Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 03 June 2020

(p. 1007) Index

(p. 1007) Index

A
ABCDEFV battery, 275, 299–300
abortion, judging social issues, 854–855
abstract imitation
hierarchical order, 665
rules and strategies, 665–666
academic outcome, executive function, 720–721
academic performance
infant and preschool, 453–454
sample composition, 43–44
accommodation, 16
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 184
action representation, imitation, 673–674
action schemas, 929
action systems
adults’ memory, 667–668
end-state planning, 281, 295
eye-movement control, 280, 293
locomotion and navigation, 281, 295–296
saccadic eye/head system for switching attention, 292–293
visual development, 272–273
visual information as constraint, 393–394
visually guided reaching and grasping, 280, 294–295
active construction, children’s concepts, 546–547
active intermodal mapping (AIM), imitation, 656–657
active memory representations, executive function, 718–719
active rehearsal, 513
ACT-R model, production system, 480–481, 483
acuity. See visual acuity
adaptive combination theory, spatial development, 565, 574
adjectives, open-class words, 880–882
adolescence. See also moral development
affective dimensions of moral and social judgments, 856
autobiographical memory, 522
civil liberties and fair government, 852–853
coordinations in moral and social judgments, 852–854
experiences and moral judgments, 856
informational assumptions, 854–856
judging social practices, 855–856
moral development during, 852–857
moral vs. social concepts, 852
peer exclusion, 853–854
relationship with parents, 854
Adolph, Karen, 385
adult-directed speech (ADS), 871
adult-manipulation control, deferred imitation, 658
adults
face processing alterations, 220–221
face recognition, 351
facial attractiveness preference, 346
aesthetic awareness and duality, 995
affective dimensions
adolescence, 856
children’s moral and social judgments, 836–837, 851
affordances
concept of, 384–385
development of reaching action, 385–387
testing infants’ perception of, 422
Africa, infants’ motor development, 415
African infant precocity, 414
agency, causality, 630
agent-based simulations, evolution, 493
agglutinative language, 868
aggression, adolescence, 856
agouti allele, 76
Ainsworth, Mary, 22
Ainsworth Strange Situation, 22, 40
Alberch, Pere, 80
alerting
attention network, 684, 685, 686–687
changes in childhood, 690–691
alerting score, 686
allocentric coding, 570, 577
allocentric information, early reaching action, 394, 396
allocentric reference, language and spatial relations, 576
allophony, word forms, 914, 915
Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL), 892
alterability, 835
alternative splicing, 104–106
Alzheimer’s disease, 104
ambiguously multidimensional events, 835
amblyopia, 297–298
amblyopic eye, 209–210
American Academy of Pediatrics, 416
American Psychological Association, 36
analyses of variance (ANOVA), 111–112
anchoring research, 47
androgen insensitivity syndrome
core gender identity, 185
sex development, 177
Angelman syndrome, 114
animals and artifacts
childhood categorization, 611, 612
infant categorization, 599–604
A-not-B error, dynamic system, 483–485
A-not-B task, 689
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), development, 709
anthropomorphism, imagination, 817–818
antiandrogen medroxyprogesterone acetate, sex-typical play, 176–177
Arcimboldo faces, 347
argumentive reasoning, 752–753, 755–756, 760
Aristotle, 68, 112, 653
arm balance hypothesis, 392
articulatory loop, verbal information, 460
artifacts
maps, 996–997
models, 989–991
symbolic, 988–997
video, 995–996
Asimo robot, Honda Corp., 417–418
Asperger syndrome, 814. See also autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
assimilation, 16
association, causation, 632–633
associative learning
flexibility, 614–615
generics, 554
assumption of mutual exclusivity, word learning, 878
Astaire, Fred, 508
attachment theory, child development, 22
attention, 683–684, 700
executive function, 281, 296
imitation, 669–670
infant, and intelligence development, 767–768
saccadic eye/head system for switching, 280, 292–293
spatial action, 280, 291–292
attentional learning account, language, 878
attention and spatial action, action modules, 280, 291–292
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 10
behavioral inhibition, 461
executive function, 707, 711, 715–716, 721
genes, 696
research on, 47
training attention, 697
attention networks, 684–686, 699–700
alerting, 684, 685, 690–691
alerting score, 686
anatomy of, 685
attention network task (ANT), 686
brain connectivity and lifespan development, 699
child version of ANT, 687
executive attention, 684, 685, 689, 692–694
executive attention score, 686
fear as control system, 694
genes and development, 695–697
genetic variation, 694–695
individual differences, 694–697
infancy, 686–690
key points, 683–684
network changes in childhood, 690–694
orienting, 684, 685, 687–688, 691–692
orienting score, 686
questions for future research, 700
training, 697–699
attention network task (ANT), 686, 687
Attention Process Training (APT), 697
attractiveness, face, 345–347
atypical development, 47–48, 715–717
audiovisual, language acquisition, 872
auditory brainstem responses (ABR), 314
auditory development, 311–312. See also musical development
auditory scene analysis, 312, 319–320
basic auditory perception, 312–321
features, 312
frequency discrimination, 314–315
frequency resolution, 314–315
key concepts, 310–311
pitch, 312, 315–317
questions for future research, 330
sound localization, 318–319
temporal resolution, 317–318
thresholds for hearing and intensity discrimination, 313–314
timbre, 312, 315–317
auditory input, visual cortex activation after blindness, 222
auditory perception, 312–321
auditory scene analysis, 312, 319–320
authenticity, historical path, 553
authority independence, 835
autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
case studies, 814–815
divergent thinking, 813–814
drawing, 813
executive function, 707, 711, 715–716
imagination in children with, 811–815
imitation, 675
pretend play, 812–813
research on, 47–48
autobiographical memory
autonoetic awareness, 530
childhood and adolescence, 522
declarative, 508–509, 514, 533
emergence in preschool years, 521–522
social influences, 531–532
time and place, 530
autonoetic awareness, memories, 530
autonomy, 834
autonomy-support, caregiving, 726
avoidance behavior, reaching actions, 387–388
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, 78
axons, 131–134
B
back-propagation network, 498
back-propagation-through-time network, 495–496
“Back to Sleep” campaign, 416
backward blocking, 642, 645
balance, postural control, 247–249
balance control, flexibility, 421
Baldwin, James Mark, 14, 15, 16, 19, 26, 27, 28, 653
Baldwin effect, evolutionary selection, 493
Balinese scales, musical pitch, 324–325
ball velocity, catching, 389–391
Banyan tree, development metaphor, 430
Barker, Roger, 29
basic level, categorization, 599
Bateson, William, 70
Bayesian
decision theory, 245
inference, 635–638
language, 867, 868
model of word learning, 869
probabilities, 485–488
reasoning, 637
theories, 565, 573
Bayes nets. See causal Bayes nets
Bayes’ rule, 636–637, 638
Bayley Infant Scales, 24
Bayley Scale of Infant Development, 786
Bayley Scales of Development, 410, 412, 413, 414
Behavior. See also moral development
developmental psychology, 48–49
individual development, 5
behavioral development, resources, 416–417
behavioral genetics, 92
heritability, 95–96, 98
IQ and religiosity, 99
IQ scores, 96–97
limited utility of heritability estimates, 96–100
modern field of, 92–94
quantitative, 92, 99
roots of, 94–95
Behavioral Genetics, 95
behavioral observations, quality of data, 22
behavioral reenactment, imitation, 671–672
behavior change
determinants, 25–27
general vs. specific, 26–27
nativism and empiricism, 26
Behavior Genetics, 102
behaviorist, language, 867, 868
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), 717
benchmark, 412
Benton Judgment of Line Orientation, 167
Bernstein, Nikolai, 241, 383
Bernstein’s approach, perceptual-motor relations, 241–242
bifurcate pluralia tanta, 495
Big C perspective, creativity, 809
bilateral congenital cataracts, children, 205, 206
bilingual
language acquisition, 889–890
prenatal learning, 911
billiard ball causation, mechanism, 631
Binet, Alfred, 14, 16
binocular deprivation, outcome after early, 215–218
binocularity, 280, 289, 297–298
binocular vision, visual development, 280, 289
biogenetic law, 14
(p. 1009) biological development
advances in genetics, 66–67
bidirectionality of organism-environment system, 76–78
cellular biology and population genetics, 69–70
differentiation, 68
formalizing notion of prespecified development, 72–73
future directions, 84–85
genocentric view, 70–72
heredity, 69
integrative developmental science, 83–84
key points, 65–66
linking development and evolution, 79–83
modern synthesis of biology, 72–73, 83
notion of prespecification, 70–72
pangenesis, 68–69
phenomenon of development, 67–70
preformationism, 68
questions for future research, 85
relational causality, 79
rise of contemporary epigenetics, 75–76
roles of experience and context, 73–75
stability and variability, 67–70
stability of form and behavior, 68–69
variations, 69
biologically primary abilities, 451
biologically secondary abilities, 451
biology, psychology roots, 14–15
bipolar disorder, executive function, 716
black box, multiple causes of influence, 84
blessing of abstraction, 641
blind children simulation, developmental robotics, 489
blindness
outcome after congenital, 221–223
plasticity mechanisms after, 224–225
reorganization of visual cortex after, 221–225
blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI, 52, 149, 357
body babbling, imitation, 656–657
body-scaling
distance perception, 386–387
perception and action, 250–251
Bowlby, John, 22
bracketing, 744
brain activity, speech perception, 912
brain connectivity, attention, 699
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 108, 133, 140–142
brain development, 783–784. See also postnatal brain development
declarative memory, 524–525
neurobiology of human, 129–130
prenatal, 130–131
brain function, noninvasive measures of, 301
brain mapping technology, 99
bridges, flexibility, 422, 423
Brown, Roger, 929, 935, 940, 943
Bühler, Charlotte, 18
Burian, Richard, 76
Bush, George W., 105
Butler, Samuel, 73
C
Candy Witch, cultural myths, 803
caregiving, executive function, 726–727
Caribbean, infants’ motor development, 415
carrying loads, walking and, 431–432
cascade-correlation network, 481–483
catching
catchableness of object, 387, 391
moving objects, 389–391
catecholamines, visual rehabilitation, 212
catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT), 695, 697, 700
categorization, 591–593. See also childhood categorization; infant categorization
children, 551–552
closed-class words, 884
computational modeling, 620–621
definition, 593–594
early childhood, 607–619
future directions, 620–621
general learning mechanisms, 596–597
infancy, 594, 597–607
key points, 591–592
neuroimaging, 620
object, 877, 881
prototypes, 545–546
questions for future research, 621
specialized learning mechanisms, 595–596
causal Bayes nets, 638
formalism, 638–639
framework, 646–647
hierarchical, 641–642
and interventions, 639–640
and learning, 640–641
meta Bayes nets, 641
causal hypotheses, intervention for testing, 10–11
causal inference, limitations, 645
causality, 628–630
agency, 630
association, 632–633
Bayes nets and interventions, 639–640
Bayes nets and learning, 640–641
billiard ball causation, 631
causal Bayes nets, 638
causal structure and conditional probabilities, 638–639
children, 551–552
conceptions of, 630–633
counterfactuals and interventions, 633–634
empirical work on Bayes nets and Bayesian reasoning, 642–645
future directions, 645–647
hierarchical Bayes nets, 641–642
integrating mechanism, explanation, and intuitive theories, 646–647
integrating prior knowledge and new evidence, 645
interpreting research, 53
interventionalist theory, 634–635
intervention and experimentation, 644–645
learning across domains, 644
learning from probability, 642–643
limitations on causal inference, 645
mechanism, 631–632
probabilistic models and Bayesian inference, 635–638
questions for future research, 647
reciprocal, 9–10
relational, 79, 84
search problem, 645–646
social cognition and knowledge, 646
causal learning
imitation, 652
social agents and statistical learning, 664
tool use, 662–664
cellular biology, 69–70
central nervous system (CNS)
maturation, 381
synapse stabilization and elimination, 137–142
cerebral palsy, sitting posture, 426
c-fos, immediate early genes (IEGs), 102–103
change, processes of developmental, 25
change-detection paradigm, 512
child-as-data-analyst, language, 549
