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date: 29 March 2020

(p. xvii) List of Contributors

(p. xvii) List of Contributors

Kristina M. Blackwood is a clinical psychologist who is currently employed by the New Zealand Department of Corrections. She has worked for the past 14 years at a special treatment unit at Auckland Prison, delivering group therapy to men who have sexually offended against children. Her current interests include providing group therapy to men with intellectual disabilities.

Brandy Blasko PhD, joined Sam Houston State University as Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice and Criminology after completing an interdisciplinary Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Departments of Criminology, Law & Society and Psychology at George Mason University. Dr. Blasko worked for a number of years in prisons conducting treatment, assessments, and research with offending populations. Lying at the intersection of criminal justice and psychology, Dr. Blasko’s research focuses broadly on how custodial environments shape interactions and outcomes. Dr. Blasko is currently involved in research on: (1) conditions of confinement; (2) the exercise of discretion in decision making by prison staff and wardens; (3) prisoner suicide; and (4) the therapeutic alliance in the context of sexual offender treatment. As a licensed clinician, her clinical interests and expertise are in the assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of sexual crimes.

James Bonta PhD, is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association, a recipient of the Criminal Justice Section’s Career Contribution Award for 2009, the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, 2012, the Maud Booth Correctional Services Award (2015) and the 2015 Community Corrections Award, International Corrections and Prisons Association. Upon graduating from the University of Ottawa in 1979, Dr. Bonta was the Chief Psychologist at the Ottawa-Carleton Detention Centre, a maximum security remand centre for adults and young offenders. During his 14 years at the Detention Centre he established the only full-time psychology department in a jail setting in Canada. In 1990 Dr. Bonta joined Public Safety Canada where he was Director of Corrections Research until his retirement in 2015. Throughout his career, Dr. Bonta has held various academic appointments, professional posts and he was a member of the Editorial Advisory Boards for the Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice and Behavior. He has published extensively in the areas of risk assessment and offender rehabilitation. Dr. Bonta’s latest publications include a book co-authored with the late D. A. Andrews entitled The Psychology of Criminal Conduct now in its sixth edition (with translations in French and Chinese). He is also a co-author of the Level of Service offender risk-need classification instruments which have been translated into six languages and are used by correctional systems throughout the world.

Calli M. Cain is a doctoral candidate in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska, Omaha. Her primary research interests include the victim–offender overlap, gender differences, corrections, and juvenile delinquency. She has recently (p. xviii) published in Criminal Justice & Behavior, Violence & Victims, Criminal Justice Policy Review, and Trauma, Violence, & Abuse.

Sharon Calci received a B.A. in sociology from the University of Rhode Island, working under the direction of Dr. Leo Carroll while assisting on this essay.

Scott D. Camp PhD, joined the Office of Research and Evaluation at the Federal Bureau of Prisons in the early 1990s. He has worked on major evaluations, such as the use of private prisons by the BOP and the role of faith-based programming in federal prisons. He is currently engaged in research to develop a new risk prediction tool for post-incarceration of federal inmates and to understand the role of employment in risk of incarceration and return to crime after incarceration. The latter project is undertaken in conjunction with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Dr. Camp publishes widely in various academic journals on topics such as affirmative action in prisons, program evaluations, indicators of prison performance derived from behavioral and attitudinal measures, prison-level influences on inmate misconduct and recidivism, and correlates of participation in prison programs.

Robert D. Canning PhD, is a Senior Psychologist with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Since 2005 Dr. Canning has been a suicide prevention subject matter expert for the department and has designed trainings for hundreds of clinicians working in California’s prisons. He is also a member of the American Association of Suicidology for whom he trains mental health clinicians in suicide risk assessment. In the last year he has been a collaborator on a project to develop machine learning algorithms to stratify suicide risk for prison inmates and use as a clinical aid.

