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date: 25 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reviews contemporary research on children’s gender development. Theories addressing cultural and social-structural, cognitive and motivational, and biological influences are summarized. These theoretical frameworks are used to interpret gender-related variations in the following areas: temperament, gender schemas, self-concepts, sexist attitudes, gender segregation and peer group relations, play, sports, academic achievement, communication style, direct and indirect aggression, sexual harassment, and friendship intimacy. Gender similarities and within-gender variability are emphasized.

Keywords: human sex differences, sex roles, gender identity, sexism, peer relations, childhood play behavior, academic achievement, athletic participation, aggression, intimacy

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