child-as-theorist, language, 549
child development
attachment theory, 22
cognitive, 20
emergence (1890-1919), 16–17
information processing, 21
language, 20
or lifespan development, 24–25
middle period (1920-1959), 17–19
modern era (1960-present), 19–22
nature of, 23–24
observing behavior, 48–51
parenting, 22
perceptual, 20–21
research of atypical, 47–48
social learning theories, 21
Child Development, 4, 8
child-directed speech (CDS), 870
childhood
affective dimensions, 851
alerting network, 690–691
coordinations in moral and social judgments, 850–851
development of intelligence in, 767–768
executive attention network, 692–694
moral concepts, 847–848
(p. 1010) moral development during middle, 847–851
morality, 849–850
orienting network, 691–692
prefrontal cortex development, 708–709
social experiences, 851
childhood amnesia, 514
childhood categorization, 607–608, 619–620. See also infant categorization
animals and artifacts, 612
associative learning, 614–615
effects of labeling on, 617–619
evidence, 611–615
false alarms, 613
methods for studying, 610–611
naïve theory perspective, 608, 611–612
nonobvious properties, 613–614
role of function, 615–617
theoretical views on, 608–610
childhood play, gender role behavior, 166–167, 177
childrearing, 414–416, 660–661
children. See also face-processing ability in childhood
age categories and judgments, 349
autobiographical memory emergence, 521–522
Bayes nets and Bayesian reasoning, 642–645
bilingual, 890
creativity development, 809, 817
developing concept of time, 804–805
education, 778–780
face processing, 214–215, 360–362
facial attractiveness preference, 346–347
facial recognition, 352–353
fictional vs. real-life information in narratives, 801–803
gestures’ role in language learning, 957–959
imitation from television and media, 661–662
intervention and experimentation, 644–645
judging facial distinctiveness, 347
language invention, 892
learning to reason, 759–760
locomotion, 249–252
memories for routine events, 518–519
memories for unique events, 519
memory for action, 668
memory in preschool years, 518–521
memory retrieval, 528
moral and social development during preschool years, 841–847
music lessons, 326–327, 329–330
pictures as symbols, 993–995
preference for attractive faces, 345–347
pretend play, 793–798, 812–813
pretend vs. real, 796–797
pretense, 986–988
reasoning skills, 752–753
reporting information, 520–521
representational insight, 456–457
representing experiences, 454–455
self-concept, 530–531
short-term and working memory, 511–512
spatial orientation and object search, 254–257
tool use, 252–254, 451–452
transitivity reasoning, 749
Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, 717
children’s concepts
active construction, 546–547
developmental change, 543–545
dichotomies, 543, 544
domain-general principles, 545–546
flexibility, 548–549
kinds, 553–555
open-ended nature of, 548–549
statistics and theory, 549–550, 555–556
structure, content and process, 545
Children’s Gambling Task, 711
The Child’s Soul, Preyer, 381
child study, 16
cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha-4 (CHRNA4) gene, 695
Chomsky, Noam, 20, 869, 927
Christmas, cultural myths, 803
chromatin, 101–102, 113
circulation reaction, 16
civil liberties, judgments, 852–853
classical conditioning, nondeclarative memory, 508
classifiers, closed-class words, 883
cliffs, flexibility, 422, 423
clinical method, 19
closed-class words, 882–885
coalescent argumentation, 758
coarticulation, 870
cochlear implants, 893
coding model, norm-based, 353–354
cognition
concepts, categories and induction, 594
gesture in spatial, 582–583
sex differences, 167–168
social, and knowledge, 646
syntax and, 942–945
visual development, 272–273
Cognition, 102
cognitive complexity and control theory-revised (CCC-r), 719
cognitive development
child, 20
children increasing intentional control, 459–464
construction within social context, 464–466
cultural contexts for learning, 464–465
development systems and, 449
dual-process/representation theories of, 458–459
executive function, 460–462
field of, 448, 466–467
gene-environment interactions and development of intelligence, 450
gesture, 963
implicit/explicit representation, 457–458
information processing, 21, 774
information representation, 454–459
key points, 447–448
language, 867, 868, 869
others as intentional agents, 455–456
questions for future research, 467
representational insight, 456–457
theory, 27–28
self-directed learners, 462–464
sex differences, 174–175, 188–192
sex-typical toy and activity preferences, 178–179
skeletal competencies, 450–452
sociohistorical influences, 466
stability and plasticity over time, 452–454
cognitive exercise, 784
cognitive flexibility, executive function, 462
Cognitive Battery of NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, 711–712, 717
cognitive history, intelligence, 769–770, 774–776, 776–777
cognitive map, 570
cognitive outcome, executive function, 720–721
cognitive psychology, implicit/explicit representation, 457–458
cognitive revolution, 26
cognitive science, 4, 636
coherence, perception of object, 375–376
collaborations, 759
Collins, Francis, 103
color vision, development, 279, 282–283
combination, words, 875
communication. See also gesture
imitation, 652–653
maps and images, 578–580
complexity, dynamic systems, 243
comprehension
morphosyntax, 935
vs. production, 935–936
computational modeling, categorization, 620–621
computational models
ACT-R system, 480–481, 483
back-propagation network, 498
back-propagation-through-time network, 495–496
Bayesian probabilities, 485–488
connections, 481–483, 498
developmental issues, 489–498
developmental robots, 488–489
dynamic systems, 483–485
feed-forward partially recurrent network, 484–485
(p. 1011) Fodor’s paradox, 491–492
Hebbian network, 487–488
key points, 477–478
learning and development, 491
level-ordering, 494–495
modeling techniques, 479–489
nativism and empiricism, 492–493
poverty of stimulus, 493–498
questions for future research, 499–500
rules, 479–481, 498
sibling-descendant cascade-correlation network, 482
simple recurrent network, 497
usefulness of, 478–479, 498–499
vocabulary spurt, 489–490
Zipf’s law, 478, 490
computer adaptive testing, 50
computer axial tomography, 52
computer technology, 22
concept acquisition
general learning mechanisms, 596–597
specialized learning mechanisms, 595–596
conceptions, causality, 630–633
concepts in development, 542–543, 556–557. See also children’s concepts
causality, 551–552
classic debates, 543–550
convergence of statistics and theory, 555–556
definition, 593–594
dichotomies applying to children’s concepts, 544
historical path, 552–553
infant categorization, 602–604
kinds of things, 553–555
representations, 550–551
theories, 550–556
conceptual categorization, 595
conceptual primitive, 595
concrete operations
reasoning, 747–749
thinking of children, 454
conditional probability, segmentation, 914
conditioning, association, 633
conduct disorder, executive function, 707
configural information
children’s processing of, 352–353
face processing, 340, 341, 351
infants’ processing of, 351–352
conflict tasks, executive attention, 692–693
confounded influences, interpreting research, 52–53
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
gonadal hormone influencing behavior, 175–177, 179
sex differences, 188–189
sexual orientation, 180–181
congenital blindness
responses to other senses, 221–223
sensory response after, 221–223
connectionism, learning syntax, 946–947
connections, modeling techniques, 481–483, 498
conscious memory, 506–509
conservation tasks, gesture, 954, 964
consolidation and storage, memory, 526–527
consonance, musical pitch organization, 322–323
CONSPEC-CONLERN hypothesis, face processing, 343–344
constraint-led approach
movement coordination, 391–394
reaching actions, 392–393
visual information as constraint, 393–394
constraints, 548–549
construction, 546–547
context
deferred imitation, 659
developmental psychology, 8
development of narratives, 799–800
role in development, 73–75
significance of, 28–29
Context and Thought, Dewey, 8
Context-independent learning, 465
contingent negative variation (CNV), 691
continuity
developmental psychology, 23–24
language acquisition, 927
continuity in time, 243
Continuous Performance Tasks (CPT), 690–691
contrast sensitivity
color vision, 282
visual development, 277–278, 279
convenience sample, 42
cooperativity, 484
coordinations, moral and social concepts, 835–836, 838–840, 844–845, 850–851
core gender identity, sex differences, 165–166, 185–188
core knowledge, cognitive development, 450–452
corpus callosum, 169, 170, 393
cortical circuitry
axon and dendrite extension, 131–134
neurotransmitter development, 136–137
synapse elimination, 131, 137–142
synapse stabilization, 137–142
synaptogenesis, 134–136
cortical selectivity, visual, 284
cortical system, visual, 274
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 115–116
cortisol, physiological variables, 51
co-twin control paradigm, 381
counterfactual inferences, 633–634
counterfactual reasoning, pretend play, 805–806
counting, 451
counting span task, 512
crawling
means for mobility, 408–410
stages and transient forms, 410–412
creativity, 808. See also imagination
development of, 809, 817
divergent thinking, 809–811
relation to inhibitory control, 816–817
social, 811
unusual uses task, 809–811
Crews, David, 77
Crick, Francis, 94, 100
criterion judgments, 835
Cronbach, Lee, 565
cross-sectional research, design, 44–46
Crow, Jim, 787
crystallized intelligence, 766, 768–769
cues, facial identity, 216–217
cultural contexts, learning, 464–465
cultural myths, fantasy like reality, 803
cultural propagation, imitation, 652
culture
development, 3
executive function, 725–726
judging social practices, 855–856
mathematical abilities, 190
moral judgments, 853
science performance, 190
social life in, 838–840, 850
cumulative rehearsal, 513
cycles of contingency, 79
cystic fibrosis, 91
D
Darwin, Charles, 15, 71, 94, 380–381
finches, 81–82
natural selection metaphor, 463
pangenesis, 68–69
Darwinian evolution, 652
daydreaming, 792, 804
Day/Night task, 461, 728
dead reckoning, 569
deaf children, language delay, 944
de Biran, Maine, 506
décalage, 483
declarative memory, 506–509
autobiographical memory, 508, 509
hippocampus, 524–525
neural substrates, 523–525
neural substrate supporting, 523–524
semantic memory, 508–509
declarative metacognition, 464
deductive reasoning, 745, 869. See also reasoning
default mode network, 150
deferred imitation, 657–660, 676n.2
deficit specificity, facial identity, 217
degrees of freedom problem, 383
Delay Choice Paradigm, 711
delayed-response task, 512
Delay of Gratification Task, 711
deliberate memory, 513–514
dendrite growth, 131–134, 141
(p. 1012) Denver Developmental Screening Test, 412, 414
depth perception, visual, 280, 289–290
design, research, 44–47. See also research design and methods
design stance, 451–452, 615–616
development
gradual unfolding, 67–68, 73
linking, with evolution, 79–83
neuroplasticity, 7
reasoning, 753–755, 757–758
roles of experience and context, 73–75
developmental biology, research, 69
developmental change, 25
children’s concepts, 543–545
domain generality or specificity, 28, 545–546
developmental milestones, visual, 279–281
developmental psychology, 3–11. See also computational models; concepts in development
central themes, 22–29
children and education, 778–780
emergence (1890-1919), 16–17
features of new synthesis, 5
field development, 15–22
historical overview, 14–22
history, origins and causes, 3–5
importance of context, 8
importance of multiple levels of analysis, 5–6
intelligence differences by race, 785–787
intervention for testing causal hypotheses, 10–11
middle period (1920-1959), 17–19
modern era (1960-present), 19–22
multiple simultaneous causes, 8–9
plasticity, 6–7
probabilistic-epigenetic framework, 5, 9
reciprocal causality, 9–10
roots in biology, 14–15
roots in experimental psychology, 15
Developmental Psychology, 4
developmental robots, computational modeling, 488–489
Developmental Science, 102
developmental systems
cognitive development, 449
neurobehavior, 417
de Vries, Hugo, 70
Dewey, John, 14, 16, 27
diagnostic information, face states and traits, 340
Diamond, Adele, 689
dichotomies
children’s concepts, 543, 544
psychology, 238
Dickens, William, 781
Dickens/Flynn model
group differences, 785
heritability, 786
intelligence, 783
IQ differences, 766, 787
social multipliers, 782
Dictionary of Psychology, The, 604
Die Seel des Kindes, Preyer, 381
diethylstilbestrol (DES)
prenatal exposure to, 172, 176
sexual orientation, 181, 182
differentiation, 77
categorization, 593
form and function, 68
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 52, 145, 147–148, 356–357
digital technology, 22
Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS), 712, 713, 714, 715, 717, 718, 719, 723, 729
discontinuity, developmental psychology, 23–24
discrimination
categorization, 593
frequency, 314–315
hearing and intensity, 313–314
disposition, reasoning, 760–761
dissonance, musical pitch organization, 322–323
distress keeper, 688
divergent thinking
children with autism spectrum disorders, 813–814
social creativity, 811
Unusual Uses Task, 809–811
diversity, language structure, 868, 885
DNA
epigenetics, 94, 118–119
genetics, 100–101
interactions between, segments and environment, 102–103
methylation, 9, 76–78, 113–114, 116, 117
microarrays, 99
RNA splicing and alternative splicing, 104–106
structure and function of, 101–102
Watson and Crick, 73
Dobzhansky, Theodore, 72
Dollard, John, 27
domain-general mechanisms, categorization, 594, 609
domain-general principles, children’s concepts, 545–546
domains, learning across, 644
domain-specific mechanisms, categorization, 594, 608
domain-specific theories, children’s concepts, 545–546
dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), 695, 696, 700, 727
dorsal stream, 292
action modules, 291–296
attention and spatial action, 291–292
end-state planning, 281, 295
eye-movement control, 280, 293
locomotion and navigation, 281, 295–296
saccadic eye/head system, 292–293
visually guided reaching and grasping, 280, 294–295
visual spatial development model, 273
vulnerability in genetic disorders, 298–300
dorsal streams, visual development, 274–275
Drake, Carolyn, 328
drawing
children with autism spectrum disorders, 813
symbolic artifacts, 993–994
Driesch, Hans, 68
Drosophila, dendrite development, 133
drug therapies, visual rehabilitation, 212
dual-process reasoning, 756–757
dual-process theories, cognitive development, 458–459
dual representation, 457
dumb attention mechanisms, categorization, 596, 606
Dunn, Judy, 840
duration, sound, 312
Durkheim, Emile, 16
Dutch Hunger Winter, 118
dynamic systems
computational models, 483–485
perceptual-motor relations, 243–244
stability, 244
theory, 382
E
Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), 786
Eck, Johnny, 433
ecological psychology, 382, 386
Ecological Psychology, Barker, 29
ecological psychology approach, information, 383–384
ecology, 69
The Ecology of Human Development, Bronfenbrenner, 29
education
developmental psychology, 778–780
genes and fate, 784–785
gestures, 969–970
Educational Testing Service, 168
egocentric coding, 577
egocentric information, reaching action, 394, 395–396
egocentric reference, language and thought, 576
egocentric responding, 569
egocentric-to-allocentric shift, 570
elaboration, memory, 514
electroencephalography (EEG), 276
auditory development, 311, 312
face processing, 357–358
functional brain development, 149
measuring physiological variables, 51–52
electronic coding, 50
electrophysiological evidence
face processing, 357–358
N170, 339, 357–358
embodied cognition, perceptual and action, 245
Emergentist Coalition Model (ECM), language, 867, 868, 876
emmetropization, 282
emotional eavesdropping procedure, 669
emotional experiences, simulation of, 797–798
emotions
imitation, 669–670
peer conflict, 847
reactions to others “like me,” 670
empirical meaning, research, 38–39
empiricism
behavior change, 26
computational modeling, 489, 492–493
emulation, 456
enculturation
musical pitch, 324–325
rhythmic development, 328–329
end-state planning, action modules, 281, 295
endurance, walking and running, 432–433
English, language structure, 885
enrichment programs, infant and preschool, 453–454
environment
analysis development, 28–29
constraints, 391
genes and, 780–783
individual development, 5
interactions between DNA segments and, 102–103
nature-nurture factors, 97–98
spatial behavior, 572–574
epigenesis, 68, 76–78
epigenetic landscape, metaphor, 430
epigenetic programming, 116
epigenetics, 4, 75, 92, 94
control of genes, 113–115
future research, 122
genomic imprinting, 113–115, 120
human populations, 117–119
inheritance, 119–121
learning and memory, 115–117
meaning of, 112–113
rise of contemporary, 75–76
episodic memory
autonoetic awareness, 530
declarative, 509, 514, 533
social influences, 531–532
time and place, 530
epistemology, 3, 11
equality, adolescence, 852–853
equifinality, 24, 45
Escherichia coli, 104
ethnic groups
facial recognition, 219–220
intelligence differences, 785–787
event mapping, 376
event monitoring, 376
event-related potential (ERP)
executive function, 714
memory, 526, 527
N170, 339, 357–358
evidence, reasoning, 756
evo-devo, evolutionary developmental biology, 80
evolution
learning and, 493
linking development and, 79–83
spatial skills and significance, 566–567
evolutionary biology
Modern Synthesis, 66, 72–73, 83
structure-function problem, 778
evolutionary capacitance, 82
evolutionary theory, 69
evolutionary transformations, 71
executive attention
attention network, 684, 685, 689–690
changes in childhood, 692–694
score, 686
executive dysfunction, 707, 716
executive function, 459
age-related changes in, 711–715
attention and, 281, 296
atypical development of, 715–717
caregiving, 726–727
cognitive and academic outcomes, 720–721
components, 707–708
cool, 710
culture, 725–726
development, 447, 460–462, 708–709
future directions, 730
gender, 722–723
genetics, 727
hot (socioaffective), 709–711
human brain, 710
individual differences, 719–720
infancy and toddlerhood, 712
influences on, 722–728
key points, 706–707
language, 723–724
long-term outcomes, 721–722
measurement issues, 717–718
motor development, 728
preschoolers, 712–714
publications about, in children, 707
questions for future research, 730
school-age years, 714–715
sleep, 727–728
socioaffective (hot), 709–711
socioeconomic status (SES), 722
socioemotional outcomes, 721
symbolism and psychological distancing, 724–725
theories and mechanisms of development, 718–719
top-down and bottom-up influences on self-regulation, 711
training, 728–730
executive skill, reasoning, 748
exogenous variables, 635
exons, 104–105
experience
learning, 84
learning from testimony, 802
role in development, 73–75
walking, 414–416
experience-dependent, speech perception, 910–912
experience-expectant, speech perception, 910–912
experience-scaled, perception and action, 251
experimental embryology, motor development, 239
experimental psychology, 15
experimentation
backwards blocking, 642, 645
intervention and, 644–645
expertise, development of creativity, 809
explanation, reasoning, 756
explicit cognition, cognitive psychology, 457–458
eye blinking, reaching actions, 387–388
eye movements
action modules, 280, 293
physiological variables, 51
F
face categorization
facedness, 347–348
gender, 348–349
race, 348
species, 348
facedness categorization, 340, 347–348
face expertise
CONSPEC-CONLERN hypothesis, 343–344
face-processing ability, 342–343
nature and nurture, 343–345
perceptual narrowing hypothesis, 344–345
face individuation, 349–354
children’ processing of facial information, 352–353
face space for facial identity, 353–354
infants’ processing of facial information, 351–352
internal and external facial features, 350–351
isolated features vs. configural and holistic facial information, 351
face processing, 203. See also visual development
acuity deficits, 215
alterations in adulthood, 220–221
bias, 450
cues to facial identity, 216–217
electrophysiological evidence, 357–358
(p. 1014) face detection, 215
functional neuroanatomical imaging evidence, 358–359
holistic processing, 217
interaction between facial category and facial identity, 354–355
neuropsychological evidence, 356–357
normal development, 214–215
outcome after early binocular deprivation, 215–218
processing identity and changing aspects of faces, 215–216
sensitive period for damage, 218–219
sensitive period for specialization, 219–220
specificity of deficits, 217
visual development, 280, 290–291
face-processing ability in childhood
face attractiveness, 345–347
face categorization, 347–349
face expertise, 342–343
face individuation, 349–354
face information, 341–342
faces as multifaceted stimulus class, 339–342
facial distinctiveness, 347
future directions, 359–362
gaps in knowledge, 339, 359–362
internal and external facial features, 350–351
key points, 338–339
nature and nurture in face expertise development, 343–345
questions for future research, 362–363
face recognition, 351
age, 355
gender, 354–355
race, 354
faces
hierarchical structure of face information, 342
multidimensional, 339–341
multileveled, 341–342
social significance, 340
face space theory, 353–354
face states, 339–340, 355–356
face traits, 339, 340, 355–356
face-voice matching, infants, 361
facial distinctiveness, 347
facial gestalt, 340–341
facial identity. See also face individuation
face space for, 353–354
facial imitation, neonatal, 654–656
fair government, judgments, 852–853
fairness
adolescence, 852
middle childhood, 848
social domain theory, 834
false-belief tasks
symbolic artifacts, 995
symbolic thought, 997–998
theory of mind, 844, 944
fantasy, 792
categorizing stories, 801–802
cultural myths, 803
distinguishing between, and real, 796–797
fantasy/reality judgments, 802
mental time travel, 804
teaching reality, 802
Fast ForWard, 729
Fear, attention network, 694
featural information
children’s processing of, 352–353
face processing, 340, 341, 351
infants’ processing of, 351–352
fetal leg movements, 407, 408
fetuses, learning language, 869–870
field theory, 19
figure-ground segmentation, visual development, 280, 287–289
file drawer problem, 58
finches, Darwin’s, 81–82
Fisher, Sir Ronald, 54–55, 72
fixation shift paradigm, attention, 292–293
Flavell, John, 20
flexibility
associative learning, 614–615
children’s concepts, 548–549
neonatal facial imitation, 655
walking improvements, 405, 421–425
fluency, walking, 405, 418–421
fluid intelligence, 766, 768–769
fluoxetine, 213
focusing, visual acuity, 278, 279, 281–282
Fodor’s paradox, computational modeling, 489, 491–492
folk music, rhythmic structure, 328–329
folk psychology, 28
footbinding, China, 433
forced-choice preferential looking, 275
formal operations, 454
fragile X syndrome, 298, 300
Franklin, Rosalind, 100
Fred-the-rabbit apparatus, 631
frequency discrimination, sounds, 314–315
frequency resolution, sounds, 314–315
Freud, Sigmund, 16, 27, 28
function
childhood categorization, 615–617
infant categorization, 604–605
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 52, 149, 151, 709
auditory development, 311, 312
face processing, 357, 358, 359
fusiform face area (FFA), 220
memory, 527
neural activity, 768
residual plasticity, 223–224
functional maturity, 525
functional neuroanatomical imaging evidence, face processing, 358–359
future, imagining hypothetical, 806–807
fuzzy-to-verbatim continuum, 458–459
fuzzy-trace theory
cognitive development, 458–459
memory retrieval, 528
G
gait modification, walking, 423
Galapagos Islands, 81
Galton, Francis, 16, 92, 94
game of catch, developmental robotics, 489
gap detection, temporal resolution, 317–318
Gelman, Rochel, 631
gender
core gender identity, 165–166, 185–188
executive function, 722–723
face categorization, 348–349
face recognition, 354–355
gross structural brain development, 148
role behavior, 166–168
sexual orientation, 166, 180–185
gender dysphoria, core gender identity, 186
gene
epigenetic control of, 113–115
historical and modern meanings of, 100–101
immediate early genes (IEGs), 102–103
gene expression, 84
behavior and experience, 9
environmental regulation, 85
gene pools, 72
generalizability, 835, 842
generalized imitation, 598, 602
Generation of Animals, Aristotle, 112
generative function, development, 80
generative linguistics, 927
generics, kinds in learning, 554–555
genes
attention network development, 695–697
auditory development, 3111
environment, 780–783
and fate, 784–785
Genes-D, 100–101, 121
Genes-P, 100–101
genetically identical, 76
genetic disorders, dorsal stream vulnerability, 298–300
genetic encapsulation, 76
genetic epistemology, 515
genetic factors, sex differences, 171–172
genetic psychology, 13, 15. See also developmental psychology
genetics, 66–67, 92
executive function, 727
historical and modern meanings of “gene,” 100–101
Huntington’s disease, 108–109
individual development, 5
integration with development, 83
interactions between DNA and external environment, 102–103
(p. 1015) interactions between DNA and internal environment, 103–104
meanings of word “interaction,” 109–112
phenylketonuria, 107–108
population, 69–70
Prader-Willi syndrome, 106–107
RNA splicing and alternative splicing, 104–106
structure and function of DNA, 101–102
genetic variation
attention network, 694–695
environment, 9
gene-times-environment [G x E] interactions, 9, 111–112, 450
genocentric view, development, 70–72
genomic imprinting, 113–115
genotype, 70
geocentric reference
language and spatial relations, 576
language and thought, 577