Leo Carroll PhD, teaches courses in policing, punishment and corrections, and criminal justice policy at the University of Rhode Island where he also serves as the chair of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. He has authored or co-authored two books and more than thirty articles in professional journals and collections of scholarly works. In recognition of his scholarship, Carroll has served as a Visiting Research Fellow in the Center for Criminal Justice at Harvard Law School, as a fellow at the Economic and Social Research Institute in Dublin, Ireland, and as the George Beto Professor in the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University in Texas. One of his books Lawful Order: Correctional Crisis and Reform was named the Outstanding Book by a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences in 2000. He is also a recipient of the URI President’s Award for Excellence in Teaching.

Aaron Chalfin PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania. He studies criminal justice policy and the economics of crime. His current research portfolio contains a mix of evaluation research and prediction projects that leverage insights from machine learning to guide the efficient allocation of scarce criminal justice resources. His past research has considered the effect of police manpower on crime, the relationship between crime and unauthorized immigration and the cost and deterrent effect of capital punishment. He is also interested in research that advances social science research methods and has written on topics such as measurement errors in observational data and cost-benefit analysis.

Todd R. Clear PhD, is University Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. The author of 13 books and over 100 articles and book chapters, Clear’s most recent book is The (p. xix) Punishment Imperative (with Natasha Frost). He is currently involved in studies of mass incarceration, the criminological implications of “place,” and the economics of justice reinvestment, and college programs in prisons. His work has been recognized through awards given by the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the Rockefeller School of Public Policy, the American Probation and Parole Association, the American Correctional Association, and the International Community Corrections Association. He was the founding editor of the journal Criminology & Public Policy, published by the American Society of Criminology.

Joshua C. Cochran PhD, is an Assistant Professor at the University of Cincinnati, School of Criminal Justice. His research interests include criminological theory, imprisonment, and sentencing. His work has appeared in Criminology, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, and in the book Prisoner Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration (Sage).

Ben Crewe PhD, is Reader in Penology and Deputy Director of the Prisons Research Centre at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. He is currently leading a European Research Council funded study titled ‘Penal Policymaking and the Prisoner Experience: A Comparative Analysis.’ Ben is on the editorial board of the British Journal of Criminology, Palgrave Communications, and the Prison Service Journal. He is an International Associate Board member of Punishment and Society, and is one of the series editors of Palgrave Studies in Prisons and Penology (with Yvonne Jewkes and Thomas Ugelvik).

Scott H. Decker PhD, is Foundation Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. His main research interests are in gangs, violence, and criminal justice policy. He is a Fellow in both the American Society of Criminology and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. He is the author of seventeen books and over 120 scientific articles, including Life in the Gang: Family, Friends and Violence (Cambridge, 1996), Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community (Oxford, 2015), and Policing Immigrants: Local Law Enforcement on the Front Lines (University of Chicago, 2016). He served as a Member of the Missouri Sentencing Commission for ten years and as a member of the Arizona POST Board for five years.

Joel A. Dvoskin PhD, is a clinical psychologist, licensed in the State of Arizona since 1981 and the State of New Mexico since 2005. He has authored numerous articles and chapters in professional journals and texts, including a number of articles that deal with treatment of persons with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Dr. Dvoskin is a member of several expert teams for the Civil Rights Division of the U.S. Department of Justice (USDOJ), focusing on the rights of inmates, detainees, and patients housed in various forms of secure confinement. He frequently provides training to clinicians in the treatment of persons with serious mental illness and/or substance abuse disorders and assessing the risk of violence to self and others.

Natasha A. Frost PhD, is a professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts. She also serves as associate dean for graduate studies in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Her primary research and teaching interests in the area of punishment and social control, with a focus on mass incarceration. Professor Frost has served as a consultant for the Massachusetts State Parole (p. xx) Board, conducted correctional program assessment and recidivism studies for several Massachusetts counties, and continues to work collaboratively with the Massachusetts Department of Correction on research related to officer wellbeing. Professor Frost recently completed a study of the impact of incarceration on crime in communities funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and is currently conducting NIJ funded research on correctional officer stress. In 2016, Frost and her colleague, Carlos Monteiro, were awarded federal funding to study the many impacts of correctional officer suicide, with a specific focus on its impacts on the officer’s families, friends, co-workers and supervisors and on the well-being of those who continue to work in correctional settings.

