACS), 22
oxytocin, 35–36, 144, 145, 171
P
parallel and distributed information-processing model (PDPM), 227
active vision and, 231–232
autism, 234–235
dynamic systems, integrated processing and, 232–234
inside-out processing and PDPM, 230–231
intervention, learning and motivation in autism, 234–235
joint attention, 218, 235–236
social cognition, joint attention and, 228–230
value of PDPM, 234–235
parallel processing, joint attention, 236
paraventricular nuclei (PVN), hypothalamus, 46–47
parental socialization
emotion, 312–314
empathy/sympathy and prosocial behavior, 310–314
parental discipline, reinforcement and modeling, 310–311
parenting style and attachment, 311–312
parent-child relationships
attachment, 55, 61–63
attachment and culture, 199–200
prosocial development, 311–312
social environment, 530–531
stress reactivity, 61–63
parenting
ADHD children, 558
authoritarian orlaissez-faire, 267
emotion and temperament, 31
gene X environment interactions, 170–171
harsh, 532, 534
parent and child effects, 535–536
psychological changes, 175–176
responsive, 176–177
social environment, 530–531
socialization agent, 176–177
supervision of children, 533–534
temperament X environment interactions, 171–172
parents
attachment, 197–198, 200–202
child’s zone of proximal development (ZPD), 435–437
conflict, 173
gender and academic achievement, 352
pseudo-conversations with infants, 430
secure attachments, 201–202
social environment, 533–536
Parten, Mildred, 277
passive gene-environment effects, gender, 329
pathophysiology, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 559–560
PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies), 316
Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, neural circuitry, 25–26
peer acceptance
behavioral correlates, 252–253
culture, 264–265
measurement, 252
person-group similarity model, 256
secure relationship system, 266–267
peer group
antisocial behavior, 518
cliques and crowds, 261, 262–263
functions, 262
gender segregation, 340–343
groups and adaptation, 263
social context, 261–262
peer influences
friendship intimacy, 364
gender and academic achievement, 353–354
gender and aggression, 360
gender and athletic participation, 347–348
gender and communication, 356
gender play preferences, 345–346
gender schemas, 339
(p. 619) peer rejection
aggression and disruptive behavior, 253–254
behavioral correlates, 253–255
bullying, 538
culture, 265
externalizing problems, 260–261
internalizing problems, 261
loneliness, 258–259
measurement, 252
sensitivity, 258
social exclusion, 537–538
social withdrawal, 254–255
peer relationships, 242–244. See also friendships
behavioral correlates of peer acceptance, 252–253
behavioral correlates of peer rejection, 253–255
behavioral correlates of perceived popularity, 255
behavioral correlates of status, 255–256
children and friendships, 245–251
cliques and crowds, 262–263
culture and, 263–265
groups and adaptation, 263
loneliness, 258–259
maladaptive pathway, 267–268
measurement of acceptance and rejection, 252
outcomes of, 259–261
peer group as social context, 261–262
peer group functions, 262
peer rejection and externalizing problems, 260–261
peer rejection and internalizing problems, 261
psychosocial adaptation, 266–267
questions for future research, 268
rejection sensitivity, 258
self-system, 259
significance, 244
social information processing, 256–258
theoretical perspectives, 244–245
transactional models of development, 243, 266–268
peers
birds of a feather, 539–541
deviant peer affiliation, 539–541
social environment, 537–541
social interactions, 436–437
socialization, 314, 540
socialization agent, 177–178
perceived popularity
behavioral correlates, 255
measurement, 252
perception-goal psychology, infancy, 404
permissive, 47
persistence, 120, 121
personal distress
children’s prosocial behavior, 303–304
parental emotion socialization, 312–314
prosocial behavior, 305–306, 308
personality, 115, 116
antisocial behavior, 518–519
attachment security, 206
emotion regulation, 86–87, 92
gender, 329
theories of emotional development, 16–19
theories of temperament, 19–22
Williams syndrome, 488
personality traits. See also Big Five; temperament and personality traits