Geographical Information Systems (GIS), 584
Geospatial Semester, 584
germ line, 71
germ plasm, 71, 121
Gesell, Arnold, 16, 18, 27, 239, 381
Gesell Inventory, 413
gestalt
facial, 340
principle of common fate, 571
gesture
activating mental images, 965
child, eliciting input, 958
child, providing playground for new ideas, 958–959
child’s, and language learning, 957–959
cognitive repertoires of learners, 963
comprehension of instructional language, 966–967
development of use, 582–583
education, 969–970
encouraging learners to gesture, 968
gesture-speech matches and mismatches, 954–956
idea expression in, before speech, 960–961
implications, 968–970
key points, 953–954
learners, and role in learning, 961–966
learners, as playground for new ideas, 962–966
learners, eliciting input, 961–962
naturalistic instructional communication, 968
neonatal facial imitation, 656
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 958, 959
perceptual-motor information, 963–965
preceding speech, 956–957
predicting speech, 957
questions for future research, 970
readiness to learn, 960
role in language learning, 956–960, 966–968
role in learning in domains, 960–968
role of learning over lifespan, 968–969
spatial development, 580–583
symbols and symbolic thought, 981–983
working memory demands, 965–966
gesture-speech matches, 954–956
gesture-speech mismatches, 954–956
Gibson, Eleanor J., 28, 241, 384
Gibson, James J., 28, 241, 383–384
Gibsonian perspective, perceptual-motor relations, 241–242
Gift Delay task, 725
glial cells
oligodendrocytes, 142–145
postnatal development, 131, 135
global categories, 599, 600–601
global processing, 279, 286–287
goal reading, imitation, 671–672
gonadal hormones, prenatal exposure to, 172–174
Go/No-Go task, 722, 725
Goodale, Melvyn, 394
Goodall, Jane, 662
Goodenough, Florence, 18
Gottlieb, probabilistic-epigenetic framework, 9
Gottlieb, Gilbert, 93
government, judgments of fair, 852–853
gradual unfolding, development, 67–68, 73
Graduate Record Exam, 167
grammar
language, 868, 885–886
learning syntax, 945–947
pro-drop parameter, 933–935
universal, (UG), 929–933
Grandin, Temple, 814
grand theories, behavior development, 27–28
graph surgery, 640
grasping
distance perception, 386–387
hand adjustments, 386
visually guided reaching and, 277, 280, 294–295
Grass/Snow task, 713
gravity, reaching actions, 392–393
gray matter, brain development, 145–149, 710
Great Depression, 17
Greek philosophers, knowledge, 592
Groucho running, 434
ground reaction forces, walking, 433–434
group differences, intelligence, 785–787
grouping, rhythmic structure, 327
guided participation, learning, 465
H
habits of mind, intelligence, 770, 776
habituation
categorization, 597–598
visual development research, 275
Haeckel, Ernst, 14
Hall, G. Stanley, 14, 16, 17, 417
Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligenztest für Kinder (HAWIK), 785
hand adjustments, grasping, 386
Handbook of Research Methods in Child Development, Mussen, 36
harm, adolescents, 855–856
harmony
music, 321
musical pitch, 324–325
Hartshorne, Hugh, 18
Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, 725
Hearing, thresholds for, 313–314
heart rate, physiological variables, 51
Hebb, Donald, 481
Hebbian rules, computer modeling, 481, 484, 487, 488
heredity
gene-based, 69
as gene transmission, 76
heritability
behavioral genetics, 95–96
genetics, 92
intelligence, 96–97, 99, 450
limited utility of, estimates, 96–100
twin studies, 91–92
heterogeneity, sample composition, 43
hierarchical Bayes nets, 641–642
hippocampus, declarative memory, 524–525
histone acetylation, 9, 116, 117
histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, 117
histone modification, 76, 113–114
historical path, children, 552–553
holistic information
children’s processing of, 352–353
face processing, 340, 341, 351
facial identity, 217
infants’ processing of, 351–352
homogeneity, sample composition, 43
Homo sapiens, 448, 454
homosexuality, 180–185, 855
Honda Corporation, Asimo robot, 417–418
hormones
sex differences, 171–174
sex-typical toy and activity preferences, 175–178
hospitalization, rehabilitation, 209–210
Hullian learning theory, 19
human auditory system. See also auditory development
development, 311–312
human behavior, 4
sex differences, 165–171
tool-use development, 252–254
(p. 1016) human brain
age and gray matter volume, 710
attentional networks, 685
sex differences, 171, 191
human brain development. See also brain development
gross structural, 145–149
neurobiology, 129–130
timing of neurobiological processes, 131
human genetics, 96
Human Genome Project, 66, 103, 119
human intellect, spatial skills, 567
humanoid robot, Honda, 417–418
human populations, epigenetic phenomena, 117–119
Human Simulation Paradigm, 945
human societies, musical behavior, 321–322
Hume, David, 628, 632
Humpty-Dumptian strategy, 37
huntingtin protein, 108
Huntington’s disease, 91, 108–109
Huxley, Julian, 72
hyperacuity, visual development, 283–284
hypothetical future, imagination, 806–807
I
Iambic/Trochaic Law, language, 918, 920–921
iatrogenic effect, 48
iconic relations, 978
iconography
crawling, 408–410
locomotion, 405
icons of developmental progress, 404–405
identity judgments, 353
illusion of explanatory depth, 632
image schema, 595
imagination, 792–793
anthropomorphism, 817–818
case studies, 814–815
children with autism spectrum disorders, 811–815
counterfactual reasoning, 805–806
creation and development of characters, 800–801
creative vs. recreative, 815
creativity, 808–811
divergent thinking, 809–811, 813–814
drawing, 813
future directions, 815–819
hypothetical future, 806–807
imaginary companions, 794–795
information transfer from, to real life, 816
inhibitory control vs. creative behavior, 816–817
key points, 791–792
mental time travel, 804–808
narratives, 798–804
neural correlates of, 818–819
pretend play, 793–798
questions for future research, 819
self and others, 793–808
imitation
abstract, 665–666
action representation and neural mirroring mechanisms, 673–674
active intermodal mapping (AIM) hypothesis, 656–657, 670
adult-manipulation control, 658
age changes, 671
assessing goal reading, 671–672
boundary conditions, 672
causal learning, 662–664
correction of response, 655–656
cultural propagation, 652
deferred, and infant recall memory, 657–660, 676n.2
emotions and attention, 669–670
functions of, 652–653
generalization across object properties and context change, 659
goals, 667–668
hierarchical order, 665
historical perspectives, 653–654
infant memory theory, 659–660
instrumental and causal learning, 652
key points, 651–652
learning, 675–676
learning to use tools by observing others, 663–664
memory for object-directed acts, 657–659
neonatal facial, 654–656
observational causal learning, 664
peer, 660–661
Piagetian theory, 673
Piaget’s stages of imitative development, 653–654
prenatal experience, 656–657
prior self-experience and success of model, 668–669
questions for future research, 676
range of gestures, 656
role of body babbling, 656–657
rules and strategies, 665–666
sequence learning, 665
social agents, 664, 672
social cognition, 674–675
social consequences of being imitated, 670
social context, 666–667
social-emotional communication and affinity, 652–653
statistical learning, 664
from television and media, 661–662
temporal flexibility, 655
theory, 672–675
theory of mind, 653, 670–672, 674–675
tool use, 662–664
top-down control of, 666–670
implicit cognition, cognitive psychology, 457–458
imprinting
epigenetic, 120
genomic, 113–115
independent mobility, locomotion, 427–428
indeterminacy of translation, 877
indexical relations, 978
India, infants’ motor development, 415
individual development, probabilistic-epigenetic framework, 5
individual differences
attention network, 694–697
developmental science, 23
executive function, 719–720
individual-in-environment model, 28
induction
categorization, 593
using concepts for, 602–604
inductive generalization, categorization, 598, 602–603, 604
inductive inference
categorization, 593
using concepts for induction, 602–604
inductive reasoning, 745. See also reasoning
industrial revolution, 782–783
inertial navigation, 569
Infant Behavior Questionnaire, 688
infant categorization, 607, 619–620. See also childhood categorization
animals and artifacts, 599–604
on basis of function, 604–605
concept development, 597
methods for studying, 597–598
role of labels on, 605–607
using concepts for induction, 602–604
infantile amnesia, 514
infants. See also object perception; speech perception in infancy; visual development
attention and intelligence development, 767–768
attention networks, 686–690
baby statisticians and rule learners, 873–874
baby talk, 870–871
categorization in infancy, 594
color vision, 282–283
concept of affordances, 384–385
crawling, 408–410, 408–412
executive function, 712
face processing, 360–362
face-voice matching, 361
facial attractiveness preference, 346
facial recognition, 351–352
infant-directed speech (IDS), 870–871
Kindermusik, 330
Language-friendly perceptual abilities, 871–872
language of neonates, 869–870
looking behavior, 458
memory for specific episodes, 516–518
memory retrieval, 528
(p. 1017) memory theory, 659–660
motion processing, 285, 286
motor milestones, 382
neurobiological model of visual development, 273–275
object perception, 376–378
pictures as symbols, 991–993
predictive power of early sounds and behaviors, 890–892
recall memory, 657–660
refraction and focusing, 281–282
response to music, 322
rhythmic structure, 328
robustness of memory, 517–518
self-concept, 530–531
sensitivity to temporal structure of events, 518
short-term and working memory, 512–513
sound localization, 318–319
spatial development, 565
spatial orientation and object search, 254–257
temporal information in vision, 283
time and memory, 516–517
vernier acuity, 283–284
visual boundaries, 288
visual ecology of, 301
visual information for action and perception, 395
visually guided reaching, 246–247
inflectional bootstrapping, 885
information, 122n.1
avoidance behavior and reaching actions, 387–388
catching movements, 389–391
children reporting, 520–521
children’s concepts, 547
cognitive development, 454–459
development of reaching, 385–387
development of reaching using visual, 388–391
ecological psychology approach, 383–384
gesture, 580–583
opportunity for learning, 428
transfer from imagination to real life, 816
informational assumptions
judging social issues, 854–855
judging social practices, 855–856
moral and social concepts, 835–836, 838–840
information processing
cognitive development, 21, 774
motor development, 381
inheritance
epigenetic, 119–121
neo-Darwinian concept, 121
inheritance laws, Mendel, 70
inhibition, executive function, 461, 719
inhibitory control
executive function, 708, 714, 715, 725
relation to creative behavior, 816–817
inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, postnatal, 131, 135, 136–137
innate, language, 867, 868
inner speech, symbolic thought, 997–998
innovations, locomotion, 434–435
Institute of Human Relations, 19
instruction. See gesture
instructional language, gestures, 966–967
insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2), 118
integrative developmental science, 83–84
integrative science, spatial thinking, 584–585
intelligence, 765–767
brains and muscles, 783–784
cognitive development over time, 452–454
cognitive history, 769–770, 774–776, 776–777
crystallized, 766, 768–769
developmental psychology, 778, 785
development in children, 449, 767–768
Dickens/Flynn model, 766
educational practice, 780
fluid, 766, 768–769
genes and environment, 780–783
genes and fate, 784–785
group differences, 785–787
habits of mind, 770, 776
history and developmental approach, 774
IQ (Intelligence Quotient), 766
liberation of human mind, 771–774
marksmanship-metricians, 775
marksmanship tests, 776–777
pattern of IQ gains, 770–771
psychometric tradition, 765–767, 769–770, 777, 778, 787
questions for future research, 787
Raven’s Progressive Matrices, 769, 770, 777, 778–779
second-guessing the educators, 778–780
sociology, 769–770
spatial skills in structure, 567
structure and function, 778
twin studies, 781–782, 783
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), 773
Weschler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC), 769, 770
WISC subtests, 771, 772
intensity discrimination, 313–314
intentional agents, representing others as, 455–456
intentionality, symbols, 979–980
interactionist, language, 867, 868
interaural level difference (ILD), 318–319
interaural timing difference (ITD), 318–319
intergenerational transmission, epigenetic modifications, 120–121
interstitial nuclei of anterior hypothalamus numbers (INAH-1 to 4), 169, 184, 187
interval scales, unequal, musical pitch, 323
interventionist theory, causation, 634–635
interventions
atypical development and, 47–48
Bayes nets and, 639–640
