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date: 19 July 2019

(p. 581) Index

(p. 581) Index

Note: For works, see the names of individual authors. On the whole, we have only indexed anonymous works, but when a Neo-Latin or classical work is mentioned frequently (e.g. Thomas More’s Utopia, Virgil’s Aeneid), we have indexed that separately under the name of the author.

Abad, Diego José, 316, 528, 534, 535
Abelard, Peter, 279
Abenaki language, 546
Abilés, José López de, 528
Åbo. See Turku (Åbo), Academy of academic journals
Acta Eruditorum, 266, 562
Journal des Sçavans, 266
Nova Acta Eruditorum, 266
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 266
academies. See also under individual places
“household,” 365, 366, 368
“Platonic,” 511
Accademia degli Erranti (Brescia), 373
Accolti, Benedetto, 155
Acevedo, Pedro Pablo de, 114, 465
Achrelius, Daniel, 501
Acidalius, Valens, 453
Acosta, José de, 466, 526
Adam, Johannes, 448
Adam, Melchior, 457
Addison, Joseph, 428, 430, 434, 436, 437
Adriani, Marcello Virgilio, 271
Aemilius, Georg, 451
Aeschylus, 110
Aesop, 404, 530
Afonso VI (king of Portugal), 560
Africa, 63, 106, 290, 514, 529
Agricola, Michael, 496
Agricola, Rudolphus, 123, 129, 335, 339, 478
Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius, 364
Aidie, Andrew, 433
Alabaster, William, 61, 110, 435
Albert VII (archduke of the Spanish Netherlands), 139
Alberti, Leon Battista, 211, 234–35
De commodis litterarum atque incommodis, 234, 238–39, 240, 242
Della famiglia, 27
Dinner pieces, 404
Momus, 27, 207, 404
Philodoxus, 89, 464
Albertus Magnus, 305
Albrecht of Brandenburg, 331
Albucasis, 281
Albumasar, 280, 284
Alcabitius, 280, 284
Alcalá de Henares, University of, 282, 300, 462
alchemy, 3, 257, 263, 264, 267, 369, 456, 497, 519
Alciati, Andrea, 79, 415
Aldegati, Marcantonio, 399
Aldrovandi, Ulisse, 269
Aleandro, Girolamo, 306
Alegre, Francisco Javier, 60, 63, 534–35
Alexander VI (pope), 107
Alexander of Aphrodisias, 463
Alexander of Hales, 305
Alexander of Villedieu, 221–22, 226, 227, 228
Alexander the Great, 63, 82, 194, 534
Alexis (tsar of Russia), 569
Alfonso the physician, 300
Alfonso II (king of Naples), 365, 369, 399
Alfonso V (king of Aragon), 64, 153, 399
al-Ghazali. See Ghazali, al-
Alhazen, 281
Alighieri, Dante, 3, 27, 254, 316, 395
Divine Comedy, 62
allegory, 303, 363, 399, 404, 472, 505
in drama, 88–89, 91, 93, 94, 96, 106, 108, 111, 112, 115
in pastoral, 395, 396, 433
Allesch, Gerd, 78
allusion. See intertextuality
Alpago, Andrea, 290
Alpetragius, 281
Alpini, Prospero, 290
(p. 582) Alsop, Anthony, 83–84, 434
Alstedt, Johann Heinrich, 145
Althusius, Johannes, 452
Altilio, Gabriele, 400
Álvares, Manuel, 567
Amalteo family, 397
Amaral, Prudêncio do, 473, 529
Amaseo, Romolo Quirino, 27
Amatus Fornacius: amator ineptus, 211
Amboise, Georges d’, 413–14
Ambrose, Saint, 303, 305, 321
American War of Independence, 553
Americas (continents), 183, 465–67, 488, 525–26, 532–35. See also Latin America; North America
indigenous peoples
Abenaki (See Abenaki language)
Hurons, 543, 544, 545–46
Incas, 191–92, 529
Iroquois, 543
Montagnais, 544 (See also Montagnais language)
Nahuas, 530–32 (See also Nahuatl language)
Amerinus, Johannes, 498, 504
Ammianus Marcellinus, 20
Amos, Andrew, 382
Anacreon, 49–50, 416, 452, 454
anatomy. See medicine Anchieta, José de, 472, 527
Andreae, Johann Valentin, 96, 188–89, 451, 452, 455
Andreas, Valerius, 488
Andrewes, Lancelot, 243
Angèli da Barga, Pietro, 58, 398
Angeriano, Girolamo, 471
Anghiera, Pietro Martire d’, 159, 367
Anglo-Dutch War (Second), 81
Anyés, Joan Baptista, 464
Amsterdam, 479, 485
Athenaeum, 481
Royal Academy, 405
Andrelini, Publio Fausto, 412, 463
Anisio, Giano, 202, 396
Anne (duchess of York), 81
Anne (queen of England), 208
Anne, Saint, 371
Annius of Viterbo, 152, 158
anticlassicism, 89, 91–93, 94, 96, 99, 447
antiquarianism. See historiography Anthony, Saint, of Egypt, 63, 397
Antonia (princess of Württemberg), 369
Antonio, Nicolás, 463, 533
Antwerp, 481
Anwykyll, John, 32
Aphthonius, 120, 131, 449. See also oratory; progymnasmata
Apollonius of Perga, 266
Apollonius of Rhodes, 64, 405
apologetic writing
Catholic, 318–19, 323, 561
humanistic, 176, 298, 300, 301, 302, 305, 447, 473
political, 143, 159–60, 432, 533
Apuleius, 184, 185, 186, 194, 348
Aquilonius, Bertel Knudsen, 499
Aquinas, Thomas, Saint, 145, 146, 296, 301, 305
Thomism, 258, 317, 325, 339
Arabic language, 279–91, 480. See also oriental studies
dictionaries, 289, 480
grammar books, 288
philosophical terms, 256–57
scientific writing, 267, 270, 271, 550
translation into Hebrew, 281
translation into Latin, 112, 249–50, 255, 265, 267, 270, 271, 281–82, 295, 308
Aramaic language, 288, 299–301, 306, 308. See also Bible
Arason, Jón, 495
Arator, 66
Aratus, 64, 397
Archimedes, 265, 270
architecture, 90, 308, 345, 369, 417–18, 511
Arcimboldo, Giuseppe, 511
Ardoini, Anna Maria, 373
Aretino, Pietro, 90
Arias Montano, Benito, 308, 463, 464
Ariosto, Ludovico, 22, 90, 210, 465
Aristotle
anti-Aristotelianism, 341
Aristotelianism, 143–45, 242–43, 249, 265, 266, 317, 325, 331, 333, 334–35, 558
commentaries on, 112, 257, 266, 270, 271, 279, 281–82, 283–84, 367, 470, 528
De Anima, 257, 271, 283–84
Historia animalium, 268, 270–71
Nicomachean Ethics, 251, 254, 346
Organon (logical works), 237, 335, 339
Poetics, 103, 112–13, 201
Politics, 136, 144, 254, 467
Rhetoric, 120–21, 127, 353
translations of, 171, 251, 254, 266, 270, 402, 463
arithmetic. See mathematics
Armenian language, 485
Arriaga, Pablo José de, 528
Arthur (legendary king of Britain), 157, 429, 431–32
Astemio, Lorenzo, 404
astrology
academic study of, 263, 264, 339, 519
Arabic sources, 257, 280, 282–85, 288, 290
represented in literature, 67, 188, 190, 497
zodiac, 201, 397–98
astronomy
academic study of, 179, 263, 267, 270, 272, 421, 497, 520–21
Greek sources, 267, 270
Jesuit, 489, 560, 561–62, 569
represented in literature, 58, 64, 67, 84, 397, 437–38, 497
Athanasius, Saint, 295, 303
Atlantis, 502
atlases. See cartography
Atrocianus, Johannes, 450
Atterbury, Francis, 430
Attila, 154, 514
Aue, Euphrosine, 369
Augurelli, Giovanni Aurelio, 202, 204
Augustín, Antonio, 463, 465
Augustine, Saint
academic study of, 3, 371
commentaries on, 463
views on language, 17, 305, 348
theology, 138, 170, 295, 303, 320, 321
Augustinians, 482
Augustus (Roman emperor), 51–52, 59, 347, 489, 495
Ausonius, 419
Aurpach, Johann, 454
Austen, Jane, 180
Austria. See also German language; Habsburg dynasty
Henricianum, 349
historiography, 158
represented in literature, 65–66, 191, 453
schools, 386
autobiography. See biography
autograph books, 449, 518
Avancini, Niccolò, 114
Averroes. See also Arabic language
commentaries on Aristotle, 249–50, 254, 271, 279
criticism of, 280, 281, 286
medical works, 282, 287
philosophy, 280, 283–84
translations of, 112, 249–50, 271, 281–82
Avicenna, 279, 280, 283, 285, 286, 287, 288. See also Arabic language
Canon of Medicine, 279, 281, 282, 286, 290
Ávila, Saint Teresa of, 371
Azambucha, Jerónimo de, 470
Azpilcueta, Martin de, 146
Aztecs, 529, 533
Bachmann, Christian, 96
Bacon, Anne, 368
Bacon, Francis, 250, 273
Bacon, Roger, 279
Bade, Josse, 200, 412, 414
Badin, Stephen Theodore, 548
Baduel, Claude, 335–36
Baïf, Antoine de, 419
Baião, André, 472
Balde, Jakob, 44, 204, 209, 445, 452, 453, 454
Bandettini, Teresa, 373
Bandini, Francesco, 511
Bång, Petrus, 502
“barbarians,” 154 156, 157, 220, 419, 455, 466, 543, 545, 548
Barbaro, Ermolao, 253, 271, 338, 367
Barberini, Maffeo, 189, 190
Barbosa, Aires, 472
Barclay, John, 187
Argenis, 42, 184, 189–91, 195, 196
Euphormionis Lusinini Satyricon, 184, 189–91, 205–6, 210, 211
Barignano, Fabio, 399
Barlaeus, Caspar, 484
Baron, Bonaventure, 323
Baroni, Laura, 434
Baronius, Caesar, 160, 162, 314, 321, 323–25
baroque, 129, 162, 178, 404, 447, 455, 464, 473
Barth, Caspar von, 50, 205, 447
Barthélemy de Loches, Nicolas, 109
Bartholin, Caspar, 266
Bartholin, Thomas, 179, 503
Bartolini, Riccardo, 60, 65–66, 453
Bartram, John, 550–51
Barzizza, Antonio, 404
Basel, University of, 267
Basil, Saint, 296, 305
Basini, Basinio, 64, 397, 399
Bathurst, Richard, 430
Bathurst, Theodore, 432
Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb, 457
Bayer, Theophilus Siegfried, 558, 562, 566, 567
Bayle, Pierre, 250
Baynard family, 75
Baynard, Ann, 209
Beatrice of Aragon, 369
Bebel, Heinrich, 455
(p. 584) Becanus, Gulielmus, 485
Beccadelli, Antonio (Panormita), 400
Bectoz, Claudine Scholastique de, 371
Béda, Noël, 241, 304–5
Bedford, Arthur, 427
Beedom, Thomas, 36
Beijing. See under China.