Big Five, 114, 118, 122, 134
integrative model of development, 133–134
personal narratives, 115
person-focused models, resilience, 589–591
person-group similarity model, status, 256
personified self. See also self-concept
assertion of, in development, 392–394
becoming, 388–389
emerging self-conception with others in mind, 390–391
self as person, 388
self-categorizing and description in children, 391–392
self-concept, 382, 388–394
self-conception in space and time, 389–390
person praise, 180
phenotypes, stress-response, 58–59
phenylketonuria (PKU), 482, 499, 587
philosophy, self-concept, 379–380
philosophy of science, development, 8–9
physical aggression, antisocial behavior, 512–513
physiological changes, mediating parenting effects, 175–176
physiological measures, emotional development, 23
picture-based categorization task, Williams syndrome, 489–490
picture-naming task, Williams syndrome, 487–488
plasma, HPA axis functioning, 52
plasticity
cognitive system, 485
developmental processes, 6–8
metatraits, 128, 129
prefrontal cortical, 10
synaptic, 90–91
play, 276, 277–278, 294–295
behavioral flexibility in phylogeny, 281–282
gender differences, 343–346
locomotor play, 282–285
models of function of, 279–282
object play, 285–289
pretend play, 292–294
questions for future research, 295
serving deferred benefits, 280–281
serving immediate benefits, 281
sex differences, 278–279
social play, 289–292
study of, 276–277
voluntary component, 278
Plomin, Robert, 119
Pollak, Seth, 4
Pollnow, Hans, 551
Pollyanna problem, resilience, 599
polymorphism, temperamental bias, 144–146
popularity. See perceived popularity
positive emotionality/extraversion, 122, 124, 129–130
positron emission tomography (PET), 224
Posner, Michael, 20
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 597
central dogma of stress, 55–56
cortisol, 51
serotonin transporter gene, 146
stress reactivity, 66
praise, self-esteem movement, 180–181
predictive function, internal working models, 208
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
conscientiousness, 131
developmental changes, 132–133
openness/intellect, 132
pregnancy, maternal stress or illness, 143
prejudice, 167
prejudice reduction
children, 183–184
common ingroup identity model, 184
extended contact hypothesis, 183
prenatal development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system, 53–54
preschoolers
achievements in theory of mind, 403, 410
representational mental states in, 408–411
pretend play. See also play
from solitary to social, 292–294
functions of, 294
symbolic, 292
toddlers, 405–406, 407
prevalence, antisocial behavior, 510–511
prevention
antisocial behavior, 520–521
developmental psychopathology, 458, 465–466
integrating biological measures into, 470–472
primary appraisal, stress response, 56
probabilistic epigenesis, 434, 466, 467
probabilistic epigenetic framework, 5, 9
procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), specific language impairment (SLI), 494
procedural memory system, 486
processing capacity, 486
processive stressors, neuroanatomy, 48
process praise, 180
Project Competence study, 591
(p. 620) projection, 386
prolactin, 144
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), 316
promotive effect, risk and resilience, 588
promotive factor, 581, 586–587
property offenses, 512
stealing, 513
vandalism, 514
proprioception, 384
prosocial behavior
academic functioning, 307
development of, 302–304
emotion regulation, 313
future directions, 317
genetics and prosociality, 309–310
hedonistic reasoning, 305
infancy and early childhood, 302–303
interventions promoting empathy and, 315–317
moral reasoning, 304–305
nonparental socialization, 314–315
parental discipline, reinforcement and modeling, 310–311
parental emotion socialization, 312–314
parental socialization, 310–314
parenting style and attachment, 311–312
parenting values and children’s, 312
personal distress, 305–306, 308
questions for future research, 317
school-aged children and adolescents, 303–304
sex differences, 309
social competence and problem behaviors, 306–307
stability of prosocial tendencies, 304
sympathy, 301, 310–314