Paul Gendreau OC, PhD, is Professor Emeritus, University of New Brunswick, New Brunswick, Canada. He has received the Order of Canada for his contributions to the correctional field. He has published over 200 articles on correctional issues primarily in the areas of effective correctional treatment, the prediction of recidivism and the effects of prison life. He was the first researcher to experimentally explore the effects of solitary confinement on offenders.

Claire Goggin PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at St. Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick where she teaches undergraduate courses in research methods and statistics, corrections, and criminal behavior. Research interests include correctional program evaluation, including the effects of imprisonment; empirical research methodologies and statistics, particularly meta-analysis; and knowledge cumulation and transfer. Recent projects include an examination of inscription practices in selected scientific disciplines; a meta-analysis of the effects of imprisonment on offender recidivism and emotional well-being; an examination of the relationship between rates of homicide and capital punishment in Canada between 1920–1949; and a prospective study of the socialization process among police officers.

Deborah Kant is a PhD student at the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University. Her thesis, entitled ‘Under threat? A social and occupational history of prison officers,’ is supervised by Prof. Alison Liebling. Previously, she worked as a research assistant at the Prisons Research Centre, University of Cambridge.

Roy D. King is Emeritus Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice in the University of Wales. From 2004 to 2011 he taught at the Univeristy of Cambridge, Institute of Criminology where he remains a Visiting Research Fellow. His comparative research has focussed on prisons in the UK, the USA, the Netherlands, Russia, Romania and Brazil. He has been an advisor to both the prison service of England and Wales and the US Federal Bureau of Prisons, and has acted as a consultant for both the Council of Europe and Amnesty International. His publications include Albany Birth of a Prison-End of an Era (1977, with Elliot), The Future of the Prison System (1981, with Morgan), Prisons in Context (1994, edited with Maguire), The State of Our Prisons (1995, with McDermott) and Doing Research on Crime and Justice (2000, 2008, edited with Wincup) as well as numerous articles and book chapters. He is currently working on a new analysis of the prison system in England and Wales.

Ryan M. Labrecque PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Portland State University. His research focuses on the evaluation of correctional interventions, the effects of prison life, the development of risk and needs (p. xxi) assessments for community and institutional corrections settings, and the transfer of knowledge to practitioners and policy makers. His work has appeared in Criminal Justice Policy Review; Journal of Crime and Justice; Psychology, Public Policy, and Law; Victims and Offenders; Violence and Victims; and most recently in Corrections: Policy, Practice and Research.

Jodi Lane PhD, is Professor of criminology in the Department of Sociology and Criminology & Law at the University of Florida. She is interested in reactions to crime from both an individual and policy perspective. Her primary research areas include the causes and consequences of fear of crime and juvenile justice and corrections policy. She and colleagues recently authored Fear of Crime in the United States: Causes, Consequences and Contradictions (2014) and Encountering Correctional Populations: A Practical Guide for Researchers (in press, 2018).

Lonn Lanza-Kaduce JD, PhD, has been at the University of Florida for the last 37 years, and has served as a center director, department chair, and undergraduate coordinator. He teaches courses on Law & Society, Introduction to Law Enforcement, Juvenile Law, and Criminal Law and Procedure. His research interests in the areas of law, juvenile justice, policing, and substance use often have a policy and/or theory focus. His grant work and publications have dealt with the transfer of juveniles to criminal court, faith-based juvenile corrections, policing issues, and crime/deviance generally.

Ben Laws is a doctoral candidate in his third year, supervised by Dr Ben Crewe, in the Institute of Criminology at the University of Cambridge. Over the past year he has been collecting data for his ESRC funded study of prisoner emotion (titled: ‘Emotions in prison: an exploration of space, emotion regulation and expression’). He has been investigating the ways in which prisoners regulate and express their emotions under conditions of confinement by using a combination of research methods (through semi-structured interviews and prisoner shadowing). He hopes that his findings will help us to learn more about the emotional ‘survivability’ of different prisons and to assist management and practitioners to ensure that prisons are positive, secure and safe environments for managing offenders.