Bél, Mátyás, 514, 516
Belgium. See Low Countries
Bell, Adam Schall von, 559, 570
Bellarmino, Roberto, 143, 314, 317, 319
Belo, Francesco, 380
Belon, Pierre, 290
Bembo, Pietro, 131, 156, 348, 400, 402, 479
Benci, Francesco, 207, 398
Benedict XVI (pope), 317
Benedictines, 104, 396, 456
Benedictus, Georgius, 485
Benešic, Damjan, 202
Benningh, Jan Bodecher, 206
Berard, Stephen, 195
Bérault, Jean, 210
Bergalli, Luisa, 373
Bergenhielm, Johan, 207, 211, 504
Berlaimont, Noël de, 31
Bernard of Clairvaux, 321
Beroaldo, Filippo, 185, 338, 412
Berosus, 152
Bessarion, Basilios, Cardinal, 270, 338
Beveridge, John, 548
Bèze, Théodore de, 240, 242, 420, 427
Ad Serenissimam Elizabetham Angliae
Reginam, 34
biblical scholarship, 307, 329–30
Epistola magistri Passavantii, 206
Iuvenilia, 78, 419
Triumphale carmen, 42
Biard, Pierre, 542
Bible, 295–309. See also Arabic language; Aramaic language; Greek language; Hebrew language;Syriac language
Antwerp Polyglot, 299, 308
Arabic Gospels, 308
Complutensian Polyglot, 298, 299, 300–1, 307, 308, 462
epics based on, 66, 435, 451–52
King James (Authorised Version), 436
London Polyglot, 308
Masorah, 299, 301, 308,
Mishnah, 308
New Testament, 94, 323, 330, 338, 339, 478, 545, 566
Acts, 330
Greek New Testament, 296–99, 300–3, 307
John, 297, 303
Latin translation, 296–99
Luke, 304
Matthew, 297, 301, 304, 306
Paul, 298, 303, 304, 306, 307, 315, 321, 333, 339–40
Peter, 302
Revelation, 303
Syriac, 299
Old Testament, 205, 298–300, 305
Daniel, 154
Ecclesiastes, 205
Ezra, 309
Genesis, 566
Habakkuk, 367
Hebrew Old Testament, 299–300
Isaiah, 299
Job, 321
Joshua, 308
Psalms, 41, 42, 44–45, 298, 321, 322, 396, 434, 436, 452, 510
Song of Songs, 44
Paris Polyglot, 308
Pentateuch, 299, 301, 309, 321
plays based on, 94–95, 109–10, 111–12, 113, 115, 451
Protestant (Protestant Latin Bible) Latin Bible, 329
rediscovery of biblical manuscripts, 297–98, 301, 302–3, 307, 308, 330
Septuagint, 298–301, 307, 566
Talmud, 308
Targums, 299, 308
Torah, 299
translations, 17, 18, 295–309, 296, 329–30, 338, 530
Psalms, 44–45, 434, 436
Vulgate, 17, 236, 295–98, 303, 314, 315, 329–30, 436, 566. See also Jerome, Saint
Bidermann, Jakob, 114, 451, 452
bilingualism. See also macaronic writing; multilingualism
in authorial career, 28–29, 243, 250, 265–66, 273, 331, 431
in education, 336–37, 498
in poetry, 36
in printed works, 558, 560
Billingsley, Henry, 265
biography. See also diaries; letters
Arabic authors, 285–87
autobiography, 42, 168, 174, 176, 192, 194, 204, 286–87, 355, 371, 454–55
biographical dictionaries, 287
George Washington, 552
(p. 585) learned men, 457
missionaries, 544
necrology, 544
Birck, Sixt, 451
Birckman, Arnold, 79
Birken, Sigmund von, 210
Bisse, Thomas, 437
Bissel, Johannes, 189, 452
Blaeu family, 418, 563
Blégny, Nicolas de, 201
Blommaerts, Jan, 290
Blotius, Hugo, 511
Bobadilla, Magdalena de, 368
Boccaccio, Giovanni, 395, 399, 400
Decameron, 90, 96, 185, 404, 405
On famous women, 363–64, 403
Boccalini, Traiano, 211
Bock, Hieronymus, 268, 272
Boece, Hector, 159, 432
Boerhaave, Herman, 273
Boethius, 104, 251, 256, 331, 368
Consolation of Philosophy, 225, 226
Boétie, Etienne de la, 204
Bogislaw X (duke of Pomerania), 107, 158
Boiardo, Matteo Maria, 395
Boileau-Despréaux, Nicolas (Boileau), 210, 211
Bolea, Ana Francisca Abarca de, 371
Bolland, Jean, 321, 323, 481
Bollinger, Ulrich, 451
Bologna, University of, 237–39
Bolyai, János, 521
Bolyai, Wolfgang, 521
Bomberg, Daniel, 299
Bonaventure, Saint, 305
Bonde, Karl Knutsson, 503
Bonfini, Antonio, 157, 158, 511, 516
Bonifacio, Juan, 568
Bonin, Just, 201
Borch, Ole, 504
Borghini, Maria Selvaggia, 373
Borro, Gasparino, 366
Bosau, Helmold von, 158
Boškovic, Ruder Josip, 267
botany
academic study of, 263, 268, 269, 270, 271, 274, 283, 290, 456, 489, 546, 550–51, 564
taxonomy, 266, 274, 456
Botero, Giovanni, 143
Botello de Moraes y Vasconcelos, Francisco, 199
Botner, Damian, 80
Botta, Bartolomeo, 66
Botticelli, Sandro, 172
Bourbon, Nicolas, 417
Bourges, University of, 414–15
Bourgogne, Nicolas de, 448
Bourne, Vincent, 428, 430
Boyle, Robert, 265–66
Boym, Michael, 563, 564
Braccesi, Alessandro, 400
Braga, Colégio of, 469
Bragança (Braganza) dynasty, 469, 560
Brahe, Tycho, 47, 179, 267, 497, 511, 520, 521
Brancati, Francesco, 561
Brandolini, Aurelio, 298
Brant, Sebastian, 28, 107, 211, 355
Brasavola, Antonio Musa, 268, 283
Brassicanus, Johannes Alexander, 515
Brattle, William, 549
Brazil. See Latin America
Brébeuf, Jean de, 544
Brenner, Martin, 516
Brenner, Sophia Elisabeth, 370
Brethren of the Common Life, 477–78
Breuil, Guillaume du, 354
Breydenbach, Bernhard von, 289
Brie, Germain de, 74
Briga, Melchior dalla, 562
Brigid, Saint, 320
Britannico, Giovanni, 200
British Isles, 17, 22, 11, 204, 427–39. See also England; Ireland; Scotland; Wales
Brocar, Juan de, 465
Brodericus, Stephanus, 512, 515, 516
Broekhuizen, Johan van, 485
Brothers of the Christian Schools, 384
Broucke, Janus van den, 484
Bruges, 478, 479
Brunfels, Otto, 271
Bruni, Leonardo
civic humanism, 135, 351–52
historiography, 153–55, 156, 401
letters, 174, 402, 403
views on language, 15, 124, 249, 252–52, 255, 257, 260, 298
Bruno, Giordano, 250, 254, 260, 380, 398, 511, 520
Brusch, Kaspar, 517
Brutus (legendary founder of Britain), 157, 432
Bruyerin, Jean-Baptiste, 282
Bucer, Martin, 306
Buchanan, George, 430, 439
academic career, 234, 235, 240, 241, 428, 469
drama, 109, 113, 240, 420
(p. 586) historiography, 432
Psalm paraphrases, 45, 434, 436
Budé, Guillaume, 125, 241, 412–14
Buffon, George-Louis Leclerc, 534, 535
Bugenhagen, Johannes, 158
Buglio, Lodovico, 559
Bugnot, Gabriel, 196
Buonaccorsi, Filippo, 156
Bulkeley, Peter, 74
Bullinger, Heinrich, 329, 338–41
Buonamici, Lazzaro, 255, 259
Burckhardt, Jacob, 233, 395, 401
Bure, Catharina, 370
Bureus, Johannes, 502
Bürgi, Jost, 511
Burman, Pieter (the Younger), 485
Burnett, Thomas, 434
Burrus, Petrus, 417
Burton, Robert, 3, 242
Busbecq, Ogier Ghislain de, 176, 489
Butler, Thomas (earl of Ormond), 61, 435
Butzbach, Johannes, 455
Byrd, William, II, 552
Byzantine Empire, 266, 330, 396, 454, 513. See also Constantinople
Cabrera, Cristobál, 527
Caesarius, Johannes, 123
Caesar, Julius, 67, 92, 158, 317, 349, 446
Gallic Wars, 218, 355, 531
represented in literature, 109, 110, 419
Caiado, Henrique, 472
Calderón de la Barca, Pedro, 115
Calenzio, Elisio, 399
Calixtus III (pope), 107
Callimachus, 301, 518
Calonymos, Calonymos ben, 249
Calphurnius, Franciscus, 286
Calvin, Jean, 28, 126, 190, 228, 322, 329, 336, 415
Calvinism, 45, 126, 178, 335–37, 419, 454
Cambridge, 427
University of, 274, 287, 437–38
Christ’s College, 243
Clare Hall (now Clare College), 81
drama, 90–91, 92, 109, 110, 244, 315
Emmanuel College, 81
Magdalene College, 82
poetry, 35, 47, 81–83, 235, 237, 243–45, 431
St. John’s College, 81, 82
Trinity College, 244
Camden, William, 158, 159, 431
Camerarius, Joachim, 453
Camões, Luis de, 472
Campanella, Tommaso, 187, 250, 255, 257
Campano, Giovanni Antonio, 42
Campion, Thomas, 46–47, 48, 434
Campos y Martínez, Juan Gregorio, 533
Canada. See under North America: New France
Canini, Angelo, 308
Canisius, Petrus, 322
Cano, Melchor, 307, 467
Cantelma, Margarita, 364
Cantemir, Dimitrie, 512
Canter, Ursula, 370
Capitein, Jacobus Elisa Johannes, 487
Carafa, Antonio, 308
Carafa, Diomede, 136
Carbonell, Pere Miquel, 463, 465
Cardano, Girolamo, 285, 534
Cardoso, Jerónimo, 472
Carheil, Etienne de, 547
Carlos (prince of Asturias), 146
Carolides, Jiri, 517
Carr, Joseph, 82
Carranza, Bartolomé, 467
Carrara dynasty
Francesco da, 138, 350
Giovanni Michele Alberto, 202, 395, 400
Ubertino, 58, 63
Cartagena, Alfonso de, 467
Cartagena, Teresa de, 371
cartography, 156, 489, 511, 513, 562–64
Casal, Gaspar do, 470
Casas, Bartolomé de las, 466–67, 526, 529
Casaubon, Isaac, 201, 206, 308, 325, 415
Cassius Dio, 531
Castiglione, Baldassare, 124, 345, 380, 401
Castellio, Sebastian, 303, 308
Castro, Alfonso de, 319
Cataldo Siculo, Aquila, 469, 470, 471
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint, 298, 449
Catherine of Aragon (queen of England), 367
Cato, Marcus Porcius 152
Cats, Jacob, 35–36, 484
Cattaneo, Giovanni Maria, 398
Catullus, 41, 44, 47–50, 73, 77, 417, 470, 471, 483
Caussin, Nicolas, 114, 122
Cavaleiro, Estêvâo, 470
Cavendish, Margaret, 209
(p. 587) Cecil, Mildred, 368
Cecil, William, 368
Celestine I (pope), 17
Celestine V (pope), 398
Celineo, Nardino, 400
Celsus, 270
Celtic language, 17
