Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 25 February 2020

(p. 781) Index

(p. 781) Index

Abe Masao, 67, 247–48, 261–66, 378–79
“Spirituality and Liberation: A Buddhist-Christian Conversation (with Paul F. Knitter),” 264
“Evil, Sin, Falsity, and the Dynamics of Faith,” 264
Zen Buddhism and (see Zen Buddhism)
the absolute, 186, 192–94, 423, 433, 435–36, 438–42, 554–55, 709 See also nothingness
absolute dialectics. See dialectic
absolute mediation (zettai baikai), 374, 438, 440–2
absolute non-articulation (zettai mubunsetsu), 553
absolute nothingness. See nothingness, place
absolutely contradictory self-identity. See contradictory self-identity
action-intuition (kōi-teki chokkan), 375, 379, 381, 389–90, 404–13, 576n3, 774
aesthetics, 40, 69, 353–54, 360, 380, 633, 646, 735–51
aesthetic ideal of National Learning, 120
analytic, 39n131
Ainu, 741–43
bushidō, 321, 326
Butō (avant-garde form of dance), 748
categorical, 735, 737–38, 741, 743–44, 748
of fascism and war, 744–45
Fenollosa, Ernest, 345
feminist, 740–41
of the floating world, 523
furusato (hometown, native village), 744, 749
haikyo (abandoned places), 749
iki (Edo aesthetic of the pleasure quarters), 308n1, 524–28, 744–45n47
kawaii (darling, cute), 750
moe (euphoric response to fantasy characters), 750
mono no aware (pathos of things), 46, 117, 736, 747
meta-aesthetics, 738
military aesthetic, 315–16
“modern aesthetics” and “Western aesthetics” as tautologies, 40
philosophy as aesthetic experience, 16
post-atomic and post-modern, 748–49
somaethetics, 35n116
translation and appropriation of, 40, 352n62
wabi sabi (rustic simplicity), 47, 736n4, 738
yūgen (mystery and depth), 736n4, 746
Zen, 697
Zen and war, 746–47
agency (shutaisei), 448, 592–96, 599–604, 608, 704n81
agent (shutai), 352, 448
aidagara, awai. See betweenness
Aikidō, 324, 729–31
Ainu, 735, 738, 740, 741–43
Aizawa Seishisai, 287–88
Akitomi Katsuya, xv, 367
akunin jōbutsu (the attainment of supreme awakening by the person who is evil), 159
ālaya-vijñāna. See consciousness
Amaterasu, 93, 104–8, 280
Amida Buddha. See Buddha
Ammonius, 32
Anastaplo, George, 33
(p. 782) Ancient Learning (kogaku), 291–305, 353n68, 701
ghosts and spirits, 301–4
invention (sakui) over nature (shizen), 297, 687n7, 702–4
opposition to Neo-Confucianism, 291
opposition to Zhu Xi school’s emphasis on rational principle over generative force, 292, 358
relation to bushidō and national ethics, 295–96 See also Confucianism
Aoki Yayoi, 625
Aquinas, Thomas, 18, 334n2, 565
Arai Hakuseki, 280, 563
Arendt, Hannah, 643
Arisaka, Yoko, xv, 755, 758n6, 760n11, 761n12, 764n187, 771n42, 774n50
Aristotle, 8, 13, 32–33, 35, 83, 87, 94, 334, 357, 403, 432, 436n24, 552, 584n17, 658–59
Nishida Kitarō and, 397–401
argumentation, 14–16, 18–19, 21, 23n68, 25, 41, 86–87, 92, 114
by allocation, 84–88, 91, 94–95
Dōgen and, 219–20
Fukuzawa Yukichi and, 341, 344
A History of Disputations in Japanese Thought, 14–15