Alison Liebling PhD, is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Cambridge and the Director of the Institute of Criminology’s Prisons Research Centre. Her most recent research explores the moral quality of prison life, and the changing nature of staff-prisoner and prisoner-prisoner relationships in high security prisons. She was awarded an ESRC–funded ‘Transforming Social Science’ research contract in 2012-14 to explore the location and building of trust in high security settings and is currently writing up that work, with colleagues. Her books include Prisons and their Moral Performance, The Effects of Imprisonment, Legitimacy and Criminal Justice, and The Prison Officer. She is a co-editor of Punishment and Society and the Oxford Clarendon Series on Criminology.

Mona Lynch PhD, is Professor and Chancellor’s Fellow in Criminology, Law and Society and, by courtesy, the School of Law at the University of California, Irvine. Trained as a social psychologist, her research focuses on criminal justice and punishment processes, and on institutionalized forms of bias within legal organizations. Her scholarship has been published in a wide range of journals, law reviews, and edited volumes. She is the author of Sunbelt Justice: Arizona and the Transformation of American Punishment (2009, Stanford (p. xxii) University Press) and Hard Bargains: The Power to Punish in Federal Court (2016, Russell Sage Foundation). She is also co-editor of the journal Punishment & Society.

Sarah M. Manchak PhD, is an assistant professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Her works seeks to inform risk assessment, treatment, and management of offenders and improve efforts to translate empirical research into routine correctional practice. Areas of research interest include offenders with mental disorders, substance addiction, coping with trauma, practitioner-offender/client relationships and criminal justice-treatment agency partnerships.

James Marquart PhD, is Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at Lamar University. One of the nation’s leading experts on prison systems, Dr. Marquart’s extensive academic record includes more than $2 million in funded research activity, 50 presentations, more than 60 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and 7 books. Research and teaching interests include prison organizations, capital punishment, and criminal justice policy. Previous professional activities include service as president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and selection as an academic fellow for the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. He has received the 2005 Bruce Smith Senior Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the Leverhulme Visiting Professorship in 1998 from Queen Mary and Westfield College-University of London, the American Library Association’s Outstanding Book Award for 1995, and the ACJS Outstanding Book Award in 1991.

Paul Mazerolle PhD, is Professor and Pro Vice Chancellor of Arts, Education and Law and the Director of the Violence Research and Prevention program at Griffith University. His research examines processes that shape offending behavior across the life-course. His primary focus is in building knowledge in the area of violence to inform theories, advance understanding, and improve policy and practices to reduce or prevent violence, in particular related to youth violence, intimate partner violence and homicide.

James McGuire PhD, is a clinical and forensic psychologist and Emeritus Professor of Forensic Clinical Psychology at the University of Liverpool. He has worked in intellectual disabilities services and in a high security hospital and has carried out research in prisons, probation services, youth justice, and other settings on aspects of psychosocial rehabilitation. He has conducted psycho-legal assessments for courts, parole and review hearings. He has acted in an advisory capacity for the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, the Correctional Services Advisory and Accreditation Panel, and with criminal justice agencies in a number of countries.

Samara McPhedran PhD, is a Senior Research Fellow in the Violence Research and Prevention Program at Griffith University. Her background is in psychology, and she has worked across a wide range of policy-focused research fields, with emphasis on lethal violence, firearm-related violence, domestic and family violence, and mental health. Before joining Griffith University in 2012, she worked for a number of years in the public sector in a range of research, policy, and program management roles.

Daniel P. Mears PhD, is the Mark C. Stafford Professor of Criminology at Florida State University’s College of Criminology and Criminal Justice. He conducts research on crime and policy. His work has appeared in such journals as Criminology and the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, as well as several books, including Out-of-Control (p. xxiii) Criminal Justice (Cambridge University Press), American Criminal Justice Policy (Cambridge University Press), and Prisoner Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration (Sage).

Robert D. Morgan PhD, is currently the John G. Skelton, Jr. Regents Endowed Professor in Psychology at Texas Tech University. His research and scholarly activities include treatment and assessment of mentally disordered offenders, malingering, and professional development and training issues. His research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Justice, and the Center for Behavioral Health Services & Criminal Justice Research. He has authored or co-authored over 90 peer reviewed publications and book chapters, as well as three books: Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world (3rd ed.), Life after graduate school in psychology: Insider’s advice from new psychologists, and Clinician’s Guide to Violence Risk Assessment. He has provided forensic mental health services at the request of courts, defense, and prosecution, and consults with state and private correctional agencies to inform practice.