temperament of children, 307–309
volunteerism, 16
prosocial development, 300–302
prosopagnosia, modularity, 485
protective factors, 581, 585, 586–587, 596, 597
pruning
developmental change, 89
synaptic proliferation, 90
psychobiology, HPA reactivity and regulation, 55–59
psychological control, parental, 311
psychological development
comparison of views, 434–435
sociocultural nature of, 427–431
psychological dissociation, emotions, 58
psychological health, children and attachment theory, 210–211
psychological measure, temperamental bias, 154–155
psychological theories, stress, 56–58
Psychological Types, Jung, 155
psychology, developmental, 3–5, 11
psychopathology, 456, 457. See also developmental psychopathology
emotion and personality development, 32–35
parent, 534–535
relationships and resources, 541
social environment, 528–529
psychopathy, developmental disorder, 104–105
psychosocial adaptation, peer relationships, 266–267
purity, 102
Q
quasi-egocentric empathy, 302
questionnaires
personality, 118
temperament, 117, 151
R
race
friendship, 264
similarities between friends, 248
racial prejudices, children, 182, 183–184
randomized control prevention and intervention trials (RCTs), 455, 466, 558
rapid eye movement (REM), 50
rats
emotion-based learning, 104
learning and memory, 6
odor preference, 27
reading, modularity, 484–485, 500
reappraisals, emotion regulation, 82–83
reasoning, 100
reciprocal causality, developmental psychology, 9–10
recursion, understanding in school-age years, 411–413
redundancy, development, 485
Reformation theologians, 157
reinforcement, parental socialization, 310–311
rejection, 158
relationships
attachment, 592–594
social environment, 541
religion, resilience, 596
report measures, emotions, 22
representational mental states
theory of mind, 400–401
understanding in preschool years, 408–411
residual normality, 486
resilience, 455, 581, 586. See also risk and resilience
developmental psychopathology, 463–465
multilevel approaches to, 469–470
risk and, 68
resources, social environment, 541
response inhibition, 86
response uncertainty, 147
responsive parenting, socialization, 176–177
reticence, social anxiety, 254
reversible sentences, 496–497
reward
neural circuitry of, 25–26
neuroimaging and, 29–31
reward circuitry, 15
reward dependence, 120, 121
risk, 580, 581. See also resilience; risk and resilience
concept of, 582–585
stress and vulnerability, 585
risk and resilience, 579–580
adaptive systems, 597
agency and mastery motivation, 594
attachment relationships and families, 592–594
concept of resilience, 581, 586, 598
concept of risk, 581, 582–585
core concepts and models, 582–592
early resilience research, 592
faith, religion and sociocultural systems, 596
highlights of research findings, 591–592
interventions, 581, 584, 586, 591, 595–596, 599
issues and controversies, 597–600
key terms, 581
learning and intelligence, 594–595
measurement problem, 599–600
mediators and moderators of risk, 585
models of, 589–591
multiple levels of analysis, 600
origins of research, 580–582
person-focused models, 589–591
Pollyanna problem, 599
promotive and protective factors, 581, 586–587
questions for future research, 601
“right stuff, ” 598–599
risk gradient, 581, 583–585
self-regulation, 595–596
stress and vulnerability, 585, 597
variable-focused models, 587–589
risk factor, 581
risk gradients, 581, 583–585
risky families, early life stress, 67–69
Rothbart, Mary K., 20–21, 115, 119–120, 146–147, 172
rough-and-tumble (R&T) play. See also play
functions of, 290–292
locomotor play, 282–283
peer social play, 290
rule-breaking, antisocial behavior, 514
S
Saint Augustine, self-concept, 379
saliva, HPA axis functioning, 52, 53
Saulteaux Indians of Manitoba, 155
(p. 621) scaffolding
cross-cultural research, 440
developmental psychopathology, 457
model of play, 280–281
sociocultural contexts, 427, 438–440
schizophrenia, 461–462, 580
Schneirla, T. C., 20
school achievement, prosocial behavior, 307
school-age children
achievements in theory of mind, 403, 413
second-order mental states, 411, 412
understanding recursion and interpretation, 411–413
schools
gender and athletic participation, 347–348
interventions, 315–316