Celtis, Konrad, 108, 332, 370, 447, 515
Amores, 45–46, 445, 454
Ars versificandi et carminum, 446
De situ et moribus Norimbergae, 158
founder of Collegium poetarum et
mathematicorum, 447
Germania illustrata, 158, 445
letters, 455
odes and epodes, 445, 447, 448
censorship
Catholic, 79, 469, 543, 569
Index of Forbidden Book s, 211, 308, 320
of historiography, 501–2
Protestant, 370
cento, 51, 140, 207, 528, 547
Cerceau, Jean-Antoine du, 210
Cerda, Juan Luis de la, 463
Cerdáy Rico, Francisco, 468
Cereta, Laura, 363, 366, 403
Cerri, Antonio, 201
Cervantes, 114
Ceva, Tommaso, 398
Chalcondyles, Demetrios, 396
Champier, Symphorien, 285, 286
Charlemagne, 62, 96, 154, 285, 514
Charles II (king of England), 81
Charles III (king of Spain), 468, 533
Charles IV (Holy Roman Emperor), 349, 446, 510
Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor), 136, 137, 143, 267, 530, 531
Charles V (king of France), 363
Charles VI (Holy Roman Emperor), 386
Charles VIII (king of France), 107, 173
Charles IX (king of France), 420
Charles X Gustav (king of Sweden), 60
Charles XII (king of Sweden), 504, 505, 506
Chastellain, Pierre, 546–47
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 33, 428
Chauvin, Étienne, 250
Cheever, Ezechial, 552
chemistry. See under science
Chiaravacci, Girolamo, 398
Chigi, Fabio, 485
China, 2, 356, 557–70. See also Chinese language; Manchus
Beijing, 562, 565, 569 , 570
college, 564, 569
Hangzhou, College of, 569
printing in, 560, 568–69
Chinese language. See also Manchu language
dictionaries, 566, 568, 570
study of, 562, 567, 570
translations into Chinese, 558, 570
translations into Latin, 560, 566–67
Chorier, Nicolas, 211
chorography. See under historiography
Chrestien, Florent, 201
Christian II (king of Denmark), 494, 503
Christian III (king of Denmark), 494–95
Christian IV (king of Denmark), 495, 500
Christina (queen of Sweden), 370, 496
Chrysoloras, Manuel, 338
Chrysostom, John, Saint, 296, 297, 303, 305
“chymistry”. See under science
Chytraeus, Nathan, 206, 455
Cicero, 87, 92, 153, 446
Brutus, 14, 161, 513
Ciceronianism, 130, 402
Christian Ciceronianism, 16–17, 295, 348
Jesuit, 326, 348, 480
in letters, 131
in literary histories, 161
in oratory and rhetoric, 121, 224
in political writing, 136–40, 347–48,
in prose style, 20–22, 186, 226, 271, 303, 347, 405, 413, 414, 447, 448, 470, 479, 480, 536
Protestant, 341
commentaries on, 463
De inventione, 224, 335
De officiis, 143, 225, 371
De senectute, 225, 365
ethics, 124, 141, 351
Laelius de amicitia, 19, 225
letters, 167–69, 170, 173, 218, 337, 339, 366, 403
Paradoxa Stoicorum, 225, 337
Philippics, 318
Pro Archia, 218
Pro rege Deiotaro, 218
rhetorical writing, 14, 20, 108, 120, 124, 218, 334, 366
Somnium Scipionis, 63, 225, 466, 486
Topica, 335
Tusculan Disputations, 174
Cinzio, Giambattista, 201
Ciotti, Giambattista, 364
(p. 588) Ciruelo, Pedro Sánchez, 465
Cittadella, Pietro, 202
Clapmarius, Arnold, 140
Clavijero, Francisco Javier, 528, 534
Claudian, 22, 58, 352, 369, 452, 471, 484
Claudius (Roman emperor), 205
Claus, Anton, 98
Clayton, John, 550–51
Clement VII (pope), 66, 396, 405
Clement VIII (pope), 307
Clement XIV (pope), 69, 114
Clement, John, 368
Cleyer, Andreas, 564
Cleynaerts, Nicolas, 469, 470, 473, 489
Clusius, Carolus, 176, 489, 511
Cochlaeus, Johannes, 158
Coelho, Jorge, 472
Coimbra
Colégio das Artes, 469, 472
University of, 109, 240, 469, 470
Colden, Cadwallader, 550–51
Colden, Jane, 551
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 190
Colet, John, 21, 125, 341
Coligny, Gaspard de, 454
colleges, 211, 240. See also under individual places
Collegium Trilingue. SeeAlcaláde Henares, University of; Leuven
Cologne, 79, 320, 354, 372
University of, 284, 339–40
Colonel, Pablo, 300
Colt, Jane, 368
Columba, Saint, 320
Columbus, Christopher, 58, 399, 536
comedy, 87–99, 186, 404–5, 482
comicotragedy, 87
farce, 89–90, 91, 92, 96, 482
Comenius, Jan Amos, 518–19, 521
commentaries. See also under individual authors
medical, 283
philosophical works, 249, 257, 265, 270, 271, 281, 283–84, 367
political, 350
rabbinical, 295, 299
Commines, Philippe de, 162
commonplace books, 53, 131, 139–42, 348–49
Concini, Concino, 190
Confucianism, 561, 566–68
Connibert, 92
Conring, Hermann, 452
Constantinople, 171, 266, 295, 296, 396, 513
fall of (1453), 2, 59, 295, 351, 399
Contarini, Gasparo, 135
Contzen, Adam, 143, 452
convents, 175, 250, 285, 366, 370–72, 373, 527
converts to Christianity, 371
in China, 564–65, 569–70
Jewish, 189, 299, 300
in Mexico, 68–69, 526
Muslim, 288, 290, 300, 530
in New France, 541
Cooke, Anthony, 368
Copenhagen
siege of, 60, 504
University of, 495
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 179, 267, 437, 498, 512, 520, 521
Cordara, Giulio Cesare, 400
Corday, Charlotte, 453
Cordier, Maturin, 336–37, 340, 341
Cordus, Euricius, 268, 453, 454
Cornazzano, Antonio, 90, 364
Corneille, Pierre, 114
coronation of poets, 63, 105, 170, 447, 495
Correggio, Barbara da, 371
Correia, Tomé, 470, 499
Correr, Gregorio, 106, 110, 202, 395, 400, 404
Cortese, Paolo, 296
Cortés, Hernando, 534
Corvinus, Laurentius, 517
Corvinus, Matthias (king of Hungary), 157, 369, 511, 514, 516, 520
Costa, Inácio da, 566
Cotton, John, 74
Councils of the church
Basel, 295, 446
Certa, 324
Constance, 446
Constantinople, 296
Ferrara-Florence, 295
Nicaea, 296
Trent, 315, 405, 470. See also Counter-Reformation
Tridentine decree, 307, 314
Vienne, 295
Counter-Reformation, 2, 93, 237, 313–26, 348, 370, 398
biblical scholarship, 307–8
drama, 93, 111–13
Couplet, Philippe, 560, 565, 566, 569
Cousturier, Pierre, 305
Cowley, Abraham, 43, 92, 434, 435
Cowper, William, 190
(p. 589) Cramer, Daniel, 96
Crantz, Martin, 412
Crasso, Niccolò, 211
Crawshaw, Richard, 435
creoles, 525, 532–37
Cressolles, Louis de, 123
Croatia, 485, 512. See alsoEast–Central Europe
Cromwell, Oliver, 81, 135, 244
Crusades, 155, 354, 398, 399
Crusius, Thomas Theodor, 124
Cruz, Juana Inés de la, 371
Cruz, Luís da, 114, 472
Cujas, Jacques, 415
Cunaeus, Petrus, 205, 308, 486
Cygne, Martin du, 482
Cyprian, Saint, 303, 478
Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien, 380
Czech language
textbooks, 31
translations from Latin, 519
Czech territories, 509, 510–11. See also Czech language; East-Central Europe
D’Abano, Pietro, 271
D’Alembert, Jean, 535
D’Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon, 563
D’Aquino, Carlo, 400
D’Aquino, Tommaso Niccolò, 397
D’Aragona, Eleonora, 364
Dahlstierna, Gunno Eurelius, 499
Dantiscus, Johannes, 517
Darcio, Giovanni, 398, 401
Daneau, Lambert, 141–42
Danet, Pierre, 570
Danish language
translations into, 503
vernacular works, 506
Dannhauer, Johann Konrad, 450, 457
Dares Phrygius, 105
Dassio, Francesc, 465
Dati, Agostino, 223, 226
Dati, Carlo, 434
Dati, Leonardo, 106, 404
Dazzi, Andrea, 399
Dedekind, Friedrich, 206
Dee, John, 265, 511
De Libera, Alain, 259–60
Della Casa, Giovanni, 346
Del Medigo, Elia, 281
Della Rovere family, 399
Deloynes, François, 413
Demetrius, 120
Demosthenes, 120, 153, 244
Denmark, 159, 494. See alsoDanish language; Scandinavia
Descartes, René, 496
bilingualism, 28, 250, 265, 273, 421–22
letters, 179, 369
philosophy, 258–59, 266, 498, 528, 534, 549
Deshoulières, Madame, 209
Despauterius, Johannes, 567
Deventer Academy, 228, 339
devotio moderna, 175, 339
Deza, Diego de, 301
dialectic. Seelogic
diaries, 338–39, 489, 512, 547, 552–53, 559, 570
dictionaries. See under individual languages and fields of study
didactic poetry, 57–58, 61, 62, 64, 67, 203, 206, 437
Diego, Juan, 528
Dillingham, William, 427, 428, 432, 436
Diodati, Charles, 431, 433–34
Diogenes the Cynic, 203
Diogenes Laertius, 372
Diomedes, 103, 126, 341
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 120
Dioscorides, 265, 271–72, 280, 470
Diophantus, 267
diplomacy, 422, 569
Italian, 64, 105, 142, 351
writing by diplomats, 142, 144, 178, 289–90, 356, 396, 488–89, 496–96, 517
Disticha Catonis, 224, 341
Dôle, University of, 364
Dolet, Etienne, 417
Dominicans, 320, 466, 527, 561
Donation of Constantine, 296, 349. See also Valla, Lorenzo
Donatus, 17, 87, 103, 126, 217, 220, 324–25, 331, 339, 341
Donne, John, 210
Dorat, Jean, 368, 419, 420
Dornau, Caspar, 207, 453
Dorp, Maarten van, 305
Douai, University of, 480
Dousa, Janus, 203, 207, 480, 483
Drant, Thomas, 210
Dringenberg, Ludwig, 228
Druesnes, Léopold, 389
Drury, William, 92–93
(p. 590) Drusius, Johannes, 308
Dryden, John, 210
Du Bellay, Guillaume, 417