Andrea E. Moser PhD, is currently the Director General, Women Offender Sector, Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). She has published several articles and book chapters and has presented at national and international workshops and conferences on a variety of topics related to corrections including offender mental health, addictions, effective correctional programming and radicalized offenders. Recently, Dr. Moser was a member of the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) expert working group that developed the Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalization to Violence in Prison. She was also the recipient of the International Corrections and Prisons Association (ICPA) 2016 Research Award.

Lindsey M. Mueller is a doctoral student in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Her research interests include correctional rehabilitation, institutional corrections (inmate deviance), and program fidelity.

Devon L. L. Polaschek PhD, DipClinPsyc, is a clinical psychologist and professor of psychology in the School of Psychology and the New Zealand Institute of Security and Crime Science, University of Waikato, New Zealand. Her research interests include theory, intervention, and intervention evaluation with serious violent and sexual offenders, family violence, psychopathy, desistance, reintegration, and parole. Devon is the author of more than 110 journal articles, book chapters and government reports, and a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science. Her research has been supported by a decade of funding from the Department of Corrections, in order to develop a better understanding of high-risk violent male prisoners: their characteristics, and what works to reduce their risk of future offending. In 2015, she was the recipient of a Fulbright Scholar Award, which she spent at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, and is the 2016 recipient of the NZ Psychological Society’s Hunter Award for lifetime excellence in research, scholarship, and professional achievement in psychology.

David Pyrooz PhD, is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Faculty Associate of the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. His research interests are in the areas of gangs and criminal networks, incarceration and reentry, and developmental and life course criminology. He received the Ruth Shonle Cavan Young Scholar Award from the American Society of Criminology and New Scholar Award from the Academy of Criminal (p. xxiv) Justice Sciences. His recent research has appeared in Criminology, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and Justice Quarterly.

Nancy Rodriguez PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at the University of California, Irvine. Her research interests include inequality (race/ethnicity, class, crime and justice) and the collateral consequences of mass incarceration. In October 2014, Nancy Rodriguez was appointed by President Barack Obama to serve as the Director of the National Institute of Justice, the scientific research arm of the U.S. Department of Justice.

John Rynne PhD, is Associate Professor and Director of the Griffith Youth Forensic Service. He has extensive theoretical and applied knowledge of Australian and international criminal justice systems, and in particular prison reform. Rynne’s academic qualifications are in psychology and he is a member of the Australian Psychology Society. He is currently undertaking research in applied prison reform and organizational development via ‘through-the-gate’ approaches to prison rehabilitation and community re-entry. Prior to joining academia, John worked in the Queensland criminal justice system for approximately 15 years in management and operational roles in custodial and community corrections.

Paula Smith PhD, is an Associate Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Her research interests include offender classification and assessment, correctional rehabilitation, the psychological effects of incarceration, program implementation and evaluation, the transfer of knowledge to practitioners and policy-makers, and meta-analysis. She is co-author of Corrections in the Community, and has also authored more than thirty journal articles and book chapters. Dr. Smith has directed numerous federal and state funded research projects, including studies of prisons, community-based correctional programs, juvenile drug courts, probation and parole departments, and mental health services. Furthermore, she has been involved in evaluations of more than 280 correctional programs throughout the United States.

Benjamin Steiner PhD, is a professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Dr. Steiner’s research interests focus on issues related to juvenile justice and corrections. He has published more than 80 journal articles and book entries related to these topics. Dr. Steiner’s research has been funded by agencies such as the National Institute of Justice, National Science Foundation, and the American Statistical Association.

Sarah Tahamont PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland. Broadly, her research interests concentrate in three areas: 1) estimating the effects of criminal sanctions on individual outcomes with a particular focus on corrections, 2) examining the theoretical parameters of the criminal career paradigm in the context of a criminal justice career, and 3) research that advances criminological research methods. Her past research characterized the relationship between prison visitation and inmate outcomes and examined the patterns of criminal justice contact that precede a first prison sentence. Her current research includes projects that examine the consequences of errors introduced by matching administrative data, estimate the effect of facility security placement on institutional misconduct, and consider incarceration as a turning point in the life-course.