socialization, 315
theory of mind, 416–417
Schwartz, Carl, 155
science, gender and academic achievement, 349
secondary appraisals, stress response, 56
secondary vulnerabilities, 585
second-order false-belief task, children, 411, 412
second-person knowledge, infancy, 405
security
assessing, of attachment, 194–197
attachment, 191, 192
attachment changing over time, 193, 202–204
contributions to attachments, 200–202
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, 32
self-assertion, 392
self-assertiveness, 394
self-attribution, depression, 174
self-concept, 378–379, 394–395
assertion of personified self in development, 392–394
attachment, 206
constitutive categories of selfhood in development, 381–394
defining, in development, 380–381
emerging self-conception with others in mind, 390–391
minimal self, 382–385
objectified self, 382, 385–388
ongoing philosophical debate, 379–380
personified self, 382, 388–394
questions for future research, 395
self as person, 388
self-categorizing and description in children, 391–392
self-conception in space and time, 389–390
selfhood, 380
self-control
children, 126
temperament, 335
self-determination, 121
self-directedness, 120
self-efficacy, gender, 331
self-esteem, 180–181, 261, 393
self-knowledge, 379
self-objectification, 386–388
self-organization
brain development, 93–94
joint attention, 219
neural events, 84
self-preservation, stress, 56–57
self-pruning brain, development, 91
self-regulation
children, 114
internal working models, 208
neural networks, 84–85
resilience, 595–596
social cognitive theory, 331
social environment, 529–531
temperament research, 147
self-report questionnaires, personality, 118
self-system, peer relationships, 259
self-theories, intelligence, 181
self-transcendence, 120, 121
sensitivity
peer rejection, 258
secure attachment, 200–202
sensitivity to context
risk and resilience, 588, 589
stress reactivity, 58, 61
serotonin, 144, 153
serotonin transporter (5-HTT)
anxiety and depression, 32–33
gene for, 144, 146, 171, 199, 468–469
sex, 327
sex differences
locomotor play, 284
play, 278–279
prosocial behavior, 309
sex hormones, 144, 145
sexist attitudes, 337–338
sexist discrimination, awareness, 338, 351
sexual harassment, aggression, 357–358
shared attention mechanism (SAM), cognitive module, 228
short-term memory deficits, 492
siblings
false-belief understanding, 411
scaffolding, 440
social environment, 536–537
social interactions, 437
socialization, 314–315
skin conductance, emotion, 23
Smith, Peter, 294
Snidman, Nancy, 149
sociability, 119, 124
social anxiety disorder, 156
social brain, 168, 169–170
gaze following, responding to joint attention, and ventral, 221–224
initiating joint attention (IJA), social cognition, and dorsal frontal, 224–227
social-cognitive development. See also joint attention
active vision and parallel and distributed information-processing model (PDPM), 231–232
autism, 220–221
characteristics of joint attention, 218–220
dissociation of joint attention behaviors, 220–221
dynamic systems, integrated processing and PDPM, 232–234
gaze following, responding to joint attention (RJA) and ventral social brain, 221–224
infant social attention coordination behaviors, 219
initiating joint attention (IJA), social cognition, and dorsal frontal social brain, 224–227
inside-out processing and PDPM, 230–231
integration of joint attention and social cognition, 227–228
joint attention and PDPM, 228–230
joint attention development, 233
referential mapping errors, 218, 220
social-cognitive theory
self-regulation, 532–533
social-cognitive understanding, attachment, 206
social context, peer group, 261–262
social contrasting, 395
social conventional norms, morality, 102
social development, 167–168
agents of socialization, 176–179
choice and autonomy, 180
emotional experiences, 174
foundations of social-ness, 168–170
gene X environment interactions, 170–171
impact of social and cognitive/skill development, 179–181
intelligence, 168, 181
interpersonal judgments, 181–184
interventions, 174–175
media, 178–179
mental representations, 172–174
parenting, 170–176
peers, 177–178
physiological changes mediating parental effects, 175–176