causal hypotheses about development, 10–11
counterfactuals and, 633–634
experimentation, 644–645
natural experiments, 635
introns, 105
intuitive mathematics, 451
intuitive theories, causation, 629–630, 646–647
IQ scores
gene-environment interactions and intelligence development, 450
heritability, 96–97, 99, 450
intelligence development in children, 449
J
“jack-in-the-box” toy, 644
James, William, 38, 684
Johannsen, Wilhelm, 71
Johnson, Scott, 571
joint attention, 455, 456, 958
joint attention research, 877
Journal of the American Medical Association, 112
justice, social domain theory, 833
K
Keen, Rachel, 571
Keller, Evelyn Fox, 70
Kindermusik, 330
kinds, children’s concepts, 553–555
knowledge
base, 463
building, 758
development of creativity, 809
domain-specific, and memory, 529–530
geometry, 573–574
Greek philosophers, 592
integrating prior, and new evidence, 645
organization into theories, 546
reasoning, 750–752
representation, 976–977
social cognition and, 646
symbolic system, 975, 981
L
labels
childhood categorization, 617–619
infant categorization, 605–607
lac operon, 104
Lamark, Jean Baptiste de, 71
language
causal, 646
describing spatial relations, 577–578
developmental timing, 8
executive function, 723–724
kinds in use of, 554
object representation, 575–576
relation between, and thought, 576–577
response after congenital blindness, 222–223
sample composition, 42–43
sociohistorical influence, 466
spatial relations, 576
symbols and symbolic thought, 983–986
language acquisition. See also gesture; speech perception in infancy
attentional learning account, 878
children’s concepts, 548–549
continuity, 927
modularity, 927–928
poverty of the stimulus, 493–498
language acquisition device (LAD), 20, 928
language delay, 892–893, 944
language development
adjectives, 880–882
adult-directed speech (ADS), 871
audiovisual synchrony, speech, and perceptual-motor activity, 872–873
baby statisticians and rule learners, 873–874
baby talk, 870–871
bi- or multilingual language acquisition, 889–890
child, 20
child-directed speech (CDS), 870
children and language invention, 892
children’s first words, 876
closed-class words, 882–885
Emergentist Coalition Model (ECM), 867, 868, 876
fetuses and learning, 869–870
grammar, 885–886
infant-directed speech (IDS), 870–871
key points, 867
language delay, 892–893
nouns, 876–879
open-class words, 876–882
perceptual abilities of infants, 871–872
phoneme discrimination and segmentation of speech, 870–875
pragmatic development, 886–888
predictive power of early sounds and behaviors, 890–892
questions for future research, 893
segmentation of words, 874–875
semantically meaningful tones, 872
semantics, 875–885
social cues, 886–888
stress patterns, 873
verbs, 879–880
word combinations, 875
word learning and thinking, 888–889
latent memory traces, executive function, 718
Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, 17
laws of inheritance, Mendel, 70
learning. See also gesture; speech perception in infancy; walking
abstract regularities, 917–918
across domains, 644
agency and causation, 630
baby statisticians and rule learners, 873–874
Bayesian inference and, 636–637
Bayes nets and, 640–641
causality from probability, 642–643
children’s concepts, 547
computational modeling, 489, 491
cultural contexts for, 464–465
epigenesis, 77
epigenetics of, 115–117
experience, 84
fetuses and language, 869–870
Fodor’s paradox, 489, 491–492
generics, 554–555
gesture and speech showing readiness, 960
gestures of learner, 961–966
gesture’s role, 960–968
imitation and interdisciplinary science of, 675–676
informal spatial, 584
language-specific grammatical structures, 918–921
mechanisms for concept acquisition, 595–596
motor behavior and development, 240
neurogenesis, 153
neuroplasticity, 7
object perception, 376–378
probabilistic models, 635–638
to reason, 759–760
as reasoning, 757
sequence, 665
statistics and theory in word, 555–556
symbols, 983–986
syntactic structure, 886
syntax, 945–947
from testimony, 802
tool use by observing others, 663–664
walking, 425–426, 435
learning to walk, 414
leg movements. See also walking
alternating, 406–407
fetal, 407, 408
patterns, 407–408
supine kicking, 406
Lehrman, Daniel, 93
Leslie, Alan, 631
Less is More Task, 711
level-ordering, language acquisition, 494–495
Levels of Consciousness model, 980
levodopa, visual rehabilitation, 212
Lewin, Kurt, 18, 19, 27
Lewis, David, 633
lexical principles, word learning, 878, 882
lie scales, 50
lifespan development
attention, 699
child development, 24–25
gesture, 968–969
limb development, 74
linguistic relativity, theory, 888
linguistic rhythm, 909, 911, 920
localization, sound, 312, 318–319
locations, sound, 312
locomotion. See also walking
action modules, 281, 295–296
downstream effects, 427–429
means for mobility, 408–410
perceptual-motor integration, 249–252
locusts, developmental cascade, 80–81
long-term outcomes, executive function, 721–722
long-term potentiation, 77
longtitudinal research, design, 44–46
Lorenz, Konrad, 75, 93
loudness, 312
M
MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, 50
McGraw, Myrtle, 239
magical thinking, 792
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 52, 145, 326
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 6, 52, 301
auditory development, 311, 312
language acquisition, 872–873
musical training, 326
magnocellular hypothesis, 298
Making Things Happen, Woodward, 634
Mandler, Jean, 600
Manhattan Institute, 786
maps
beyond preschool years, 579–580
cognitive consequences of use, 580
developing understanding of, 579
spatial development, 578–580
symbolic artifacts, 996–997
The March of Progress, 404, 405, 408, 427, 429
marksmanships, 775, 776–777
mathematics
intelligence, 781
intuitive, 451
reasoning, 747
mathematics performance
cultural differences, 190
sex differences, 167–168, 190–191
socialization influence, 191
maturational gap model, 150
maturational period, perceptual-motor relations, 239–240
May, Mark, 18
(p. 1019) Mayr, Ernst, 72
meanings. See also semantics
matching, 977–978
means-end reasoning, 746
measurements. See also research design and methods
errors, 45
executive function, 717–718
measuring across, 41
multiple measurement attempts, 39–40
multiple measurement levels, 39, 40–41
multiple measurement operations, 39, 40
strategies, 39–41
mechanism, causation, 631–632
Medawar, Sir Peter, 652
media, imitation from, 661–662
medial amygdaloid nucleus, 169
mediation, symbolic, 975
Meehl, Paul, 36, 54–55
melody, music, 321, 324–325
memory, 484, 505–506, 532–533
age-related change, 522–532
autobiographical, 509
coexistence of different types, 509–510
conceptual and knowledge development, 529–531
conscious and unconscious, 506–509
consolidation and storage, 526–527
declarative, 506–509
epigenesis, 77
epigenetics of, 115–117
episodic, 509
future directions, 533–534
infant recall, 657–660
information processing, 21
long-term, 506
measuring infant working, 40
nondeclarative, 506–508
object-directed acts, 657–659
priming, 507, 508
reasoning, 757
retrieval, 527–529
semantic, 508–509
short-term, 506
short-term maintenance and encoding, 526
strategies, 513–514
symbolic retrieval, 990
typing, 506–510
visuospatial localization and spatial, 281, 296–297
memory development, 510–522
age-related changes in preschoolers’ recall, 519–521
autobiographical (personal), 514–522
autobiographical memory in preschool years, 521–522
brief history, 514–515
change in perspective, 515–516
deliberate and strategic, 513–514
episodic, 514–522
memories for routine events, 518–519
memories for unique events, 519
memory strategies, 513–514
metamemory, 514
nonverbal tests and developments in infancy, 512–513
preschool years and beyond, 518–519
priming, 511
reporting of children, 520–521
robustness of memory, 517–518
short-term, 511–513
social influences, 531–532
specific episodes in infancy, 516–518
temporal structure of events, 518
time and children’s memory, 519–520
time and infant memory, 516–517
verbal tests and developments in childhood, 511–512
working, 511–513
memory spans, executive function, 460–461
Mendel, Gregor, 70, 93, 100
Mendelian genes, 72, 100–101
mental images, gestures, 965
mental outputs, representations vs., 980–981
mental rotation, spatial development, 565, 569, 572
mental time travel. See also imagination
counterfactual past, 805–806
developing concept of time, 804–805
development of awareness of, 807–808
hypothetical future, 806–807
imagination, 804–808
merge operation, syntax, 929, 933
meta Bayes nets, 641
metacognition, 463, 464, 808
metamemory, 514
metaphors
developmental science, 429–430
milestone, 412
metastrategic skill, reasoning, 748
Metrical Segmentation Strategy, 914
metrical structure, rhythmic organization, 327
microgenetic method, reasoning, 755, 759
milestone charts, 404, 410, 412
military historians, 775
Miller, George, 566
Miller, Neal, 27
Milner, David, 394
mimesis, 977
mind-body problem, 238
The Mind of the Child, Preyer, 16
mind wandering, 792, 804, 819n.3
minimum descriptive length, language acquisition, 494
min strategy, 463
mirror neuron system, imagination, 818–819
mirror self-recognition, 457
mismatch, gesture-speech, 955–956, 967
mismatch negativity (MMN)
infant research, 313
musical training, 326
missing data effects, interpreting research, 53–54
mobility. See also locomotion; walking
variety of means for, 408–410
models. See also computational models
symbolic artifacts, 989–991
Modern Synthesis, evolutionary biology, 66, 72–73, 83
Modularity, language acquisition, 927–928
molecular behavioral genetics, 92
molecular biology, 69
molecular genetics, 4
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), 9, 78, 110, 695
Montessori schools, 729
Mooney faces, 347
moral development
adolescence, 852–857
affective dimensions of children’s judgments, 836–837
affective dimensions of moral and social judgments, 851, 856
children’s social experiences as basis for differentiating judgments, 837–838
coordination, overlaps and informational assumptions, 835–836, 838–840
domain of social knowledge, 833–835
future directions, 857–858
key points, 832
methods for identifying moral and social domains, 834–835
middle childhood, 847–851
ontogenetic origins of children’s judgments, 840–841
preschool years, 841–847
questions for future research, 858
social domain theory, 833
social life in cultures, 838–840
theoretical framework, 833–840
Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 70–71, 72
morphological bootstrapping, closed-class words, 884
morphological inflections, closed-class words, 884
morphosyntactic bootstrapping, 885
morphosyntax
acquisition of, in Xhosa, 937–938
comprehension, 935
comprehension vs. production, 935–936
development, 928–929
optional infinitive hypothesis, 936–937
production, 935
motion processing
global coherence, 279, 286–287
higher-level, 285–286
visual development, 279, 284–287
motivation, independent mobility, 427–428
(p. 1020) motor development. See also perceptual-motor relations; reaching actions, development of; walking
concept of affordances, 384–385
constraint-led approach, 391–394
executive function, 728
exercise and massage for infants, 415
flexibility of infant walking, 421–425
fluency, 418–421
future, 435
literature, 416
motor milestones, 382
movement control and coordination, 383–391
physical stress on bones, 417
psychological processing, 239
rejuvenation of, 382–383
short history of, 380–383
motor responses, 276–277
motor skill learning, nondeclarative memory, 508
Mulcaster, Richard, 92
Muller, Johannes, 70
Mullerian ducts, 172
Müller-Lyer illusion, 395
multilingual, language acquisition, 889–890
multiple levels of analysis, developmental psychology, 5–6
multiple simultaneous causes, developmental psychology, 8–9
multiplist epistemological stance, 760
Murray, Charles, 786
muscle actions, fluency, 418–421
muscle development, 783–784
musical development. See also auditory development
consonance and dissonance, 322–323
early abilities for perceiving musical pitch organization, 322–327
early abilities for perceiving rhythmic organization, 328
enculturation to rhythmic structure, 328–329
enculturation to specific musical pitch systems, 324–325
formal training on musical pitch, 325–327
formal training on rhythmic development, 329–330
metrical structure, 327
musical rhythmic organization, 327–330
music pitch organization, 321, 322
octave equivalence, 323
questions for future research, 330
singing, 321–322
transpositional invariance, 323–327
unequal interval scales, 323
musical pitch organization
consonance and dissonance, 322–323
development, 322
early abilities for perceiving, 322–327
enculturation, 324–325
formal musical training, 325–327
octave equivalence, 323
relative pitch, 324
transpositional invariance, 323–327
unequal interval scales, 323
musical rhythmic organization
development, 327–330
early abilities for perceiving, 328