Du Bellay, Jean, 204
Du Bellay, Joachim, 27, 45, 75–78, 192, 368, 416, 417–19
Dubois, Jacques, 282
Dubreuil de Pontbriand, Henri-Marie, 546
Ducas, Demetrius, 300
Ducreux, François, 545
Dudith, Andreas, 512
Dugonics, András, 195
Duns Scotus, John, 257, 259, 317, 325, 528
Dunyn-Szpot, Thomas Ignatius, 559
Dupanloup, Félix Antoine Philibert, 381
Duport, James, 82, 235, 236, 243
Durão, António, 472
Dürer, Albrecht, 172
Dutch language
textbooks, 31–32
translations from Latin, 210–11, 487
translations into Latin, 273, 484
works adapted in Latin, 483
works adapted from Latin, 483
vernacular works, 484
Echtermeyer, Theodor, 456
Eck, Johannes, 207, 314, 317, 319, 450
Eckhart, Meister, 254
education. See academies; colleges; schools; universities; under individual countries, languages, and fields of study
Edward VI (king of England), 237
Egger, Karl, 326
Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José, 533
Egypt, 287, 289–90, 512
hieroglyphs, 400, 568
Einsiedel, Margaretha Sibylla von, 369
Eleazar, 548
Elizabeth I (queen of England), 237, 365, 504
in historiography, 159
as Latinist, 368
in poetry, 34, 47, 61, 80, 435, 453
Elisabeth (countess Palatine), 369
Elisabeth (margravine of Baden-Durlach), 369
Elzevier (family of Dutch printers), 481
emblems, 35–36, 79–80, 142, 322, 355, 368
Emilio, Paolo, 157
Emmerich, 339, 341
Emmius, Ubbo, 158, 487
Engerd, Johann, 59
England, 368, 427–39. See also English language
Gunpowder Plot, 59, 244, 434, 436
schools, 74, 125–26, 381–84
universities, 237, 242–45
English language
bilingualism, 29, 30–36, 192, 243, 244, 273, 274
influenced by Latin, 91, 252
Statute of Pleading, 509
textbooks, 31–32
translations from Latin, 32, 33, 43, 77, 84, 93, 173, 189, 210, 266, 273, 367, 368, 397, 401, 404, 513, 519
translations into Latin, 43, 195, 255, 273, 432–33, 434, 551
vernacular works, 6, 42, 244, 256, 265–66
works adapted from Latin, 487
Enlightenment, 203, 309, 513, 528, 533, 536
Ennius, 63
epic poetry, 57–69, 435. See also Bible
Christian, 398–99, 421, 451–52, 472
epyllion (brief epic), 62, 68, 436, 528
mock epic, 235, 399, 433, 436–37
political, 354, 452–53, 504, 527, 528–29
vernacular, 244
Epicureanism, 265, 266
epigrams, 194, 400, 432, 434–35, 517, 518. See also Martial; occasional poetry
collections of, 73–80, 206
epigraphy. See inscriptions
epistolography. See letters
epitaphs, 74, 77, 82, 417, 428, 431, 432, 433, 517, 552, 557. See also inscriptions epyllion. See under epic poetry
Erasmus, Desiderius, 2, 269, 427, 470, 471, 477, 478–79, 515
Adagia, 325, 478
biblical scholarship, 296–97, 300, 301–6, 307, 308, 330, 338
Christian humanism, 108, 174–76, 478, 527
Ciceronianus, 20–21, 131, 161, 173, 413, 416, 447, 479
Colloquia familiaria, 341, 449, 478
Compendium rhetorices, 126
criticism of, 127–28, 300, 301, 462
De conscribendis epistulis, 127–28, 173, 455, 478, 531
De duplici copia, 127, 339, 341, 478
De pueris instituendis, 339
De ratione studii, 20, 125, 126, 478
De recta pronuntiatione, 339
educational program, 325, 339–41, 496, 527
(p. 591) Institutio principis Christiani, 136–37
Latin style, 21, 22, 413
letters, 173–76, 370, 517
poetry, 201
Praise of Folly, 8, 130, 207, 472, 487
Eric XIV (king of Sweden), 504
erotic writing, 46–47, 400, 438, 499, 518
Amores, 45, 46, 47, 48, 401, 445, 454
Basia, 48, 50, 73, 417, 483, 484
Catullan, 48–49, 50, 417, 483
homoerotic, 434
matrimonial, 46, 80, 418
Erpenius, Thomas, 288–89, 290
Ertl, Anton Wilhelm, 191
essay, 506, 512
literary critical, 120, 427, 435
epistolary, 168, 174, 178
pedagogical, 241, 368
philosophical, 256–57
Plutarchan, 136
satirical, 453
Senecan, 104, 113, 352
Estaço, Aquiles, 470, 472
Este dynasty, 61, 395, 399
Alfonso II d’, 203
Anna d’, 369
Borso d’, 399
Isabella d’, 364
Leonello d’, 64, 65
Niccolòd’, 365
Estienne, Henri, 49–50, 369, 416
Estienne, Robert, 299, 307, 329, 336, 369
ethics. See also Aristotle; under philosophy: moral
academic study of, 237, 251–52, 254, 306, 325,
in literature, 108, 184, 200
in politics, 145, 346, 348, 353,
in rhetoric, 127, 129, 152, 340, 353
Ethiopic language, 308
Eton College, 80
Euclid, 265, 270, 521
Eugene IV (pope), 207
Euripides, 201, 368, 472, 478
Évora, Colégio of, 469
Evrard of Béthune, 227
Exner, Balthasar, 142
Ezzelino III da Romano, 104–5, 355, 404
Faber, Johann, 564
Fabius Pictor, Quintus, 152
Fabri, Manuel, 535
Fabrice, Arnould, 469
Fabricius, Georg, 447, 452
Fabricius Montanus, Johannes, 455
Fabritius, Carel, 511
Facio, Bartolomeo, 161
Fadella, Marco, 286
Faerno, Gabriele, 404
Fagius, Paul, 299, 308
Falcó, Jaime Juan, 204, 208, 464
Faletti, Girolamo, 203
Fano, Cristoforo da, 209
Farce de Maître Pathelin, 91–92
Farel, Guillaume, 336
Faria, Tomé de, 472
Farley, Robert, 36
Fedele, Cassandra, 366, 367, 370, 403
Feltre, Vittorino da, 365
Ferdinand I (Holy Roman Emperor), 515
Ferdinand I (king of Naples), 365, 369
Ferdinand II (king of Aragon), 107, 467
Ferdinand VI (king of Spain), 385
Fernández Navarrete, Domingo, 561
Fernández Navarrete, Pedro, 386
Ferrara
court literature, 61, 64, 364, 395, 399, 400
court school, 365
medical humanism, 283
University of, 512
Ferreira, António, 472
Ferreri, Zaccaria, 396
Ferreti, Ferreto de’, 398
Fichet, Guillaume, 412
Ficino, Marsilio, 172, 249, 250, 255, 403–4, 412, 511
fiction. See prose fiction
Filelfo, Francesco
fables, 404
letters, 171–72, 174, 469
odes, 42, 401
satires, 202, 203, 204, 206, 211, 400
Sphortias, 61, 399
Filippucci, Francesco Saverio, 561
Finland. See also Finnish language; Scandinavia
history and education, 494, 495, 496
Latin writing, 502, 503, 506
Finnish language, 503
Firmianus, Petrus. See Zacharie de Lisieux
Firmicus Maternus, 67
Fitzalan, Henry (earl of Arundel), 368
Fitzalan, Jane. See Lumley, Jane
Fitzalan, Mary, 368
Folengo, Teofilo, 207
Foreiro, Francisco, 470
Fiera, Baptista, 209
(p. 592) Fitzherbert, Thomas, 143
Flacius Illyricus, Matthias. See Magdeburg Centuries
Flaminio, Marcantonio, 45, 218, 401, 464
Flavio, Biondo, 155–56, 158, 161, 351, 402, 515
Flayder, Hermann, 96
Fleming, Paul, 456
Fletcher, Phineas, 427, 433, 436
Florence
certame coronario, 106
court literature, 395
civic humanism, 351–52
historiography, 154–55, 402
literary history, 181
Neo-Platonism, 172–73
represented in literature, 106
schools, 217, 218
Florus, Hercules, 108
Fonte, Moderata, 364
Foot, Lucinda, 553
Foppens, Jean-François, 488
Forer, Laurenz, 318
Foresti, Jacopo Filippo, 160, 285–86
Forgách, Ferenc, 512, 516
Forgách, Mihály, 512–13
Forsett, Edward, 96, 380
Foscarini, Ludovico, 364, 366
Foucquet, Jean-François, 570
Fourmont, Etienne, 558, 568
Foxe, John, 95, 96
Fox Morcillo, Sebastián, 136, 463, 465
Fracco, Ambrogio, 398
Fracastoro, Girolamo, 57, 398
France, 411–22, 477, 541–47. See also French language
literary production in, 61, 364–65, 368–69, 371–72, 430
Revolution, 79, 381, 384, 453, 487
satire of, 209
schools, 221, 336–37, 341, 379–90
wars of religion, 207, 420
France, Renée de, 365
Francesco da Buti, 222, 226, 228
Franciscans, 204, 320, 438–39, 527, 530, 557, 561
Franckenau, Georg Franck von, 201
Francis Xavier, 58, 560
Francius, Petrus, 486
François I (king of France), 371, 412, 417
Frandsen, Hans, 495, 499
Franklin, Benjamin, 550, 551
Frederick (prince of Wales), 78
Frederick II (Holy Roman Emperor), 105
Frederick II (king of Denmark), 495
Frederick II (king of Prussia), 386
Frederick III (Holy Roman Emperor), 511
Frederick V (Elector Palatine), 453
Frederick William (Elector of Brandenburg), 453
Freiburger, Michael, 412
Freind, Joseph, 436
Freinsheimius, Johannes, 500
French language
dictionaries, 570
influenced by Latin, 19
bilingualism, 27–28, 31–32, 35, 192
Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, 416, 509
textbooks, 31–32
translations from Latin, 79, 173, 189, 210, 211, 254, 272, 336–37, 398, 404, 420–21, 487, 519, 543
translations into Latin, 92, 195, 211, 273, 543
vernacular works, 256, 265–66, 274, 356, 422, 534–44
Freytag, Georg Wilhelm, 289
Frischlin, Nicodemus, 66, 92, 96, 110, 204, 446, 449, 451
Frisi, Paolo, 220
Froben, Johannes, 174
Froschauer, Christoph, 269
Frulovisi, Tito Livio, 89, 404
Fuchs, Leonhart, 280, 283
Fuente, Andrés Diego de la, 534
Fuss, Johann Dominicus, 1
Gabiani, Giandomenico, 559
Gager, William, 110, 433
Gaguin, Robert, 157, 159, 173, 412, 415
Galen, 267, 270, 280, 282, 285, 287, 470
Galilei, Galileo, 23, 28, 179, 265, 267, 272–73, 520, 563
Galindo, Beatriz, 367
Galland, Pierre, 242
Gambara, Lorenzo, 399