(p. xxv) Faye S. Taxman PhD, is a University Professor in the Criminology, Law and Society Department and Director of the Center for Advancing Correctional Excellence at George Mason University. She is recognized for her work in the development of systems-of-care models that link the criminal justice system with other service delivery systems, as well as her work in reengineering probation and parole supervision services and in organizational change models. She developed the RNR Simulation Tool ( to assist agencies to advance practice. Dr. Taxman has published more than 195 articles, and many books including Tools of the Trade: A Guide to Incorporating Science into Practice and Implementing Evidence-Based Community Corrections and Addiction Treatment (Springer, 2012 with Steven Belenko). She is co-Editor of the Health & Justice. The American Society of Criminology’s Division of Sentencing and Corrections has recognized her as Distinguished Scholar twice as well as the Rita Warren and Ted Palmer Differential Intervention Treatment award. She received the Joan McCord Award in 2017 from the Division of Experimental Criminology.

Kathleen Thibault MSW, is a Registered Social Worker and Psychotherapist who has worked with incarcerated individuals in Canada. She has also worked as a Policy Analyst, Research Manager and Project Manager in corrections and the criminal justice field specializing in mental health and addictions policy, research and evidence-based program development. Kathleen holds a bachelor of arts degree in psychology from Queen’s University and bachelors and masters degrees in social work from McGill University. Kathleen has completed all-but-dissertation of a doctorate in Health Policy from the University of Toronto.

Chad Trulson PhD, is Professor of Criminal Justice in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of North Texas. Dr. Trulson has worked in various positions in juvenile justice such as a juvenile resident counselor, juvenile detention officer, and a juvenile parole officer. He has published numerous articles in leading criminal justice journals has published four books: Juvenile Justice: System, Process, and Law (Cengage, 2006), First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System (University of Texas Press, 2009), Applied Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology (McGraw-Hill, 2013), and Lost Causes: Blended Sentencing, Second Chances, and the Texas Youth Commission (University of Texas Press, 2016). He also serves as Editor-in-Chief of the highly ranked journal Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice (SAGE).

Jillian J. Turanovic PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University. Her current research examines victimization and offending over the life course, correctional policy, and the collateral consequences of incarceration. Jillian is a Graduate Research Fellow and W.E.B. DuBois Fellow of the National Institute of Justice.

Susan Turner PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at the University of California, Irvine. She also serves as Director of the Center for Evidence-Based Corrections and serves as an appointee of the President of the University of California to the California Rehabilitation Oversight Board (C-ROB). Dr. Turner’s areas of expertise include the design and implementation of randomized field experiments and research collaborations with state and local justice agencies. At UCI, she has assisted the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation in the development and validation of a risk assessment tool as well as evaluations of targeted parole programs. She is also collaborating (p. xxvi) with the Orange County Reentry Initiative to map gaps in local services for offenders returning to the community.

Bert Useem PhD, is Professor of Sociology at Purdue University. He is the coauthor of three books that analyze the cause, course, and consequences of prison riots. Recent articles, in the American Journal of Sociology and American Sociological Review, with Jack Goldstone, develop the idea that theories of revolution can be used to explain prison riots.

Anjuli Verma PhD, is a Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Fellow in Jurisprudence and Social Policy at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research examines punishment, law, and inequality from an interdisciplinary perspective using multiple methods. Anjuli’s work appears in Law & Society Review, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, The British Journal of Criminology, The American Journal of Bioethics and is forthcoming in Sociological Perspectives and The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. In 2018, Anjuli will join the Politics Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz as an Assistant Professor.