enculturation, 328–329
formal training, 329–330
grouping, 327
Kindermusik, 330
metrical structure, 327
musical training
musical pitch, 325–327
rhythmic development, 329–330
Mussen, Paul, 36
mutual exclusivity, 881
mycophenolic acid (MPA), 213
myelination, human brain, 131, 142–145
N
N170
Event-related responses, 339
face processing, 357–358
naïve theory childhood categorization, 608, 611–612
naïve psychology, 28
naming, historical patterns, 552
naming spurt, categorization, 606–607
narratives. See also imagination; pretend play
categorizing stories/story events, 801–802
creation and development of characters, 800–801
cultural myths, 803
distinguishing fictional vs. real-life, 801–803
fantasy like reality, 803
fantasy teaching reality, 802
imagination, 798–804
learning from testimony, 802
variability in context, 799–800
National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP), 779
National Human Genome Research Institute, 103
National Institutes of Health Toolbox, 58
nativism
behavior change, 26
computational modeling, 489, 492–493
environmental knowledge, 573
natural experiments, interventions, 635
natural selection, 463, 466
nature-nurture
face expertise, 343–345
heritability analyses, 97–98
psychological sciences, 83
sex differences, 179
navigation
action modules, 281, 295–296
characterizing, 569–570
spatial development, 565, 566, 567
near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 52, 301, 358
Needham, Amy, 571
neoconstructivism, 565, 570, 571
neonatal facial imitation, 654–656
neo-nativism, 451
neophenogenesis, 81
nervous system
regulating behavior, 417
sex differences, 168–171
networks. See attention networks
neural activity
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 768
individual development, 5
synapse stabilization and elimination, 137–142
neural basis, face processing development, 356–359
neural differences
core gender identity, 187
sexual orientation, 184
neural imaging, physiological variables, 52, 56–57
neural mirroring, imitation, 673–674
neural-network model
contrastive Hebbian network, 488
self-recurrent, 484–485
neural plasticity, 77
developmental psychology, 6–7
role of attention, 768
neural processing, visual event-related potentials, 276
neural substrates
declarative memory, 523–525
functional consequences, 525
neurobiology
infant visual development, 273–275
human brain development, 129–130
neurogenesis
activity-dependent, 153
hippocampal, 152
postnatal, 151–154
prenatal neural development, 130
neuroimaging
brain, 130
categorization, 620
executive function, 462
language acquisition, 872–873
neuromuscular junction (NMJ), synapses, 141
neurons
auditory development, 3111
postnatal neurogenesis, 151–154
neuropsychological evidence, face processing, 356–357
neuroscience, 4
developmental social cognitive, 4
imagination, 818–819
(p. 1021) neurotransmitters, postnatal development, 136–137
newborns
face processing, 214–215
facial recognition, 219–220
visual input, 203
Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), 892
NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), 696, 727
NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, 711–712
nondeclarative memory, 506–509
nonhuman mammals, gonadal hormones and sex differences, 173–174
nonlinearity, interpreting research, 54
nonobvious domains
childhood categorization, 613–614
perceptual-motor integration, 252–257
nonverbal tests, memory in infancy, 512–513
norepinephrine, visual rehabilitation, 212
normative change, developmental science, 23
normative period, perceptual-motor relations, 240–241
nouns, open-class words, 876–879
NR3C1 gene, 117–118
number concepts, children, 545
numerosity, 451
O
Obama, Barack, 105
obesity, walking, 433
object boundaries
infants’ perception, 373–374
learning to perceive, 377
object coherence
infants’ perception, 375–376
learning to perceive, 377–378
object concept, developmental change, 544
object examination paradigm
categorization, 597–598
infant categorization, 600
object identity
infants’ perception, 376
learning to perceive, 378
object manipulation, categorization, 598
object perception
catching moving objects, 389–391
development of, in infancy, 376–378
infancy, 373–376
key points, 371
object boundaries, 373–374, 377
object coherence, 375–376, 377–378
object identity, 376, 378
object persistence, 374–375, 377
object unity, 373, 377
questions for future research, 378
theoretic approaches to infants’, 372–373
two-visual-system model, 394–397
visual system, 371–372
object persistence
infants’ perception, 374–375
learning to perceive, 377
object representations, 571–572, 574–576
associating word forms with, 915–917
language and, 575–576
object search, spatial orientation and, 254–257
object unity
infants’ perception, 373
learning to perceive, 377
obligation, 835
observation, developmental psychology, 49–51
observational causal learning, 664
obsessive compulsive disorder, executive function, 716
obvious domains, perceptual-motor integration, 246–252
octave equivalence, musical pitch, 323
oligodendrocytes, myelination, 142–145
On Heredity, Weismann, 71
onset age, walking, 412–414
ontogenesis, 14–15, 840–841
ontogeny, 3, 7, 8, 11
biological vs. environmental factors, 452
recapitulates phylogeny, 14, 67
walking, 405
ontology, 3, 11
open-class words
adjectives, 880–882
nouns, 876–879
verbs, 879–880
optical angle, moving objects, 389–391
optional infinitive hypothesis, morphosyntax, 936–937
optokinetic eye movements (OKN), action system, 280, 285, 293
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), development, 708–709
ordered recall, memory, 517, 518
ordinality, 451
organism-environment system, bidirectionality of, 76–78
organismic constraint, 391
orienting
attention network, 684, 685, 687–688
changes in childhood, 691–692
score, 686
orthogenetic principle, 26
otoacoustic emissions (OAE), 314
overhypotheses, 487
overlaps, moral and social concepts, 835–836, 838–840, 844–845
overproduction, synapses, 139
P
pangenesis, 68–69
parallel distributed processing (PDP) model, 620–621
parent-child interaction
gestures, 959, 981–983
observation, 49–51
relationship, 838
parenting
adolescent-parent relationships, 854
child development, 22, 118
executive function, 726–727
memory development, 531–532
parochialism, 24
partying, intervention, 640
passive rehearsal, 513
passives, question variety, 941–942
pathways, development, 24
Payne Fund, 17, 18
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 958, 959
pedigree analysis, sexual orientation, 183
peer conflict, emotions, 847
peer exclusion
adolescence, 853–854, 856
social concept, 835
peer gender segregation, 29
peer imitation, 660–661
perception. See also object perception; speech perception in infancy
visual development, 272–273
visual information as constraint, 393–394
perception-action approach, 242–243
perceptual development, child, 20–21
perceptual matching hypothesis, 603
perceptual-motor relations
Bayesian decision theory, 245
Bernstein’s approach, 241–242
current conceptualizations, 244–246
dichotomy, 239
dynamic systems approach, 243–244
gesture, 963–965
Gibsonian perspective, 241–242
historical context, 239–244
key points, 237–238
language, 873
locomotion, 249–252
maturational period, 239–240
nonobvious domains, 252–257
normative period, 240–241
obvious domains, 246–252
perception-action approach, 242–243
postural control, 247–249
process-oriented period, 241–244
social embodiment, 245
spatial orientation and object search, 254–257
tool-use development, 252–254
visually guided reaching, 246–247
perceptual narrowing
auditory development, 310
face-processing abilities, 344–345
perceptual priming, 511
perceptual speed, gender role behavior, 168
perceptual training, rehabilitation of visual acuity, 210–211, 213
(p. 1022) perseveration, locomotion, 251–252
persistence, hidden objects, 374–375
personalization, memories, 531
personal jurisdiction, 834
personal memory. See autobiographical memory
personal pronoun acquisition, robotics, 488–489
perspective taking, spatial development, 569
phenotypes, 70, 71, 91, 93
phenotypic plasticity, 80, 81
phenylketonuria, 91, 107–108
philosophy of science, 3, 8
phonemes
discrimination, 870–875
language, 868
phonetic perception, acoustic, to language-specific, 912–913
phonological loop, verbal information, 460
phonotactics, word forms, 914–915
photographs, symbols, 995
phylogenetic sequence, neural development, 7
phylogeny, ontogeny recapitulates, 14, 67
physiological variables, measuring, 51–52, 56–57
Piaget, Jean, 15, 19, 20, 27, 47, 241, 372–373
agency theory, 630, 634
cognitive development, 454–455
concrete operation stage, 747–749
genetic epistemology, 515
imitative development, 653–656, 673, 674–675
language acquisition, 869
reasoning, 746, 767, 774
Piagetian-Kohlbergian account, 27
Pictures, symbolic artifacts, 991–995, 998
pitch
musical pitch, 323
sound, 312, 315–317
place code, frequency organization, 314
place learning, 570
plasticity
abnormalities and, of visual development, 297–300
cognitive development, 452–454
developmental psychology, 6–7
indices of, 204–205
mechanisms after blindness, 224–225
phenotypic, 80, 81
residual, in adulthood, 202, 223–224
role of developmental, 85
sensitive period for visual cortical, 223
play. See also childhood play; pretend play
development, 8
sex-typical toy and activity, 175–178
point predictions, 46
polar interrogatives, 496–497
political polling, 42
Pollak, Seth, 4
Popper, Karl, 36
population genetics, 69–70
positron emission tomography (PET), 52, 223, 358, 699
Posner’s cuing paradigm, 691–692
postbox task, 298, 299
postnatal brain development. See also brain development
axon and dendrite extension, 131–134
brain volume, 148
functional, 149–151
gray matter, 145–149
gross structural development, 145–149
key points, 154–155
myelination, 131, 142–145
neurogenesis, 151–154
neurotransmitter, 136–137
questions for future research, 155
synapse stabilization and elimination, 137–142
synaptogenesis, 134–136
white matter, 145, 147–149
postural control, balance, 247–249
poverty of the stimulus
argument, 637
computational modeling, 489, 493–498
Prader-Willi syndrome, 104, 106–107, 114
pragmatics
language, 868, 886–888
pragmatic reasoning schema, 751
word learning, 878
predetermined epigenesis, 76
pre-eminent sociality, 18
preferential looking, visual development research, 275
preformationism, 68, 100
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
development in childhood, 708–709
executive function, 707
top-down and bottom-up influences on self-regulation, 711
prenatal development, 74, 78
pre-paradigmatic psychology, 5
preschool years. See also childhood; children
affective consequences of transgressions, 846–847
coordinations and overlaps in moral and social concepts, 844–845
executive function, 712–714
moral and social development, 841–847
moral concepts, 841
moral concepts and theory of mind, 843–844
moral vs. social concepts, 841–843
social experiences, 845–846
prespecification, development, 70–72
pretend play. See also childhood play; imagination; narratives; play
children with autism spectrum disorders, 812–813
distinction between pretend and real, 796–797
imaginary companions, 794–795
imagination, 793–798
role-play, 794–796
significance, 798
simulation, 795
simulation of emotional experiences, 797–798
pretense, symbolic thought, 986–988
Preyer, W. T., 14, 16, 381
priming, nondeclarative memory, 507, 508
principle of contrast, word learning, 878
principle of conventionality, word learning, 878
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 493
probabilistic-epigenetic framework, 5, 9, 67
probabilities
Bayesian, 485–488
Bayesian inference, 635–638
Bayesian statistics, 245
learning causality from, 642–643
procedural metacognition, 464
processing demands, reasoning, 748–750
process-oriented period
Bernstein’s approach, 241–242
Gibsonian perspective, 241–242
Perceptual-motor relations, 241–244
pro-drop parameter, syntax, 933–935
production
comprehension vs., 935–936
memory, 513
morphosyntax, 935
systems, 480
promiscuous teleology, 616
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum, 729
property-matched, object, 881
prosopagnosia, face processing, 356–357
prosthetics, walking, 434
prototypes, categories, 545–546, 599, 601–602
proximate causes, 73
Prozac, 213
psychoanalysis, 24
psychological arousal, executive function, 728
psychological distancing, executive function, 724–725
psychological essentialism, 608
psychological science, nature and nurture, 83
psychology
concept of affordances, 384
dichotomies, 238
Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, Watson, 18
psychometric tradition, intelligence, 765–767, 769–770, 777, 778, 787
puberty, cerebral volume by gender, 171
publications, executive function in (p. 1023) children, 707
Public Goods game, 493
Q
quality research, metrics, 36–37
quantitative behavioral genetics, 92, 99