Gameren, Hannard van, 204
Garcés, Julián, 526, 530
Gardner, Nathaniel, 548
García Matamoros, Alfonso, 463
Garissoles, Antoine, 59
Gart der Gesundheit, 268
Gassendi, Pierre, 421, 528
Gathelius (legendary founder of Scotland), 435
Gaubius, Hieronymus David, 273
Gauß, Carl Friedrich, 457, 521
Gaza, Theodorus, 270, 338
Geldenhouwer, Gerard, 203
Gellert, Christian Fürchtegott, 457
gender, 363–73
and Latin literacy, 36, 255, 388–89, 553
matriarchy, 193–94
(p. 593) querelle des femmes 363–65
satire, 209–10, 453
women Latin writers, 74, 363–73, 403, 429
Geneva
Academy of, 126, 334, 336–37
schools, 335, 337
Geoffrey of Monmouth, 157, 431–32
Geoffrey of Vinsauf, 222, 223, 226
geography. See also historiography:chorography; travel
academic study of, 218, 308, 339
Greek sources, 265, 270
written works, 158–59, 161, 446, 454, 502, 511, 514, 542, 544, 563–64, 570
geometry. See mathematics
George III (king of England), 548, 551
George, Saint, 82
Georgius of Hungary, 522
Gerald of Wales, 21, 432
Geraldini, Antonio, 396
Gerard of Cremona, 282
Gerhard, Johann, 450
Gering, Ulrich, 412
German language, 445–57
bilingualism, 29, 331
dictionaries, 456
influenced by Latin, 254
textbooks, 31
translations from Latin, 79, 93, 173, 195, 210, 211, 269, 273, 398, 404, 457, 519
translations into Latin, 107, 211, 272, 456
German-speaking countries, 88, 445–57. See also Austria; Germany; German language; Switzerland
autograph books, 518
chorography, 158
concept of nationhood, 348, 445–46
school drama, 97–98, 109, 560
Germany, 1. See also German language; German-speaking countries
humanism, 332, 446–49
Neuhumanismus, 506
Peasants’War, 107, 453–54
schools, 228, 385, 386, 388
universities, 145, 207–8, 240, 250, 495, 496, 512
Gessner, Conrad, 179, 268–70
Ghazali, al-, 249
Ghistele, Cornelis van, 210
Giannettasio, Niccolò Partenio, 58, 397, 398, 402
Gilbert, Balthasar, 121
Giggs, Margaret, 368
Gigli, Carlo, 478
Gil, Alexander, Jr., 429
Gillis, Peter, 174
Gilson, Étienne, 258
Giovio, Paolo, 161–62
Giphanius, Obertus, 203
Giraldi, Lilio Gregorio, 402
Giselinus, Victor, 178
Giustiniani, Agostino, 288
Glass, Francis, 552
Glisson, Francis, 257
Gnapheus, Guilielmus, 94–95, 482
Goclenius, Rudolph, 250, 257
Goedaert, Johannes, 273
Godeau, Michel, 211
Goggio, Bartolomeo, 364
Góis, Damião de, 471, 473
Golius, Jacob, 287, 288, 289, 563
Gomaer, François, 44
Gómez de Ciudad Real, Alvar, 464
Gómez Miedes, Bernardino, 465
Góngora, Luis de, 464
Gonzaga dynasty
Cecilia, 371
Ercole, 281
Gianfrancesco, 365
González de Dios, Juan, 199, 200
González, Juan Angel, 464
González, Tomás, 528
Googe, Barnabe, 397
Goropius, Joannes, 488
Gospels. See Bible
Goths, 350, 501, 502, 504, 514
Gott, Samuel, 189
Göttingen, University of, 27
Gournay, Marie de, 364–65, 372, 373
Gouveia, André, 469
Gouveia, António de, 559, 560
Gozzi, Gasparo, 218
Gracián, Baltasar, 464
Graham, John, 435
Gramaye, Jean-Baptiste, 489
grammar books. See also schools; under individual languages
ancient, 14, 16, 17–18, 341
humanist, 32, 126, 302, 334, 462
Granada, Luis de, 526
Grangier, Bonaventure, 204
Gratiolo, Andrea, 282
Gravina, Vincenzo, 203
Gray, Thomas, 428, 434, 438
Graziani, Domitilla, 371
Great Northern War, 207, 504–5
Greek Anthology, 50, 73, 74, 416
(p. 594) Greek language, 228, 250. See also Bible
academic study of, 17, 28, 119–20, 136, 144, 153, 171, 218, 228, 244, 283–84, 295–97, 337–39, 365, 411, 413, 415–16, 478
grammar books, 295, 338
poetry, 35, 41, 43, 50, 73, 80, 81, 83, 206
prose fiction, 184, 190–91
translation into Latin, 19, 23, 130, 151–52, 188, 249, 253, 255–59, 265–68, 270–72, 296, 535
Gregory XIII (pope), 160
Gregory, Saint (the Great), 321
Gregory of Sanok, 521
Gregory, David, 84
Grenan, Bénigne, 211
Gretser, Jacob, 97, 449
Grimald, Nicolas, 109
Grimm, Jacob, 27
Gronovius, Johannes Fredericus, 179, 551
Grosseteste, Robert, 251, 260
Grotius, Hugo, 481, 497, 518
biblical scholarship, 308
historiography, 488
letters, 178
poetry, 427, 429, 484
political writing, 146
tragedies, 112–13, 482, 483
translator of Theocritus, 84
Grouchy, Nicholas de, 469
Grudius, Nicolaus, 483
Grueber, Johann, 563–64
Grumbach, Argula von, 369
Gruterus, Janus, 142, 485–86
Gryphius, Andreas, 115, 451–52
Guarini, Guarino, 234, 241
Guarino, Battista, 124, 234, 469
Guarino da Verona, 174, 222, 226, 228, 365, 520–21
Guarna, Andrea, 94
Guicciardini, Francesco, 162
Guillard, Charlotte, 369
Guillén de Brocar, Arnao, 300
Guise, Charles de (cardinal of Lorraine), 204–5
Gunnarsøn, Halvard, 497, 500
Gunpowder Plot. See under England
Gustavus Adolphus (king of Sweden), 59, 370
Guyenne, Collège de, 240, 420
Guyet, François, 206
Gwinne, Matthew, 96, 110
Gyldenstolpe, Michael Wexionius, 502
Haas, Conrad, 521
Habermehl, Erasmus, 511
Habsburg dynasty. See also Austria; Holy Roman Empire
court as intellectual center, 511
Latin and political identity, 350, 456
represented in literature, 65–66, 191, 453
Haddon, Walter, 471
Hadrian of Canterbury, 17
hagiography, 115, 151, 160, 320–21, 323, 560
Acta Sanctorum, 320, 560
De probatis sanctorum historiis, 320
drama, 405
Haimendorff, Christoph Fürer von, 289
Hall, Joseph, 188
Hamilton, Henrik Albertsen, 499
Hannes, Edward, 434
Harant, Kryštof, 512
Harder, Henrik, 60, 504
Harvard College, 549–50
Harvey, Gabriel, 349
Harvey, William, 267
Hasištejnský (Hassenstenius), Bohuslav, of Lobkovice, 208, 512
Hassel, Henrik, 506
Havre, Jan van, 203
Hawghe, Walter, 75
Hawkins, William, 433
Hayneccius, Martin, 92
Hayyim, Jacob ben, 299
Herberstein, Sigmund von, 517
Hebrew language. See also Bible
academic study of, 295, 299–301, 306, 308, 323, 329, 411, 480, 488, 502
grammar books, 299
translation from Arabic, 281–82, 288
translation into Latin, 249, 255–56, 281, 298–300, 305
Heerkens, Gerhard Nicolaas, 203, 209
Heeze, Jean Van, 487
Hegelund, Peder, 498
Hegius, Alexander, 228, 339
Heidegger, Martin, 241, 255, 259
Heineccius, Johannes Gottlieb, 354
Heinsius, Daniel, 480, 481
commentary on Horace’s Satires, 200–201
De contemptu mortis, 485
Hercules tuam fidem, 205, 487
poetry, 484
tragedies, 112–13, 482
translator of Theocritus, 84
Virgula divina, 205
Heinsius, Nicolaus, 481, 496
Hell, Maximilian, 562
(p. 595) Helfta, Gertrud von, 370
Helgesen, Poul, 494
Heliodorus, 183–84, 190, 191
Helmont, Jan Baptist van, 513
Heltai, Gáspár, 516
Hennegrave, Antoine, 211
Henri II (king of France), 350
Henri III (king of France), 350
Henrietta Maria (consort of Charles I of England), 81
Henrietta (daughter of Charles I of England), 81
Henry VIII (king of England), 3, 187, 367, 483
Henry Frederick (prince of Wales), 35
Henry Frederick (Elector Palatine), 34
Henry of Settimello, 161, 224
Henten, Jean, 307
Herberstein, Sigmund von, 455
Herbert, George, 41, 51–52, 433, 434
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 1, 27
Herdtrich, Christian, 566, 567
Hermannus Alemannus, 112
Hermansz, Willem, 488
Hermelin, Olof, 499, 505
hermetic writing, 249, 266
Hermogenes, 120
heroic poetry. See epic poetry
Heroides. See letters: verse letters; under Ovid
Heron, Giles, 368
Herring, Francis, 436
Hervieu, Jean-Placide, 570
Hesiod, 243, 397
Hessus, Helius Eobanus, 47, 452, 455
Hevelius, Johannes, 267
Heynlin, Johann, 412
Hilary, Saint, 305
Hildegard of Bingen, Saint, 370
historiography, 125, 130, 151–62, 350, 467–68, 471, 487–89, 501–3, 544–45
antiquarianism, 155–56, 162, 350–51, 413, 431–32, 463, 480, 502, 532, 533
chorography, 156, 158–59, 161, 431–32, 463, 513–15, 517
chronicles, 151, 154, 158, 160–62, 285–86, 494, 514, 515, 517, 536
chronology, 154, 161, 308, 323, 415, 532, 565, 566
ecclesiastical, 160–61, 308–9, 323
Hippocrates, 280, 287, 470
Hobbes, Thomas, 28, 146, 179, 250, 255, 309, 498
Hobson, Thomas, 244
hodoeporicon. See under travel
Hoefnagel, Jacob, 511
Hoeufft, Jacob Hendrik, 485
Hogg, William, 205
Hoius, Andreas, 480
Holberg, Ludvig, 73, 506
Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum, 183, 184, 192–94, 195
Holland. See Netherlands
Holonius, Gregorius, 111
Holy Land, 512. See also Crusades; Jerusalem
Holy Roman Empire. See also Habsburg dynasty
Latin and political identity, 28, 274, 350
translatio imperii, 153, 350, 447
Holyday, Barten, 210
Homer 105–6, 169, 207, 244, 333, 339, 399, 400, 405
Homeric Hymns, 396
Iliad, 58, 60, 66, 168, 535
Odyssey, 58, 168, 405
Honerdus, Rochus, 113
Honterus, Johannes, 522
Hoole, Charles, 519
Horace, 17, 20, 169, 225, 339, 446, 464, 470, 471, 499
Ars poetica, 112, 218, 225
Epistles, 169, 206, 208