praise, 180–181
questions for future research, 184
responsive parenting changes, 176–177
social brain, 168, 169–170
socialization, 170
stereotype threat, 179–180
temperament x environment interactions, 171–172
theories of social-ness, 168–169
(p. 622) social environment, 527–528
ADHD, 558
birds of a feather, 539–541
environmental mechanisms, 528–529
parent psychopathology, 534–535
parents, 533–536
peers, 537–541
questions for future research, 542
relationships and resources, 541
self-regulation, 529–531
siblings, 536–537
social experience as cognitions, 531–533
social relationships and self-regulation, 530–531
social identity development theory, peer group, 262, 341
social identity theory, gender, 333, 341–342
social information processing, peers, 242, 256–258
social information-processing biases, 532
social interaction
adult-child conversations, 442
collaboration in child’s zone of proximal development (ZPD), 427, 435–437
conversations about past and events, 440–442
human evolution, 427–431
infants with caregivers, 428–430
narratives, 441
scaffolding, 427, 438–440
socialization. See also parental socialization
agents of, 176–179
conversations, 442
media, 178–179
mindreading, 430
nature and nurture, 170
nonparental sources, 314–315
parental, and prosocial behavior, 310–314
parenting, 176–177
peers, 177–178
peer selection, 539–541
sex differences in play, 278–279
social learning theory, peers, 245
social mediation, human intelligence, 427
social-ness, 167
foundations of, 168–170
social brain, 169–170
theories of, 168–169
social participation, social play, 290
social phobia, 155
social play. See also play
adult-child, 290
functions of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play, 290–292
interactions, 289
participation, 289
peer, 290
play fighting, 290
social policy, evidence-based treatments, 472
social prejudice, 393
social psychology, debates in, 16–17
social representations, attachment, 207–209
Social Response Reversal (SRR) system model, 102
social role theory, gender, 279, 330
social rule-learning systems, 104
social self-preservation, stress, 56–57
social-structural influences
children’s gender schemas, 339–340, 340
gender and academic achievement, 354–355
gender and aggression, 360–362
gender and athletic participation, 348
gender and communication, 356
gender and friendship, 364
gender theories, 329–330
play preferences, 346
same-gender peer preferences, 343
social withdrawal
children and friends, 251
peer rejection, 254–255
sociocognitive modes of influence, gender, 331
sociocultural contexts, 425–427
active role of child, 435
collaboration in child’s zone of proximal development (ZPD), 435–437
comparison to other developmental views, 434–435
contemporary child development, 431–435
everyday activities, 442–445
everyday life, 427–431
future directions, 445–446
guided participation, 442–443
human evolution, 427–431
mental functioning, 427
participation in everyday activities, 442–445
questions for future research, 446–447
resilience, 596
scaffolding, 427, 438–440
social interactions with cultural members, 435–442
social mediation, 427
use of signs and tools, 432–434
Vygotsky’s contribution, 432–434
zone of proximal development (ZPD), 427, 435–437
socioeconomic status (SES), 3
socioemotional understanding, friendship intimacy, 363–364
sociometric measures, peers, 252
space, self-conception in, and time, 389–390
spatial memory, taxi drivers, 6
specific language impairment (SLI)
brain basis of, 494
brain imaging, 494–496, 499
developmental disorder, 482
functional differences, 496, 497–498
future of modularity, 498–500
genetic involvement, 493
grammatical SLI (G-SLI), 493
implications for modularity, 497–498
modularity and brain perspective, 492–498
modularity at brain level, 494
procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), 494
reversible sentences, 496–497
structural differences, 494–496, 497–498
testing cognitive theories at brain level, 496–497
voxel-based morphometry (VBM), 495
sports, gender and athletic participation, 348
Sports Illustrated for Kids, 348
stability, metatraits, 128, 129
startle response, fear, 28
state-space grid analysis, 19