R
race
face attractiveness, 345
face categorization, 348
face recognition, 219–220, 354
intelligence differences, 785–787
perceptual narrowing hypothesis, 344–345
rapid acuity screening procedure (RASP), 275
ratio of second/fourth finger length (2D/4D), sexual orientation, 182, 188
Raven’s Progressive Matrices, intelligence, 769, 770, 777, 778–779
reachability, distance perception, 386–387
reaching actions, development of
affordances and information, 385–387
allocentric information in guidance, 396
bimanual, 428–429
change in use of visual information, 388–391
concept of affordances, 384–385
constraint-led approach, 391–394
ecological psychology approach, 383–384
egocentric information in guidance, 395–396
hints from avoidance behavior, 387–388
key points, 380
motor development history, 380–383
motor milestones, 382
movement control and coordination, 383–391
moving objects “catchableness,” 387, 391
questions for future research, 398
temporal delay in infants’, 397
two-visual-system model, 394–397
understanding, 397–398
use of visual information for action and perception, 395
visual information as constraint, 393–394
visually guided, 246–247
reading ability, sample composition, 43–44
reading span task, 512
reality
counterfactual reasoning, 805–806
fantasy/reality judgments, 802
fictional vs. real-life in narratives, 801–803
information transfer from imagination, 816
knowing pretend play vs., 796–797
real-world concerns, concepts, 543
reasoning
abortion, 854
age and development, 757–758
argumentive, 752–753, 755–756, 760
beginning of, 745–747
bracketing, 744
children and adolescents, 852
collaborative, 759
concrete operational tasks, 747, 748
conditional, 751
counterfactual, 805–806
development, 753–755, 767
disposition to reason, 760–761
dual processes, 756–757
executive processes, 755–756
future research, 761
key points, 744–745
kinds of, 745
knowledge, 750–752
learning as, 757
learning to reason, 759–760
means-end, 746
pragmatic reasoning schema, 751
processing demands, 748–750
reduction to components, 747–748
skills, 752–753
as social activity, 758–759
study of, 747
task analyses, 748
unconscious, 761
Wason task, 751
recall, word forms, 913–915
recapitulation theory, 14
reciprocal causality, developmental psychology, 9–10
redescription, 457
reference meaning, research, 38–39
referential communication, 455
referential meaning, 995
refraction and focusing, visual development, 278, 279, 281–282
regulatory function, development, 80
rehabilitation. See also visual acuity
drug therapies, 212
perceptual training, 210–211
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 211–212
telescopic magnification, 211
visual acuity, 209–212
Reichenbach, Hans, 639
relational causality, framework of, 79, 84
relativist epistemological stance, 760
religion, 850, 852
religiosity, heritability, 99
repertoires, flexibility of infants walking, 424–425
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 211–212, 223
representational awareness, 995
representational duality, 995
representational insight, 456–457
representational redescription, 457
representations
children, 550–551
cognitive development, 458–459
mental outputs vs., 980–981
object, 571–572
symbols and symbolic thought, 976–977
word forms, 913–915
research design and methods
acknowledging confounded influences, 52–53
acknowledging effect of missing data, 53–54
acknowledging nonlinearity, 54
anchoring, 47
appropriate stimulus conditions, 46
atypical development and interventions, 47–48
behavior, 48–49
combining across measurements, 41
constructs and variables, 37–39
cortisol, 51
cross-sectional vs. longitudinal research, 44–46
electroencephalography (EEG), 51–52
eye movements, 51
future directions, 55–58
heart rate, 51
inferring causality, 53
interpreting developmental research, 52–55
key points, 35–36
maximum value from longitudinal research, 46
measurement strategies, 39–41
measuring physiological variables, 51–52, 56–57
multiple measurement attempts, 39–40
multiple measurement levels, 39, 40–41
multiple measurement operations, 39, 40
neural imaging, 52, 56–57
observation, 49–51, 56
quality metrics, 36–37
questions for future research, 58
reference meaning, 38–39
sample composition, 42–44
sample selection, 41–44
sample size, 41–42
sampling for appropriate variance, 44
sense meaning, 37–38
statistical significance, 54–55
to-do list, 57–58
research methods, visual development, 275–277
research sample
composition, 42–44
selection, 41–44
size, 41–42
(p. 1024) resistance to interference, 461
resources, behavioral development, 416–417
response learning, 570
retaliation, middle childhood, 848
retrieval, memory, 527–529
reverse engineering, learning, 637
rhythmic development
early abilities, 328
enculturation, 328–329
formal musical training, 329–330
organization of musical, 327–330
rights, social domain theory, 833, 834
RNA splicing, 104–106
Rogers, Ginger, 508
role-play, imagination, 794–796
Roux, Wilhelm, 68
rules, 835
connectionist models, 947
learning abstract regularities, 917–918
memory, 507
modeling techniques, 479–481, 498
mother’s network of, 840
running, normal, and beyond, 431–433
Russell, Bertrand, 629
Russell, E. S., 66, 73
S
saccadic eye/head system, action modules, 292–293
sample composition, research, 42–44
sample size, research, 41–42
sandbag rearing, 415–416
Santa Claus, cultural myths, 803
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, 888
scaffolding
caregiving, 726
context for learning, 465
infants learning to walk, 426
reasoning, 755
scale model task, 989–991
schizophrenia, 97, 119, 716
Schleiden, Matthais, 70
Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT), 167, 168, 721
school-age years, executive function, 714–715
Schwann, Theodor, 70
Science, 21, 409
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)
significance of spatial skill, 568
spatial development, 566, 583, 584
science performance, culture, 190
search problem, causality, 645–646
segmentation
visual development, 280, 287–289
word forms, 913–915
words facilitating, 874–875
selective attention, executive function, 725
Selective Language Impairment (SLI), 891
self-awareness, mirror self-recognition, 457
self-concept, memories, 530–531
self-directed learners, strategy development, 462–464
self-regulation, 459, 760
self-testing, memory, 513
semantics, 37–38
children’s first words, 876
closed-class words, 882–885
Emergentist Coalition Model (ECM), 867, 868, 876
language, 868
meaningful tones, 872
memory, 508–509
open-class words, 876–882
speaker’s gaze, 887
words meanings, 875–885
sense meaning, 37–38
sensitive periods in visual development. See also visual acuity; visual development
blindfolding of sighted adults, 223–224
face processing, 214–221
key points, 202–203
multiple sensitive periods, 204–205
plasticity, 202, 203
plasticity mechanisms after blindness, 224–225
questions for future research, 226
recovery from deprivation, 208–209
reorganization of visual cortex after blindness, 221–225
specialization, 219–220
visual acuity, 205–214
visual cortical plasticity, 223
sensitivity
caregiving, 726
musical pitch organization, 322
sensorimotor intelligence, 454
sensory systems
equilibrium, 248
synapse stabilization and elimination, 138–139
sentence-homophones, 941
sentence varieties
complex, 942
passives, 941–942
tag questions, 940–941
wh-questions, 939–940, 942
yes/no questions, 938–939
sequence learning, 665
sequences, developmental psychology, 24
sequential touching paradigm, 598, 600, 601
serotonin transporter protein (5-HTT), 110–111, 118, 696
sex-determining region, Y chromosome, 172
sex differences, 165
childhood play, 166–167
cognition, 167
cognitive development, 174–175, 178–179
cognitive performance, 188–192
core gender identity, 165–166, 185–188
gender role behavior, 166–168
genetic factors, 171–172
gross structural brain development, 148
human behavior, 165–171
inborn influences, 171–174
mathematical abilities, 167–168, 190–191
nature and nurture, 179
nervous system, 168–171
perceptual speed, 168
postnatal influences, 174–175, 178
prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones, 172–174
questions for future research, 192
sex-typical toy and activity preferences, 175–180
sexual orientation, 166, 180–185
socialization, 174–175, 178
spatial abilities, 167
verbal abilities, 168
sexuality, adolescents, 855
sexually dimorphic nucleus of preoptic area (SDN-POA), 169, 171, 172
sexual orientation
inborn and social/cognitive influences, 184–185
neural differences, 184
ratio of second/fourth finger lengths (2D/4D), 182
sex differences, 166, 180–185
shape (3D) and depth perception, visual development, 280, 289–290
shape bias, 618
shared attention, 455, 456
shared remembering, 465
Shayer, Michael, 779
shifting, executive function, 708
Shirley, Mary, 239, 240, 381, 382
short-term maintenance and encoding, memory, 526
Shultz, Thomas, 631
sibling-descendant cascade-correlation network, 481–483
Siegler, Robert, 463, 748
signaling relations, 978
Simon, Herbert, 21
Simon Says, 461
simple recurrent network, 497
Simple Simon game, 692
Simpson, George Gaylord, 72
Simpson’s paradox, 43
simulation
developmental robots, 488–489
emotional experiences, 797–798
gesture, 963–964
role-play, 795
vocabulary spurt, 489–490
singing, musical development, 321–322
skeletal competencies
cognitive development, 450–452
(p. 1025) intuitive mathematics, 451
young children’s tool use, 451–452
skeletal development, 74
Skinner, B. F., 20
Skinner-Chomsky debate, language, 20
sleep
attention in infancy, 687
executive function, 727–728
sleeper effect, visual deprivation, 208
Slobin, Dan, 936
slopes, flexibility, 422, 423
Smith, Linda, 68
smooth pursuit, action system, 293
social activity, reasoning as, 758–759
social agency
imitation, 652, 672
walking, 428
social cognition
imitation, 674–675
and knowledge, 646
social consequences, imitation, 670
social context
cognitive development, 464–466
development of narratives, 799–800
reasoning, 758–759
top-down control of imitation, 666–667
social conventions. See also moral development
cultures, 839
morality and, 834, 849–850
social cues, 880, 886–888
social domain theory. See also moral development
future directions, 857–858
methods for identifying domains, 834–835
morality, 833
ontogenesis, 840–841
social embodiment, 245
social experiences
children’s, differentiating moral and social judgments, 837–838, 845–846, 851
syntactic structure, 886
social influences
memory development, 531–532
sex differences, 189–191
social interactions, preschoolers, 845
social issues, abortion, 854–855
socialization
mathematics performance, 191
sex differences, 174–175
sex-typical toy and activity preferences, 178
social knowledge, morality as domain, 833–835
social learning
child development, 21
others as intentional agents, 455–456
social multipliers, Dickens/Flynn model, 782
social pragmatic cues, 877
socioaffective executive function, 709–711
socioeconomic status (SES)
development, 3
DNA methylation, 118–119
executive function, 722
sample composition, 42
socioemotional outcomes, executive function, 721
sociohistorical context, learning, 464, 466
sociology, intelligence, 769–770
sound. See also auditory development; musical development
localization, 312, 318–319
response after congenital blindness, 222
space shuttle model, sample size, 42
Spanish, language structure, 885
span of apprehension, working memory, 460–461
spatial abilities, sex differences, 167
spatial action, attention and, 280, 291–292
Spatial Conflict task, 692
spatial development, 564–566
application, 583–585
characterizing spatial skill, 569
direct training, 583–584
environmental representations, 572–574
gesture, 580–583
informal learning, 584
integrative science approaches, 584–585
key points, 564–565
language, 575–578
maps, 578–580
navigation, 566, 567, 569–570
normative development in early spatial behavior, 570–575
object representations, 571–572
questions for future research, 585
significance of spatial skill, 568
space and number, 574
spatial skill and evolutionary significance, 566–567
spatial symbols and, 575–583
structure of human intellect, 567
tool making, 566, 567
spatial learning, training, 583–584
spatial meaning, 995
spatial memory
neural plasticity, 6
visual development, 281, 296–297
spatial orientation and object search, 254–257
speaker’s gaze, word learning, 887
Spearman discount IQ gains, 765
specialization, visual, 219–220
species
face categorization, 348
perceptual narrowing hypothesis, 344–345
speech
adult perception, 912
freedom of, 850
gesture and, 581–582
gesture expression of new ideas before, 960–961
gesture preceding, 956–957
gesture predicting, 957
infants, 872–873
speech perception in infancy, 910, 921–922
from acoustic/phonetic perception to language-specific phonetic perception, 912–913
associating word forms with objects, 915–917
beginnings of meanings, 915–917