Epodes, 41, 53, 448
Odes, 22, 42, 43, 44, 45, 50, 51–52, 80, 218, 371, 400, 417, 434, 445, 448, 463, 517
Satires, 95, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 206, 210, 218, 400
Horák, Jan, 95
Hosius, Stanislaus, 512
Hossche, Sidronius de, 485
Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim, 88
Huet, Albert, 514
Huguenots, 190, 207, 454. See also France
Huitfeld, Arild, 502
Hume, David, 431, 433
humor. See comedy; satire; wit
Hungarian language
translations from Latin, 404, 519
vernacular works, 195
Hungary, 509–22. See also Hungarian language
historiography, 157, 511, 514, 516
Latin and political identity, 28, 356
represented in literature, 195
Huns, 157, 350
Hutchinson, Lucy, 368
Hutten, Leonard, 94
Hutten, Ulrich von, 206, 355, 446, 450, 453
Huygens, Constantijn, 178, 179, 484
Hyde, Thomas, 569, 570
Hyginus, 64
hymns, 42, 44, 371, 405, 510. See also Bible; Homer
Hyrde, Richard, 367
Iberian peninsula, 270, 300, 461–73. See also Portugal; Spain
reconquista, 270
Iberian Union, 469–70
Ibn Hallikan, Ahmad ibn Muhammad, 287
Icelandic language, translations into Latin, 498, 502–3
Ignatius of Loyola, 59, 113–14, 206, 210, 472. See also Jesuits
illustrations, 201, 271, 289, 291, 481, 519, 526, 564
pictorial textbooks, 519
imitatio, 123, 127, 129–31, 201, 238, 354, 418–19, 429, 447, 464
Inchofer, Melchior, 348
India, 191, 471–72, 557, 558, 561, 564
Inglis, Esther, 368
Inglot, William, 75
Innocent XI (pope), 560
inquisition, 240, 272, 301, 469, 532. See also censorship
inscriptions, 75, 160, 380, 489, 497, 552, 560. See also epitaphs
literary genre, 82, 355
querelle des inscriptions, 28
runic, 502
intertextuality, 321, 428, 429, 447–48, 454
in epic poetry, 58, 60, 64,
in lyric poetry, 51–52
in martyrology, 428
in satire, 210
Intorcetta, Prospero, 559–60, 561, 566–67
Irenaeus, 303
Isabella I (queen of Castile), 367
Isidore of Seville, 104
Islam, 280, 286, 288, 290, 291, 300, 355, 371, 513. See also Muslims
Isocrates, 136
Isselt, Michael von, 488
Istanbul. See Constantinople
Istvánffy, Nicolaus, 512
Italian language, 395–405
models for Latin literature, 62
translations from Latin, 255, 398, 404, 519
translations into Latin, 96, 142, 143, 185, 211, 255, 272–73, 290, 316, 404
Italy, 395–405
concept of nationhood, 350
model of Renaissance humanism, 411–12, 445–46, 477–78, 510–11
schools, 217–29, 371, 387
universities, 237, 238–39, 283–84, 373
Iturriaga, JoséMariano de, 68–69, 529
Iuvencus, 66
Jackson, James, 81
Jacobites, 84, 435
Jagiellonian dynasty, 516
Catherine, 369
James, Saint, 107
James I (king of England; also James VI of Scotland), 159, 189, 240, 319, 433, 436
James II (king of England), 84
Williamite War, 435
Janicki, Klemens, 45, 512, 517
Jansenism, 320
Japan, 2, 557, 568
Jefferson, Thomas, 551
Jerome, Saint, 321, 371. See also Bible
Against Jovinian, 210
Ciceronianism, 16–17
De viris illustribus, 161
editions, 303, 478
letters, 173, 339
Vulgate, 17, 22, 295, 296, 305, 314, 329–30
Jerusalem, 66, 67, 189, 289, 398–99
Jesuits. See also Counter-Reformation; missions, religious; under individual authors
Bollandists, 481
criticism of, 205–6, 210, 320, 436, 532–36
Latin style, 326, 480
litterae annuae, 542–43, 558–59
poetics, 447
poetry, 44, 60, 62, 74, 79, 400, 452, 472, 484–85, 527, 528–29, 547, 570
political thought, 143, 146
ratio studiorum, 114, 126, 242, 400, 448, 528, 557
Relations, 542–44
represented in literature, 59, 68–69, 189, 206, 210, 399, 436, 472, 529
rhetoric, 121, 526, 528
schools, 59, 74, 126, 264, 315–16, 326, 380, 448, 549
textbooks, 447–48, 527
theology 318–20, 321, 473, 546
Jewel, John, 368
(p. 597) Jiménez de Cisneros, Francisco, 462
João Manuel (prince of Portugal), 108, 472
Jogues, Isaac, 543
Johan III (king of Sweden), 496, 497
John II (king of Portugal), 469
John III (king of Portugal), 108
John IV (king of Portugal), 473
John VI (king of Portugal), 527
Johnson, Samuel (author and lexicographer), 434
Johnson, Samuel (Reverend), 550
Johnston, Arthur, 430, 434
Jonson, Ben, 43, 48
Jónsson, Arngrímur, 502
Joseph II (Holy Roman Emperor), 220
Josephus, 308
journals. See academic journals; diaries
Jouvancy, Joseph de, 545
Judaism, 66, 189, 298, 299, 308, 450, 451, 470, 509
Julius II (pope), 203
Junius, Franciscus, 329. See also Bible
Junius, Melchior, 131, 455
Jupiter (Jean de Clacy), 227, 228
Juslenius, Daniel, 502
Justinian I (Byzantine emperor), 162, 412, 413, 414
Pandects, 413, 463
Juvenal, 194, 199–212, 412, 471
in education, 225, 400
imitation of, 82, 95, 186, 241–42, 419, 438
Kabátník, Martin, 512
Kabbalah, 299, 502, 519
Kalm, Pehr, 546, 551
Kant, Immanuel, 261, 498
Kangxi Emperor, 559, 564
Kappel, school of, 329, 338, 340–41
Katharina Ursula (landgravine of Hessen-Kassel), 369
Keckermann, Bartholomaeus, 145
Keller, Jakob, 454
Kepler, Johannes, 179, 267, 285, 511, 520, 521, 563
Ker, Anne, 36
Ker, Robert, 36
Killigrew, Katherine, 368
King, Edward, 244, 431
King, William, 206
Kircher, Athanasius, 455, 558, 563
Kirwitzer, Wenceslas Pantaleon, 561
Kitzscher, Johann von, 107
Klonowicz, Sebastianus, 517
Klose, Ernst Gottlieb, 1
Klotz, Adolf, 485
Knapp, Francis, 436
Kochanowski, Jan, 512, 517
Königsmarck, Maria Aurora von, 370
Krantz, Albert, 158
Krolikiewicz, Jan Maximilian. SeePoninski, Antoni
Kromer, Martin, 159
Kunic, Rajmund, 84
Kyber, David, 272
Labé, Louise, 209, 364, 369
La Brosse, Jean-Baptiste de, 545–46
Lactantius, 104, 303, 348, 478
Laetus, Erasmus, 495, 500, 504
La Fresnaye, Vauquelin de, 210
Lagerlöf, Petrus, 500
Lahontan, Louis Armand de, 546, 552
Lambin, Denis, 415
Lampridio, Benedetto, 43
Lance, William, 552
Landino, Cristoforo, 42, 44, 45, 59, 401
Landívar, Rafael, 62, 528, 534
Landor, Walter Savage, 427, 428, 435, 439
Landsberg, Herrad von, 370
Landshut, War of the Succession of, 65
Lane, Edward William, 289
Lange, Johann Michael, 517
Lanyer, Aemilia, 365
Lapide, Cornelius a, 321
Larousse, Pierre, 382
La Salle, Jean-Baptiste de, 384
Lascaris, Constantinus, 365
Lascaris, Giano, 253, 255, 259
Latin language. See also under scholasticism: scholastic Latin
barbarisms, 22, 253, 257–58, 260, 282, 291, 338
grammar books, 32, 218–27, 334, 339
medieval Latin, 1–2, 13–24, 186, 270, 279, 281–82, 335
spoken, 21, 31–33, 93, 221, 233, 236, 264, 315–17, 369, 498, 513, 553
vocabulary
medieval Latin, 19
Neo-Latin, 22–23, 24
philosophical, 256–58
vulgar Latin, 14–19
Latomus, Bartholomaeus, 485
Latin America, 189, 525–37. See alsoPortuguese language; Spanish language
Brazil, 472, 527, 528, 529
Spanish America
Baja California, 68–69, 529
Mexico, 28, 68, 316, 525, 526, 527, 529–36
Paraguay, 534
Peru, 183, 191, 526, 528, 529, 530, 532
(p. 598) Lauremberg, Johann, 209, 497
Lausanne, Academy of, 336, 337
Laval, François de, 544
law, 452, 526
academic study of, 236, 251, 264, 288, 373, 512
legal oratory, 121, 128, 334
university course, 221, 227, 239, 263
canon, 235, 239, 527
Latin style, 19, 354
legal profession, 30, 91, 128, 202, 204, 239, 400
natural law (ius naturale), 145–46, 467, 506
Roman law, 105, 112, 139, 152, 413–15, 463
Lawrence, John, 551
Lazzarelli, Lodovico, 396, 397
Le Brun, Laurent, 547
Le Comte, Louis Daniel, 565
lectures, 242, 366–67, 412, 461, 527, 545–46
medical, 263, 267–68
on language and literature, 288, 308, 339, 462, 464
pedagogical, 333, 447, 466
philosophical, 145, 263, 271
Ledesma, Miguel, 282
Lee, Edward, 304
Leech, John, 433, 434
Lefaure, Jacques, 561
Lefèvre d’Etaples, Jacques, 241, 304, 415
Lefevre, Tanneguy, 388
Legge, Thomas, 109
Legrand, Antonius, 188
Le Roy, Albert, 203
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 3, 255, 256, 261, 457,
513, 562, 568
Leiden, University of, 211, 267, 287, 480, 481, 482
Leipzig, University of, 80
Le Jay, Gabriel, 96
Lejay, Guy Michel, 308
Le Jeune, Paul, 543
Leland, John, 428, 429, 431
Le Mire, Aubert, 177, 488
Lemnius, Simon, 95, 331, 450, 454
Lenard, Alexander, 195
Leo X (pope), 60, 66, 203, 281, 290, 479
Leo XIII (pope), 405
Leo Africanus, 290–91
Leoniceno, Nicolò, 283
Leonori, Aristide, 317
Lepanto, Battle of, 527
Lernutius, Janus, 484
L’Escot, Pierre, 420
Lessius, Leonardus, 146, 489
Leto, Pomponio, 90
letters, 167–80, 366, 403, 455, 465, 473, 518, 531,562. See also Jesuits: litterae annuae and Relations; under individual authors
guides to letter writing, 127–28, 173, 177, 455, 501
letterbooks, 74–75, 366, 367
letter-essays, 168, 174, 178
satirical, 206, 450
self-fashioning in, 167–69, 171, 174, 176–77