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 29
status, behavioral correlates, 255–256
stealing, antisocial behavior, 513
Steele, Claude, 179
stereotypes, 167, 183
gender, by media, 339
language and gender, 339–340
locomotor play, 283, 284
sexist attitudes, 337–338
social development, 179–180
stigma reduction, developmental psychopathology, 472–473
Still, Sir George, 551
storytelling, cultural values, 441
strange situation paradigm, 129, 173
attachment, 202, 203
cultural settings, 199
procedure, 195–196
stress, 45–46, 580
Adaptive Calibration Model, 59
demise of central dogma, 55–56
early life, and risky families, 67–69
emotions, 57–58
evolutionary theories of, reactivity differences, 58–59
extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, 50
future directions, 70–71
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, 46, 49
neuroanatomy and physiology of HPA system, 46–51
psychological theories of, 56–58
resilience, 597, 598–599
risk, 585
social self-preservation, 56–57
stress-response phenotypes, 58–59
sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, 46
stress inoculation, 68
(p. 623) stress reactivity
biological sensitivity to context, 58, 585
childcare and cortisol, 63–64
depression, 65–66
disruptive behavior disorders (CBC), 66–67
early life stress and risky families, 67–69
emotional and behavioral problems, 65–67
genes and gene-by-environment interactions, 69–70
normative processes in development, 59–65
parent-child relationships, 61–63
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 66
temperament and, 60–61
Subjectivity and Selfhood, Zahavi, 380
substance abuse, 173, 178, 201, 515, 516, 553, 562, 563
Sullivan, Regina, 27
Suomi, Stephen, 171
suppressive, 47
suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), hypothalamus, 50
Supreme Court, 181
surgency, 120
surplus resources, 282, 295
Sweden, play preferences, 346
sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, stress, 46, 60
sympathetic tone, cardiovascular system, 152, 156
sympathy
parental socialization, 310–314
prosocial behavior, 300, 301, 308
synaptic networks, development, 91
synaptic plasticity, 90–91
synaptic shaping, 91, 93–94
syntactic processing system, 494
systemic stressors, neuroanatomy, 48
T
talkativeness, gender, 355
taxi drivers, memory, 6
taxonomy, personality traits, 113–114, 122
teachers
gender and academic achievement, 352–353
socialization, 315
theory of mind, 416–417
teleological reasoning, infancy, 404
television
children’s gender schemas, 339
direct aggression, 361
indirect aggression, 361
Teller, Edward, 158
temperament, 115
activity level, 123–124, 335–336
behavioral inhibition, 21
Campos, Joseph and Goldsmith, H. Hill, 20
ethnicity and, 157–158
gender, 335–336
gene X environment interactions, 31–35
impulsivity and self-control, 335
infant, 147, 202
measurement, 22–23
personality traits and, 113–114, 115–118
prosocial behavior, 307–309
questionnaires, 117
research, 117
Rothbart, Mary K., 20–21
stress reactivity, 60–61
temperament x environment interactions, 171–172
theories of, 19–22
Thomas, Alexander and Chess, Stella, 19–20
temperamental bias, 142
assessment, 150–151
biological measures, 158–159
biological variables, 152–156
brainstem auditory evoked potential, 152
EEG asymmetry, 152
evaluation at age 15, 153–156
event-related potentials (ERPs), 152–153
history of concept, 148–149
idea of, 143
implications, 156–157
inhibited and uninhibited children, 147–148
neurobiology, 143–146
psychological measures at age 15, 154–155
questions for future research, 159
research, 146–147
sympathetic tone, 152
vocabularies, 158
Temperament and Character Inventory, Cloninger, 121
temperament and personality traits
activity level, 123–124
agreeableness, 126–127, 131–132
Big Five Model from childhood through adulthood, 121–122
Buss, Arnold H. and Plomin, Robert, 119
children, 113–114
Cloninger, C. Robert, 120–121
conscientiousness, 126, 131
definition, 115–116
developmental changes, 132–133
effortful control, 126
extraversion, 124, 129–130
future directions, 134–135
integrative model of, 123–129
Kagan, Jerome, 120
metatraits, 128–129
models of, 118–122
negative emotionality, 124–126
neuroticism, 124–126, 130–131