John R. Weekes PhD, has worked in the corrections, criminal justice and forensic psychology research communities in Canada and internationally for over 35 years. Currently, he is Director of Research for the Correctional Service of Canada. He is trained as both a clinical and a research psychologist, before earning his doctorate from Ohio University. He is Adjunct Research Professor of Forensic Psychology and Addictions in the Forensic Psychology Research Centre of the Department of Psychology at Carleton University where he teaches and supervises undergraduate and graduate student research. Dr. Weekes is also a research affiliate of the Centre for Forensic Behavioural Sciences and Justice Studies at the University of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Institute for Public Safety Research and Treatment at the University of Regina. He consults widely in Canada and internationally, including in England and Wales, Ireland, the US, and Scandinavia. He is a past Chair of the American Correctional Association’s (ACA’s) Substance Abuse Committee, and served on the ACA’s Best Practices Coordinating Council. Dr. Weekes is a continuing member of the Correctional Services Accreditation and Advice Panel, Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service, Ministry of Justice, UK. He has also served as Chair of the Volunteers of America (Delaware Valley) ad hoc Research Committee. Dr. Weekes is a scientific advisor to the Breaking Free Group – a computer-assisted therapy online service provider based in Manchester, UK. He has published and presented extensively on substance misuse, addictions, forensic psychology, clinical psychopathology, motivational interviewing, evidence-informed treatment, computer-assisted therapy, and treatment-outcome research.

Michael Wheatley M.St., is a qualified social worker and experienced commissioner and practitioner with Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service to lead the Health Team within the Rehabilitation Services Group on prison substance misuse provision. In this role he works with Government Ministers, other Government departments, other HMPPS directorates, prison Governors, local health commissioners and service providers to support the design, development and implementation of bespoke substance misuse services. Currently, Michael is embedded into HMP Holme House leading on the development of a Drug Recovery Prison concept. Previously, Michael was a senior manager responsible for delivering, co-ordinating and supporting the commissioning of interventions designed to reduce reoffending in high security prisons. He has also worked as a community probation (p. xxvii) officer. Michael holds a bachelor of arts degree in Applied Social Studies, a Certificate in Qualified Social Work from Sheffield Hallam University and a Master of Studies in Applied Criminology, Penology and Prison Management from Cambridge University.

Amber Wilson received a B.A. in sociology from the University of Rhode Island, working under the direction of Dr. Leo Carroll while assisting on this essay.

Nancy Wolff PhD, an economist and distinguished professor, is the director of the Bloustein Center for Survey Research and former director of the Center for Behavioral Health Services & Criminal Justice Research (NIMH funded from 2002-2014) at Rutgers University. Since 1995, she has increasingly focused on public policies and justice practices that influence the incarceration and rehabilitation of justice-involved people. Her work has focused on the prevalence of trauma among incarcerated men and women and its effective treatment. Dr. Wolff spends two days a week at prisons in Pennsylvania and New Jersey teaching and leading reading and skill-building groups. She is the founder of Books Behind Bars, a prison-based literacy program, for which she received a Russell Berrie Award for Making a Difference in 2008.

John Wooldredge PhD, is a professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. His research and publications focus on institutional corrections (crowding, inmate crimes and victimizations) and criminal case processing (sentencing and recidivism, and micro- versus macro-level extralegal disparities in case processing and outcomes). He is currently involved in an NIJ funded study of the use and impacts of restrictive housing in Ohio prisons (with Josh Cochran), and in projects focusing on prison program effects on subsequent misconduct during incarceration and post-release recidivism, and extralegal disparities in prison sanctions imposed for rule violations.

J. Stephen Wormith PhD, is a professor in the Psychology Department and Director of the Centre of Forensic Behavioral Science and Justice Studies at the University of Saskatchewan. He has worked as a psychologist, researcher, and administrator in both federal and provincial correctional jurisdictions in Canada. His research interests include offender risk and psychological assessment, offender treatment, sexual offenders and crime prevention. Dr. Wormith is on the editorial board of three criminal justice journals, is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), and represents CPA on the National Associations Active in Criminal Justice (NAACJ). In 2015, he received the Edwin I. Megargee Distinguished Contribution Award from the International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.

Emily M. Wright PhD, is a professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Her research involves neighborhoods, intimate partner violence, victimization, exposure to violence, and female offenders. Her research has appeared in Criminology, Child Abuse & Neglect, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and Trauma, Violence, & Abuse.

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