verse letters, 42, 45, 47, 169, 206, 397, 401, 418–19, 445, 452, 455, 497, 498–99, 527
Leuven
Collegium Trilingue, 300, 479
University of, 478
Leverett, John, 550
Levita, Elias, 299
Lewis, John, 553
L’Hospital, Michel de, 206, 420
Libanius, 120
Libens, Jacobus, 483
liber amicorum. Seeautograph books
liberal arts, 119, 124, 126, 339, 447. See also studia humanitatis
trivium, 235, 331, 496
Lilia, Georg, 499
Lilienthal, Michael, 449
Lily, William, 341
Linnaeus, 266, 269, 274, 505, 550–51, 564
Lippi da Colle, Lorenzo, 202, 400
Lipsius, Justus, 479, 511, 513, 518
edition of Seneca, 137
letters, 125, 176–78, 179, Lipsianism, 21, 480, 484
Lovanium, 488
political writing, 135–36, 139–41, 144, 346, 348, 355, 480
Somnium (Satyra Menippea), 196, 205, 210, 480, 487
Stoicism, 176, 177–78, 313, 480
litterae annuae. See under Jesuits
liturgy, 297
bilingual, 32
in China, 560, 569, 570
Greek, 301
Latin, 2, 16, 18, 19, 314, 315, 322, 526, 569, 570
Mass, 314, 493
poetry, 396
vernacular, 314, 493, 569
Livingston, John H., 549
Livy, 151, 153, 154, 324, 349, 471, 487, 535, 565
Loccenius, Johannes, 500
Locher, Jakob, 28, 107, 211, 453
Locke, John, 381, 387
(p. 599) Loeffs, Rodolphus, 478
Logan, James, 550–51
logic
academic study of, 290, 296, 462, 478
controversies, 240–42
Latin terminology, 251–52
in schools, 221, 227–28,
Aristotelian, 227, 237, 331, 334–35, 339, 403, 528
Averroian, 282
Cartesian, 549
Lombard, Peter, 296, 305
Lombardelli, Orazio, 236
London
represented in literature, 47, 432
St. Paul’s School, 125, 341
Longueil, Christophe de, 413
Longinus. See Pseudo-Longinus
Longobardo, Niccolò, 558
Longolius, Christophorus, 21
Longus, 369
López, Baltázar, 528
López de Zúñiga, Diego, 300, 304, 308, 462
Lorichius, Reinhard, 449
Loschi, Antonio, 105, 404
Louis II (king of Hungary and Bohemia), 515
Louis XI (king of France), 415
Louis XII (king of France), 414
Louis XIII (king of France), 191
Louis XIV (king of France), 62, 191
Louis XVI (king of France), 548
Louis XVII (king of France), 548
Lovati, Lovato de’, 13, 21, 104
Low Countries, 34, 74, 80, 88, 173, 203, 477–89.See also Dutch language; Netherlands
Loynes, Antoinette de, 368
Lucan, 58, 67, 225, 352, 427, 435, 436, 505
Lucchesini, Giovanni Lorenzo, 203, 400
Lucian, 187, 200, 355, 402, 453
Dialogues of the Dead, 446
paradoxical encomium, 200, 207, 453
translations into Latin, 3, 206, 478
Lucilius, 199, 200, 203, 207
Lucretia, 403
Lucretius, 58, 368, 436–38, 485
Ludovicus Sanctus of Beringen, 168
Lumley, Jane, 368
Lund, Zacharias, 499
Luther, Martin, 329–42
criticism of, 95, 111, 304, 314–15, 317, 318–19, 450–51, 479
letters, 455
Lutheranism, 112, 126, 160, 204, 304, 330, 331–35, 452, 494–95
poetry, 331–32
theology, 2, 115, 237, 300, 304, 306–9, 450
Tischreden, 29, 331
Luxembourg. See Low Countries
Lwów (Lviv), 521
Ly, André, 570
Lycophron, 413, Lydgate, John, 33
Lyon, 172, 286, 411–12, 417
Lysias, translations of, 171
macaronic writing, 30–33, 92, 99, 207–8, 428, 465, 487. See also bilingualism; multilingualism
Macau, Colégio de Madre de Deus, 565, 569
Machado, Diogo Barbosa, 471
Machiavelli, 90, 142, 143, 162, 346, 471, 480
Machiavellianism, 142–43
Macrin, Salmon, 204, 417, 419
Macrobius, 20, 184
Macropedius, Georgius, 8, 91, 92, 93, 482, 483
Madruzzo dynasty, 59
Magalhães, Gabriel de, 565
Magdalen College School, 32
Magdeburg Centuries, 160, 323, 331
Magdeburg, Mechthild von, 370
Magnus, Johannes, 494, 501
Magnus, Olaus, 494, 501
Magnússon, Árni, 503
Major, Johannes, 450
Major, John, 432
Major, William, 210
Makernesse, William, 81
Makin, Bathsua, 368, 373
Malatesta dynasty, 397, 399
Paola, 365
Sigismondo, 64, 397
Maldonado, Juan, 462, 465, 466, 467
Mal Lara, Juan de, 465
Malpighi, Marcello, 266
Malvezzi, Paracleto, 399
Manardo, Giovanni, 179, 283
Manchu language, 562, 563, 467–68, 567, 570
translations into Latin, 562
translations into Manchu, 570
Manchus, 559. See also China
Manetho, 152
Manetti, Giannozzo, 296–99, 402
Manilius, 58, 67, 427, 438
Manso, Giovanni Armonio, 105
Mantino, Jacob, 281
(p. 600) Mantuan, Battista Spagnoli, 339, 395–96, 398, 463,
464, 471
Manzini della Motta, Giovanni, 105
Manuzio, Aldo, 112,172, 300, 339
Manuzio, Paolo, 176
maps. See cartography Marchina, Marta, 403
Margaret I (queen of Denmark), 504
Margarit, Joan, 467
marginalia, 30–31, 33, 141, 151, 207, 268, 297, 321,
330, 349
Maria of Aragon (queen of Portugal), 367
Maria Manuela (princess of Portugal), 146
Mariana, Juan de, 136
Mariano, Marco Probo, 399
Maria Theresa (archduchess of Austria), 386
Marinella, Lucrezia, 364
Marineo Siculo, Lucio, 157
Marius, Hadrianus, 483
Marot, Clément, 417
Marquets, Anne de, 371–72
Marrasio, Giovanni, 400
Marsuppini, Carlo, 351
Martens, Dirk, 174, 478
Martí, Manuel, 532
Martial, 20, 48, 53, 73, 74, 79, 438, 471
Martianus Capella, 20, 88
Martini, Martino, 559, 560, 563, 565–66, 567
Martirano, Coriolano, 110, 405
Mártires, Bartolomeu dos, 470
Martorello, Baldo, 365
martyrs
martyrology, 321, 323
represented in literature, 44, 88, 97, 98, 111, 114–15, 399, 449, 451, 472, 482–83
Marullus, Michael, 42, 396, 417
Marvell, Andrew, 428, 434
Mary, Virgin, 47, 59, 68–69, 113, 304, 320, 322–23
of Guadalupe, 528–29, 534
Mary I (queen of England), 237
Mary II (queen of England), 84
Mary of Austria (Mary of Hungary), 516
Mary of Burgundy, 477
Masen, Jacob, 98, 447
Masius, Andreas, 299, 308
Massa, Nicolò, 286–87
Massimi, Pacifico, 400
Masson, Jacques, 305, 306
Masters, Thomas, 436
mathematics. See also Euclid; science academic study of, 2–3, 263, 266, 272, 489, 520–22, 561–62
Arabic sources, 257, 270, 283, 284–85, 288, 290
arithmetic, 267, 339, 457
geometry, 265, 339, 521–22
Greek sources, 267, 270
vernacular tradition, 265–66, 272–73
Mather, Cotton, 549, 552
Mather, Increase, 549
Mattioli, Pietro Andrea, 271
Maupertuis, Jean-Baptiste Drouet de, 210
Maurice (Byzantine emperor), 454
Maury, Jean, 211
Maximilian I (Holy Roman Emperor), 65, 355, 453, 517
Maximilian II (Holy Roman Emperor), 511
Maximus, Valerius, 142, 255
Mayans y Siscar, Gregorio, 468
May, Thomas, 67, 427
McCartney, George, 569
Medici dynasty, 272, 395
Cosimo de’, 171
Lorenzo de’, 172
medicine, 263–74
academic study of, 251, 257
debates, 243
dissertations and orations, 457, 551
university courses, 221, 227, 237, 239, 263, 267, 384
anatomy, 209, 267, 287, 373, 489
Arabic sources, 279, 281–82, 283, 285, 287, 288, 290
Chinese, 564
letters, 179
represented in literature, 30, 43–44, 57, 81–83, 201, 204, 207–8, 209, 243, 398, 450
vernacular writing about, 265, 268
Mehmed II (Ottoman sultan), 351
Mehus, Lorenzo, 161
Melanchthon, Philipp, 329–42
educational program, 2, 228, 332–35, 337, 340, 448, 494–95, 496
letters, 455
rhetorical writing, 123, 126, 129, 307, 332–35, 447
theology, 108, 306–7, 332, 341, 450
Melkites, Christian, 287
Melville, Andrew, 52, 427, 435
Mem de Sá, 472, 527
Menander, 94
Menander Rhetor, 499
Ménard, René, 543, 544
Mennander, Fredrik, 506
Mendoza dynasty, 367–68
Diego Hurtado de, 368
(p. 601) Menippean satire. See satire
Mencke, Otto, 562
Mentzel, Christian, 568
Mercator, Gerard, 489
Mercier, Louis Sébastien, 386
Merian, Maria Sibylla, 273
Mersenne, Marin, 421
Messenius, Johannes, 502, 503
Mesue, 279, 282, 283, 288
metaphysics. See philosophy
meter, 41–54. See also Scaliger, Julius Caesar: Poetics
free verse, 82
neglected, 88, 89
polymetra, 42, 499
textbooks, 43, 130–31, 447
Mexico. See under Latin America
Meursius, Johannes, 497, 502
Mey, Guilelmus de, 210
Mezzo, Tommaso, 90
Michelangelo, 172
Michel de Marbais, 227
Micraelius, Johannes, 250
Micyllus, Jacobus, 454
Milan, 155
court literature, 61, 171, 399
Milescu, Nicolae, 569
Miletto Rossi, Checco di, 395
Milich, Jacob, 286, 287
Milne, Alan Alexander, 195
Milton, John, 487
academic career, 47, 235, 243–44, 431
bilingualism, 28, 53–54, 192, 244, 428
Latin poetry, 243–44, 427, 428–29, 431–32, 434
Elegies, 45, 47, 243–44, 428–29, 432
Epitaphium Damonis, 428, 431, 432, 433–34
In quintum Novembris, 243–44, 432, 436
Naturam non pati senium, 243, 437
Ode to John Rouse, 43
Miltopaeus, Martin, 500
Mirandola, Gianfrancesco Pico della, 131, 173
Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della, 173, 249, 252–53, 256, 260, 287, 299, 396
mirrors for princes. See political writing missions, religious
Asia, 321, 326, 557–70
Ireland, 17
Latin America, 68–69, 321, 326, 525–37
Middle East, 288, 290
North America, 541–53
Mitrou, Meletios, 513
mnemonics, 222, 227, 334
Modena, Academy of, 387
modistic grammar.
