- Series Information
- The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment
- List of Contributors
- The Imprisonment Boom of the Late Twentieth Century: Past, Present, and Future
- Who Goes to Prison?
- Mass Incarceration and Conditions of Confinement
- Exploring Imprisonment across Cross-National Contexts
- Theories of Mass Incarceration
- Subcultural Adaptations to Incarceration
- The Real Gangbanging Is in Prison
- Women in Prison
- Impact of Incarceration on Families and Communities
- The Two Cultures: Correctional Officers and Key Differences in Institutional Climate
- Measuring and Explaining Inmate Misconduct
- Prison Riots
- Drugs and Prisons
- A General Model of Harm in Correctional Settings
- Understanding the Contours of Prison Disciplinary Procedures
- The Effects of Administrative Segregation: A Lesson in Knowledge Cumulation
- A Comparison of British and American Policies for Managing Dangerous Prisoners: A Question of Legitimacy
- Adult Offender Assessment and Classification in Custodial Settings
- Principles of Effective Intervention with Incarcerated Offenders
- Employment and Vocation Programs in Prison
- Treating Sex Offenders in Prison
- The Multiple Faces of Reentry
- Implementing Prison-based Treatment Programs
- Preventing Suicide in Detention and Correctional Facilities
- Offenders with Mental Illness in Prison
- The Problem of Incarcerating Juveniles with Adults
- The Effect of Prisons on Crime
- Private Prisons in a New Environment
- Policy and Program Innovations in Prisons
- Useful versus Harmful Prison Policies
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter compares confinement conditions in American prisons today to those in the mid- to late twentieth century, and the reasons for this evolution. Other topics considered include changes in (a) inmate rights and privileges, (b) priorities placed on safety and management, (c) program availability, and (d) managerial controls over inmates (both coercive and remunerative). Also provided is an overview of improvements in prison architecture and technology (e.g., the construction of smaller prisons with heavier reliance on electronic surveillance) and of the movement to “professionalize” correctional officers. Important themes include the negative impact of rising prison populations on the delivery of medical and mental health services; the worsening physical health of prisoners; and greater use of long-term administrative segregation despite its possible influences on mental and physical deterioration.
Leo Carroll PhD, teaches courses in policing, punishment and corrections, and criminal justice policy at the University of Rhode Island where he also serves as the chair of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. He has authored or co-authored two books and more than thirty articles in professional journals and collections of scholarly works. In recognition of his scholarship, Carroll has served as a Visiting Research Fellow in the Center for Criminal Justice at Harvard Law School, as a fellow at the Economic and Social Research Institute in Dublin, Ireland, and as the George Beto Professor in the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University in Texas. One of his books Lawful Order: Correctional Crisis and Reform was named the Outstanding Book by a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences in 2000. He is also a recipient of the URI President’s Award for Excellence in Teaching.
Sharon Calci received a B.A. in sociology from the University of Rhode Island, working under the direction of Dr. Leo Carroll while assisting on this essay.
Amber Wilson received a B.A. in sociology from the University of Rhode Island, working under the direction of Dr. Leo Carroll while assisting on this essay.
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