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date: 26 February 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses diversity among fathers, fathering, and fatherhood within two societies (Chinese and Indian) and within two regions (Central/East Africa and the Caribbean). Case studies from these locations illustrate diversity among fathers and are related to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model. Eight categories of fathering diversity were derived from an analysis of contextual influences within 15 societies and regions in Fathers in Cultural Context. Fathering takes place in multiple contexts: (1) geography; (2) history; (3) family characteristics; (4) economic factors; (5) work/employment conditions; (6) norms, beliefs, and values; (7) ethnicity; and (8) immigration/emigration patterns. This classification of sources of diversity, extension of the bioecological model to include a spatial system, Townsend’s analysis of American fathers’ multiple roles, and Hrdy’s consideration of fathering as situation-specific all can contribute to future research and an elusive definition of a pan-cultural core of fatherhood.

Keywords: fathers, context, diversity, society, ecology, geography, history, family, father’s role

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