See under scholasticism
Moerbeke, William of, 112
Mohács, Battle of, 515–16
Moldavia, 513–14
Molière, 30, 115, 380
Molina, Luis de, 146
Mollerus, Henricus, 503
Molza, Tarquinia, 74, 403
Monardes, Nicolas, 268
Monavius, Jacob, 44
Monck, George (Duke of Albemarle), 81–83
Mondoré, Pierre, 420
Monmori Parasitosycophantosophistae
Apochytrapotheôsis, 205
Montagnais language, 546
Montaigne, Michel de, 364, 372
addressee of Latin writing, 204
Essais, 176, 241, 255, 380, 420
Latin education, 109, 236, 240, 241
Montanus, Petrus, 203, 208, 209
Monte, Philippe de, 511
Monteiro, Manuel, 471
Monte Simoncelli, Balduino de, 207
Montenay, Georgette de, 35–36
Montesquieu, 162, 180, 536
Montpellier, University of, 267
Morais, Inácio de, 471
moral philosophy. See ethics;
philosophy: moral
Morata, Olympia, 365, 370, 403
More, Thomas, 2–3, 28, 73–74, 368, 413, 427, 482–83
Utopia, 73, 184, 187–89, 206, 355
Morel, Camille de, 368–69
Morel, Diane de, 368–69
Morel, Jean de, 368–69, 372, 420
Morel, Lucrece de, 368–69
Moretus, Balthasar, 481
Morhof, Daniel Georg, 121, 129, 131, 457
Morison, Samuel, 549–50
Morisot, Claude-Barthélemy, 191
Morocco, 472, 489
Morrell, William, 548
Moscow, 187, 326
Mornay, Philippe de, 30–31
Mosellanus, Petrus, 305
Moulin, Charles du, 354
Moyrac de Mailla, Joseph de, 566
Muhlenberg, Henry, 550–51
Müller, Andreas, 563, 568
(p. 602) multilingualism, 29–37, 251, 259, 431, 519. See also bilingualism; macaronic writing
dictionaries, 31
textbooks, 31–33
Münster, Sebastian, 299–300, 308
Muratori, Ludovico Antonio, 220
Muret, Marc-Antoine, 109, 110, 140, 176, 204, 414, 419, 484
Murmellius, Johannes, 339
music, 172
in education, 339, 561
sacred, 41–42, 51–53, 75, 405
Muslims, 288, 289, 290, 509, 530. See also Islam
Mussato, Albertino, 104–5, 115, 355, 404–5
Myle, Abraham Van der, 488
Nabod, Valentin, 283, 284–85
Nádasdy, Tamás, 516
Nahuatl language, 534
influenced by Latin, 530
translations from Latin, 530
translations into Latin, 532
Naldi, Naldo, 395
Nannius, Petrus, 207, 482, 486
Naogeorgus, Thomas, 95, 109, 110, 115, 204, 450–51, 453
Naples, 155, 397, 402
Academy of, 369
Collegio de’ Sinesi, 569–70
Napoleon, 384
nationalism. See also political writing; propaganda
clerical, 316
criticism of, 174–76
in poetry, 445, 446, 503–5
and Roman empire, 347–48, 350–51
and vernaculars, 274, 411
Native Americans. See Americas
(continents): indigenous peoples natural history, 263, 264, 266, 267, 268–270, 274, 290, 550–51, 564. See also botany;
philosophy; zoology
natural philosophy. See science Nau, Sébastien (or Jean), 210
Navagero, Andrea, 42, 397, 401, 402
Navarre, Marguerite de, 368, 371
Nazareo, Pablo, 530
Nazianzen, Gregory, Saint, 296
Nebrija, Antonio de, 300, 308, 462, 463, 465, 467, 468, 470
Nebrija, Sancho de, 467
Needham, Peter, 195
Nepos, Cornelius, 218
Nero (Roman emperor), 105, 137, 205, 349
Netherlands, 122, 139, 210, 372, 566. See also Dutch language; Low Countries
New Spain. See Latin America
New World. See Americas (continents)
Newton, Isaac, 3, 23, 179, 266, 273, 520, 521
Nicholas V (pope), 151, 296, 351, 402
Nicholas of Cusa, 255
Nicholas of Lyra, 295
Nicolai, Laurentius, 497
Nicolaus the Sophist, 120
Nicocles (king of Salamis), 136
Nifo, Agostino, 249
Nilssøn, Jens, 497
Nîmes, Academy of, 336
Nizzoli (Nizolio), Mario, 21, 403, 416
Noël, François, 567
Nogarola, Giulia, 371
Nogarola, Isotta, 363–64, 366, 403
Nolte, Johann Friedrich, 22–23
Norman, Georg, 503
North America, 2, 7, 74, 135, 541–53. See also English language; French language
New England, 547–53
New France, 541–47
United States of America, 7, 388, 548
Norton, John, 549
Norway, 73, 493, 494–95. See also Scandinavia notaries, 221, 227, 352, 399
novel, novella. See prose fiction
Noviforensis, Johannes, 510
Nugent, Thomas, 22
numismatics, 156, 157, 557
Núñez, Hernan de Toledo, 300, 462
Núñez, Pedro Juan, 121
Nuremberg, 158, 333, 370
Nusser, Balthasar, 453
Oakes, Urian, 550
Oberammergau Passion Play, 109
Oboi, Guwalgiya, 559
Oboi regency, 560
occasional poetry, 42, 449, 498–501, 518
Odasi, Tifi, 207
odes, 83, 171, 434. See also Celtis; Filelfo; Horace; Pindar
Oecolampadius, Johannes, 299
Oláh, Miklós, 514, 515, 516, 520
(p. 603) Olai, Ericus, 501
Oldenburg, Henry, 179
Oliver, Pere Joan, 465
O’Meara, Dermot, 21, 22, 61, 435
Omphalius, Jakob, 354
Opitz, Martin, 446, 452, 455, 456
Oporinus, Johannes, 334, 516
Oppian, 58
Oradea, 520, 521
oratory, 119–31, 403, 486, 528. See also imitatio; schools; universities
and philosophy, 253, 334–35, 404, 405, 478
political, 351–54
progymnasmata, 120, 123, 131, 449, 500, 501
sacred, 122, 403, 526 (see also preaching) satirical, 207
in schools, 218, 222, 224
Oresme, Nicole, 272
oriental studies, 279–91, 299, 308, 480, 505,
557–70. See also Arabic language; Asia
Origen, 303, 304, 305
Orosius, 154
Orphic hymns, 41, 42, 52, 243
Orsini del Balzo, Giovanni Antonio, 399
Orta, Garcia da, 268
Oslo, 497
Osório, Jerónimo, 471, 473
Ostrogothus, Petrus Michaelis, 500
Ottoman empire, Ottomans. See also Constantinople
conflict with Christian Europe, 172, 355, 509, 511, 515
education, 288, 513
represented in historiography, 513
represented in dialogues, 465
represented in literature, 107, 191, 399, 445–46, 451, 453, 527
represented in oratory, 354, 367, 373
represented in travel accounts, 280, 289, 455, 489
Otranto, Battle of, 399
Oudin, François, 62
Overbury, Thomas, 190
Ovid, 45, 372, 400, 455
Amores, 76
Ars Amatoria, 438–39
Epistulae ex Ponto, 47, 244, 418–19, 499
Fasti, 68, 397
Heroides, 401, 445, 497
Metamorphoses, 58, 64, 106, 185, 218, 399, 435
in schools, 224, 337
Tristia, 218, 517
Owen, John, 78, 427, 434
Oxford, University of, 35, 81, 84, 88, 237, 274, 287, 569
anthologies of verse, 35, 81, 431
Balliol College, 210
Christ Church, 94, 95
drama, 90, 94, 109, 110
Pace, Giulio, 518
Pacheco, Francisco, 204, 206, 208–9, 210, 472
Pacheco, Maria, 368
Padua
Accademia degli Infiammati, 253
Accademia degli Recovrati, 373
early humanism in, 13, 104–5, 115, 355
University of, 237, 267, 373, 512
Paganini, Paganino, 286, 287
Pagninus, Sanctes, 298–300
Paiva de Andrade, Diogo, 470, 472, 473
Palencia, Alfonso de, 465
Palingenio Stellato, Marcello, 397–98
Palladius (bishop), 421
Pallini, Girolamo, 210
Pallu, François, 561
Palmireno, Juan Lorenzo, 92, 462
Paludanus, Peter, 305
Paman, Henry, 81
panegyrical writing, 59, 171, 235, 352, 452–54, 499. See also patronage; political writing; propaganda
religious, 69, 371
Pannonius, Janus, 512, 518, 520
Panter, Patrick, 435
Panvinio, Onofrio, 160
Paré, Ambroise, 265
papacy, 95, 110, 153, 160, 347–48, 402, 450–51, 560, 569. See also under individual popes; Vatican
papal curia, 155, 170, 348, 356, 568
Pontifical Academy for Latin, 317
Pappus, 267
Paracelsus, 265
Paraguay. See under Latin America
Parentucelli, Tommaso. See Nicholas V (pope)
Pareus, David, 450
Paris, 411–22