openness-to-experience/intellect, 128, 132
positive emotionality, 124
psychological processes, 129–133
Rothbart, Mary K., 119–120
structure, 116–118
Thomas, Alexander and Chess, Stella, 119
temperament x environment interactions, 171–172
temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 415
“Tend and Befriend” hypothesis, 57
testosterone, 145
theory of mind, 399–403
attention and intention in infancy, 404–405
broad scope of, 401–402
change-of-location paradigm, 406, 408
deontic reasoning, 417–418, 418–419
developmental-componential, 402–403
developmental progression of, 403–413
development of, 9
education, 416–417
false-belief understanding, 398, 399–400, 405–407
individual differences in preschooler development, 410–411
infancy achievements, 403, 404
key points, 398–399
later infancy achievements, 403, 407
mechanism, 228
mental state concepts, 401
methodological issues, 403
morality, 107–108
preschool achievements, 403, 410
recursion and interpretation in school-age years, 411–413
representational, 400–401
research directions, 413–418
school age achievements, 403, 413
social cognition, 226–227
toddler achievements, 403, 407
violation-of-expectation paradigm, 406
world-inconsistent goals in infant/toddler years, 405–408
third-person account, 389
Thomas, Alexander, 19–20, 115, 119
threshold effect, risk and resilience, 588
tic and motor disorders, comorbidity with ADHD, 555
time
developmental timing, 8
self-conception in space and, 389–390
social representations over, 174
timetable, emotion regulation, 85
toddlers
achievements in theory of mind, 403, 407
understanding world-inconsistent goals, 405–408
Tomasello, Michael 286
tool use
object play, 286–287
psychological development, 432–434
(p. 624) Topeka study at Menninger clinic, 591
Tourette syndrome, 482
transactional and dynamics systems view, 434–435
transactional models
peer rejection, 260
peer relationships, 243, 266–268
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 414
translational research
developmental psychopathology, 465, 471–472
fear and reward, 27
trauma
biological targets for intervention, 471
resilience, 597
Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), 57
Turner syndrome, developmental disorder, 482
U
uncertainty, 21, 147, 158
unconditioned stimulus (US), fear, 24–25
unexpected-contents false-belief task, children, 408, 409
uninhibited children, inhibited and, 147–148
urine, HPA axis functioning, 52
V
values, parental socialization, 312
vandalism, antisocial behavior, 514
variable-focused models, risk and resilience, 587–589
vasopressin, 144, 145
ventral striatum, reward, 30
veridical empathic distress, 302
victim-based norms, morality, 101–102
victimization, bullying, 538
videogames
direct aggression, 361
violence and children, 178–179
violation-of-expectation paradigm, false-belief, 406
violence. See also aggression
hyperactivity as risk factor, 515
media and children’s aggression, 178–179
Violence Inhibition Mechanism (VIM) model, 101, 106
vision, parallel and distributed information-processing model (PDPM), 231–232
voluntary component, play, 278
volunteerism
parental socialization, 311, 312
prosocial behavior, 304, 316
von Bekesy, Georg, 151
voxel-based morphometry (VBM), structural analysis, 495
vulnerability
risk, 585, 586, 597, 599
risk and resilience, 588
Vygotsky, sociocultural context of development, 432–434
W
Wave 5, 152, 153, 156
Weismer, Ellis, 496
Wernicke’s area, specific language impairment (SLI), 494
Western Caucasian children, 315
Western philosophy, self-concept, 379–380
wheel of fortune (WOF) task, reward, 30
White, Robert, 594
Williams syndrome (WS)
developmental disorder, 481, 482
figurative language in, 488–490
fractionation, 490–491
modularity, 486–492
shared resources, 491–492
special language abilities, 487–488
Wisconsin Study of Families and Work, 66
withdrawal, behavioral responses of, 21
Within Our Reach: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage, Schorr and Schorr, 463
Z
Zahavi, Dan, 380
Zelazo, Philip R., 149
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
collaboration in child’s ZPD, 435–437
sociocultural contexts, 427
Zoom, (picture book), 433