discriminating adjacent repetitions from random speech sequences, 919
experience-expectant and experience-dependent, 910–912
Iambic/Trochaic Law, 918–920
key points, 909–910
language-specific grammatical structures, 918–921
learning abstract regularities, 917–918
linguistic rhythm, 909, 911, 920
newborns’ abilities, 910–912
Object-Verb (OV) languages, 918, 920–921
questions for future research, 922
segmenting, representing, and recalling word forms, 913–915
word order, 918–921
Spencer, Herbert, 14, 15
splicing, RNA and alternative, 104–106
spontaneous generation, 67
stability
cognitive development, 452–454
development, 67–70
stages, developmental psychology, 24
stair-step protocol, measurements, 45
Stanford-Binet IQ, 24, 460
statistical learning ability, 914
statistical significance, research, 54–55, 57
statistics and theory
children’s concepts, 549–550
convergence of, 555–556
stereotypes, mathematics performance, 191
Stern, William, 14, 16
stimulus conditions, 46
storytelling. See narratives
strabismus, 297–298
Strange Situation, 22, 40
strategic memory, 513–514
strategies, 462
abstract imitation, 665–666
intentional control of behavior, 459
memory, 513–514
self-directed learners, 462–464
stream of consciousness, 808
stress
language, 873
word forms, 914
stria terminalis, 169, 187
(p. 1026) stylistic differences, memory development, 531–532
subcortical system, visual, 274
subjective contours, visual objects, 288
subordinate level, categorization, 599
sudden infant death syndrome, 416
sum strategy, 463
superordinate level, categorization, 599
symbolic-level-ordering, 495
symbolic retrieval task, 990
symbols
executive function, 724–725
gestures, 580–583
language, 575–578, 723–724
maps, 578–580
spatial development, 575–583
symbols and symbolic thought, 974–976, 977–980, 998–999
false-belief tasks, 995
gesture, 981–983
inner speech, 997–998
intentionality, 979–980
key points, 974–975
knowledge, 975, 981
language, 983–986
maps, 996–997
meaning of, 977–980
mental outputs vs. representations, 980–981
models, 989–991
pictures, 991–995, 998
pretense, 986–988
questions for future research, 999–1000
representation, 976–977
signaling relations, 978
symbolic artifacts, 988–997
symbolic mediation, 975
theoretical approaches, 976–981
video, 995–996
synapse elimination, brain, 131
synaptogenesis, 131, 134–136, 525
synaptotrophic hypothesis, dendrite growth, 141
syntactic bootstrapping, verbs, 879
syntax acquisition
complex sentences, 942
continuity, 927
first sentences, 929–935
future directions, 947
generative linguistics, 927
key points, 926
language acquisition device (LAD), 928
learning syntax, 945–947
merge operation, 929, 933
modularity, 927–928
morphosyntax, 928–929, 935–938
passives, 941–942
pro-drop parameter, 933–935
questions for future research, 947–948
sentence varieties, 938–942
spontaneous speech, 931
syntax and cognition, 942–945
tag questions, 940–941
theory, 926–929
universal grammar, 926–928
wh-questions, 939–940, 942
word order, 939–942
yes/no questions, 938–939
systems biology, 84
systems perspective, 79
T
tag questions, 940–941
tapping task, 461
task analyses, reasoning, 748, 749
task constraint, 391
taxonomic bias, 617
technological advances, locomotion, 434
telescopic magnification, vision therapy, 211
television, imitation from, 661–662
Teller Acuity Cards (TAC), 275
temporal delay, infants’ reaching actions, 397
temporal information, infant vision, 279, 283
temporal modulation transfer function, 317–318
temporal resolution, auditory system, 317–318
testimony, learning from, 802
testosterone, prenatal exposure to, 172–174
Thelen, Esther, 68
theory, imitation, 672–675
theory of body, 595
theory of mind, 595
children’s, 28
development, 8–9
executive function, 711, 720–721, 729
false-belief tasks, 844, 944
imitation, 653, 674–675
imitation, intentions and foundations for, 670–672
intentional agents, 455
moral concepts and, 843–844
moral reasoning, 857
omniscient, 482, 483
representational, 482, 483
Theory of Mind Mechanism (ToMM), 986
three-dimensional shape, visual perception, 280, 289–290
timbre, sound, 312, 315–317
time. See also mental time travel
developing concept of, 804–805
memory in children, 519–520
memory in infants, 516–517
tolerance, adolescence, 856
tool making, spatial development, 566, 567
tools of intellectual adaptation, 466
tool use
causal learning and, 662–664
children’s, 451–452
humans, 252–254
learning by observing others, 663–664
performance and perception, 253
Tooth Fairy, cultural myths, 803
top-down control, imitation, 666–670
touch, response after congenital blindness, 221–222
Tourette syndrome, executive function, 715
Tower of Hanoi, 708, 718
Tower of London, 718
training
attention, 697–699
direct spatial, 583–584
executive function, 728–730
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
auditory and tactile sensitivity, 221, 222
repetitive TMS (rTMS), 211–212
residual plasticity, 223–224
transgenerational effects, humans, 78
transgressions
affective consequences of, 846–847
permissibility of, 835
preschoolers, 842–843
transitional probabilities, word learning, 873–874
transitivity reasoning, children, 749, 753
transpositional invariance, musical pitch, 323–327
true imitation, 456
twin studies
behavioral genetics, 95
epigenetic phenomena, 117–119
heritability, 91–92
intelligence, 781–782, 783
two-visual-system model
allocentric information in guiding reaching action, 396
egocentric information in guiding reaching action, 395–396
temporal delay on infants’ reaching actions, 397
U
ultimate causes, 73
ultra-marathoners, 432–433
ultrasound imaging, fetal leg movements, 407
unconscious memory, 506–509
unconscious reasoning, 761
unilateral congenital cataracts, children, 206
Unique Checking Constraint, 937
unity and diversity approach, executive function, 708
University of Oregon, 696
Unusual Uses Task, divergent thinking, 809–811
utilization deficiency, 464, 514
V
Van Gogh, Vincent, 414
variability, development, 67–70
variable-nucleotide tandem repeat (p. 1027) (VNTR) polymorphism, 727
variance, samples for appropriate, 44
variations, development, 69
ventral streams
visual development, 274–275
visual spatial development model, 273
verbal abilities, gender role behavior, 168
verbal tests, memory in children, 511–512
verbatim traces, cognitive development, 458–459
verbs
morphosyntax, 938
open-class words, 879–880
syntax, 932–933
vernier acuity, 277, 279, 283–284
video, symbolic artifacts, 995–996
videogames, cognitive demands, 773
video recorders, 22
violation-of-expectation procedure, 451, 482
vision
Müller-Lyer illusion, 395
spatial orientation and object search, 254–257
visual development, 272–273
visually guided locomotion, 249–250
visually guided reaching, 246–247
telescopic magnification, 211
visual acuity, 203. See also sensitive periods in visual development; visual development
active near work, 209–210
drug therapies, 212
mechanisms underlying improvements, 212–214
normal development, 205
outcome after early deprivation, 205–207
perceptual training, 210–211
refraction and focusing, 278, 279, 281–282
rehabilitation of, 209–212
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 211–212
sensitive period for damage, 207–208
sensitive period for recovery from deprivation, 208–209
telescopic magnification, 211
visual development, 277–278, 279
visual attention, 301–302
visual cliff, flexibility, 422–423
visual cortex
outcome after congenital blindness, 221–223
plasticity mechanisms after blindness, 224–225
reorganization after blindness, 221–225
residual plasticity in adulthood, 223–224
sensitive period for visual cortical plasticity, 223
visual deprivation
outcome after early, 205–207
outcome after early binocular, 215–218
sensitive period for recovery from, 208–209
sleeper effect, 208
synapse stabilization and elimination, 139
visual development. See also sensitive periods in visual development
3D shape and depth perception, 280, 289–290
abnormalities and plasticity of, 297–300
action modules in dorsal stream, 291–296
binocularity, 280, 289
color vision, 279, 282–283
cortical selectivity, 284
development of visual attention, 301–302
face processing, 280, 290–291
future prospects, 300–302
global processing, 279, 286–287
higher visual functions, 301
key points, 271
magno- and parvocellular pathways, 274–275
major developmental milestones, 279–281
motion processing, 279, 284–287
neurobiological model of infant, 273–275
noninvasive measures of brain function, 301
refraction and focusing, 278, 279, 281–282
research methods in, 275–277
segmentation and figure-ground, 280, 287–289
temporal information in infant vision, 279, 283
vernier acuity and hyperacuity, 279, 283–284
vision, perception, cognition, and action, 272–273
visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, 277–278, 279
visual ecology of the infant, 301
visual systems, 274
visuospatial localization and spatial memory, 281, 296–297
visual event-related potential (VERP), 276, 284
visual evoked potential (VEP), 276, 284
visual information
action and perception in infancy, 395
constraints in reaching actions, 393–394
development of reaching, 388–391
flexibility in motion, 424–425
movement control, 387–388
visual input, newborns, 203
visually guided reaching and grasping, 277, 280, 294–295
visual preference procedure, 597–598, 600
visual sequence task, 689
visual system, object perception, 371–372
visuospatial localization, 281, 296–297
visuospatial scratch pad, 460
visuospatial working memory, 460
vocabulary spurt, computational modeling, 489–490
voicing-change plurals, 495
von Baer, Karl Ernst, 15, 68, 70
W
Waddington, Conrad, 75, 113, 121, 430
WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), 773, 777
walking, 403, 405–406
alternating leg movements, 406–407
crawling, 408–410
developmental cascade, 429
developmental icons of progress, 404–405
downstream effects, 427–429
ending point, 430–434
exercise and massage practices, 415
experience, 414–416
flexibility, 405, 421–425
fluency, 405, 418–421
footbinding, 433
future directions, 434–435
gait modification, 423
ground reaction forces, 433–434
improvements, 417–426
learning to walk, 425–426
leg movements, 407–408
long-distance, 432–433
means for mobility, 408–410
milestone metaphor, 412
new metaphors, 429–430
normal upright, and beyond, 431–433
obesity, 433
onset ages, 412–414
precursors, 408–412
questions for future research, 435
repertoires, 424–425
resources, 416–417
runners, 432–433
sequelae, 426–430
social agency, 428
stages and transient forms, 410–412
starting point, 406–408
testing infants’ perception of affordances, 422–423
visually guided locomotion, 249–250
War and Peace, 779
Wason task, 751
Watson, James, 100
Watson, John B., 14, 16, 18, 27
Wechsler IQ tests, 460
WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), 773, 777
WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children), 769–770, 771, 772
(p. 1028) WEIRD (Western, Educated Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) young adults, 430
Weismann, August, 71, 121
Welfare, social domain theory, 833, 834
Werner, Heinz, 15
Western music, rhythmic structure, 328–329
Western scales, musical pitch, 324–325
Wetherill, Richard, 784
white matter, brain, 145, 147–149
whole-object assumption, word learning, 878
whole-object bias, 617
wh-questions, 939–940, 942
Wicherts, Jelte, 777
Wikipedia, 506
Wilkins, Maurice, 100
Williams, Venus, 508
Williams syndrome, 295, 300
WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children), 769–770, 771, 772
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, 461, 462, 699, 708
Wolffian ducts, 172
Woodcock-Johnson Pair Cancelation task, 725
Woodward, James, 634
word learning
associating word forms with objects, 915–917
attentional learning, 617
baby statisticians and rule learners, 873–874
Bayesian model, 869
categorization, 606
language, 888–889
phonological categories, 917
pragmatic assumptions, 878
principle of contrast, 878
segmentation, 874–875
segmenting, representing and recalling, 913–915
statistics and theory, 555–556
symbols, 984
syntax and cognition, 942–945
word order
grouping bias as cue, 921
language structure, 918–921
sentence varieties, 938–942
syntax, 929–932
working memory. See also memory
development, 460–462
dynamic systems, 484
executive function, 460–461, 708, 713, 714, 717, 718–719, 720
gesture lightening demands, 965–966
information processing, 459
nonverbal tests and developments in infancy, 512–513
short-term and, 511–513
span, 460–461
verbal tests and developments in childhood, 511–512
World War II, 773, 785
Wundt, Wilhelm, 15, 16, 28
X
Xenopus laevis, 138
Xhosa, morphosyntax, 937–938
Y
yes/no questions, 938–939
Z
zif-268, immediate early genes (IEGs), 103
Zipf’s law, 478, 490
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
children’s gestures, 961
context for learning, 465
infants learning to walk, 426