by hybridization, 84–85, 87–88, 94–95
Inoue Enryō and, 359
Ōnishi Hajime and, 340
by reductio ad absurdum, 86
by refutation, 15, 86–88, 93–95
by relegation, 15, 46, 84–88, 94–95 see also logic
articulation (bunsetsu), 553–57. See also absolute non-articulation
Asada Akira, 768–69
Asakura Tomomi, 3n6, 13–14n40
Ast, Friedrich, 30
ātman. See self
Augustine, 18, 438, 565
Austin, J. L., 237, 237n16
Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna, 136, 558
autonomy, 347, 461, 517
absolute autonomy (zettai jiritsu), 259–60
postwar debates over, 591–609 See also agency
Bankei Yōtaku, 67, 248, 254–55
Barnhill, David Landis, 694
Barth, Karl, 162, 434, 564, 566, 569
Bashō. See Matsuo Bashō
Beaney, Michael, 26n77
being-in-the-world (in-der-Welt-sein), 51, 379, 419, 476, 491, 504, 507–8, 510, 515
Bellah, Robert, 515n45
Bergson, Henri, 18, 394–96, 411, 437n28, 459n88, 524, 579
Berlin, Isaiah, 594, 609, 698, 608, 698, 698n51
Bernasconi, Robert, 20, 29, 36–37
Berque, Augustin, 508–9, 509n24, 511, 515–17, 519, 768
betweenness (aidagara, awai), 503–14, 518, 587, 633–36, 642, 646, 653–65, 682, 724, 768. See also dualism and nondualism
Biran, Maine de, 407–8
The Blue Cliff Records (Ch. Biyanlu; Jp. Hekiganroku), 216, 234–36
Blocker, H. Gene and Christopher L. Starling, 4–5, 7, 41n141, 46n156, 48
bodhisattva, 134–35, 137, 170, 172–73, 184, 495–96, 797
bodhisattva precepts, 129–35
Dharmākara, 160, 170, 174, 184, 190, 194–98
Hotei (Ch. Budai), 495n30
Kannon, 88, 92, 178 See also Pure Land Buddhism
Bodhidharma, 202, 222, 232, 243
body (karada, shintai, shin, mi), 326, 408, 419, 450–51, 456, 459–61, 468, 481, 514, 517, 519, 532, 627, 635, 696, 710, 713, 774
body-mind (shinjin), 208–10, 699 (see also dropping off the body-mind)
body scheme, 576, 579–82
corporeality, 638
cultivation of, 729 (see also self-cultivation)
embodiment, 509–11
embodiment of the aesthetic of iki, 524–25, 528
(p. 783)
embodying the ethic of Neo-Confucianism, 286
embodying a kōan, 241
embodying a specific philosophy of life, 310, 326n67
expressively active historical, 408
female, 613
Kūkai’s conception of, 146–50
as locus of subjective autonomy, 746
manifesting (shingen), 223
national (see national polity)
oneness of body–mind (see Dōgen Kigen)
social (shakaiteki shintai), 451, 461, 511
this very body is Buddha, 154, 616
Yuasa Yasuo’s theory of embodiment, 575–88 See also dualism and nondualism, Buddha
Book of Changes (Ch. I Ching, Yijing), 274, 280, 298, 302–3, 534, 555
Brahman, 553–54, 709
Brucker, Johann Jakob, 30
Buddha, 11, 22n66, 32, 137, 729
Adaptation Body, 437n25
becoming a Buddha, 202
Buddha enters me and I enter Buddha (nyūga ganyū), 149, 154–55
Buddhahood, 130–35, 137, 139, 143, 148–49, 154, 160, 170, 176
Buddha-mind, 173, 175–77, 254 (see also the Unborn)
Cosmic, 148, 183
Dainichi (Mahāvairocana), 146–55
Dharma Body (Sk. Dharmakāya; Jp. hosshin), 146–52, 54–56, 173, 210, 481n65, 554
Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), 160–61, 176, 187, 202, 273
sokushinjōbutsu (becoming a Buddha in this very body), 148, 154
Supreme Buddha is formless, 175, 708
tathāgatagarbha (Jp. nyoraizō), 148–49
wisdom-compassion of, 162–64, 166–67, 170, 172–74, 177, 699 (see also compassion, wisdom)
Buddha-lands, 165, 167, 174. See also Pure Land Buddhism
Buddha-nature (busshō), 47, 131–36, 148, 152, 154, 161, 175, 177, 202, 206–7, 217–18, 220–28, 262, 707, 713, 727
no-Buddha-nature (mu-busshō), 210, 221, 224
Buddhism,
Buddha Dharma (buppō), 41, 63, 201, 203, 206–8, 228, 690n14
Buddha Way, Buddhist path (butsudō), 41, 63, 138, 141, 159, 161, 172, 176, 178, 186, 201, 203–5, 207–8, 607
Buddhism and the Relational Worldview, 653n8
bushidō and, 67, 523–24
Chinese, 6, 86, 219, 465n1
Confucianism and, 3n6, 49, 84–85, 89–95, 112, 273–74, 277, 280–83, 293, 299, 307, 719, 721, 724, 726
Critical, 48n163, 69n217
dialogue with Judaism and Christianity, 261–62, 264, 382
doctrinal classification, 131
East Asian, 10n28, 15, 258n57, 486
embodied practice of, 22n66, 34 (see also self-cultivation)
esoteric, 86, 95, 129, 131–32, 147n4, 148, 152, 208, 486, 555, 584, 586, 757
history of Buddhist thought, 160, 192, 194, 164, 175–76, 203–6, 232n2, 242, 264
Huayan (Jp. Kegon), 86, 131, 150, 207n22, 210n31, 359, 480, 681
importation/appropriation of, 7–8, 47n157, 63, 97, 334
interconnected event ontology of, 686n3 (see also interdependent origination)
Izutsu Toshihiko and, 552–57, 559
Japanese, 5–6, 22, 127, 133, 138, 148, 185, 248, 707
Japanese Christian thought and, 568–70, 573
Kuki Shūzō and, 523–24, 527, 532, 535, 539–40
Kyoto School and, 369, 372, 377–80, 382
logic/rationality in, 18, 22, 21n62, 46n156, 87n5, 235–37, 340, 344
(p. 784)
Madhyamaka, 204, 557
Nakamura Hajime and, 543–44, 546–47
National Learning and, 112, 117
Nishida Kitarō and, 417, 428, 766 (see also Zen Buddhism)
Nishitani Keiji and, 465–66, 468–69, 476, 480–81 (see also Zen Buddhism)
one vehicle (Jp. ichijō; Sk. ekayāna), 132–33
presented as philosophy (or not), 9, 14, 17–18, 43, 355–62, 758
presented as religion, 38, 38n128
rejection of both nihilism and substantialism, 204
Shingon, 15, 66, 86, 129, 145–56, 359, 486, 553–54, 557, 586, 747 (see also Kūkai)
Shintō and, 49, 84–86, 89–95, 97–98, 719, 721, 726, 767
soteriological efficacy of nature in East Asian, 707
Tanabe Hajime and, 431–33, 435–39, 442–44
Tiantai/Tendai, 48n163, 66, 85–86, 129–43, 150, 159, 182, 204–5, 558, 569, 747
Ueda Shizuteru and, 486, 493–97 (see also Zen Buddhism)
Watsuji Tetsurō and, 503–4, 510, 512, 514, 519
as a Western concept, 41
Yogācāra, 132, 146, 194, 195n22, 198, 355, 555
Yuasa Yasuo and, 584–87
Buddhist sutras
Āgama sutras, 131
Diamond Sutra, 248, 250
Flower Garland Sutra (Avatamsaka Sūtra), 131, 146, 207n22, 535, 653n8
Heart Sutra, 145, 151, 204, 428n31
Lotus Sutra, 86, 92, 95, 130–32, 134, 160
Mahāvairocana sutra, 147, 152
Mahāyāna sutras, 215
Milindapanha Sutra, 532
Mountains and Rivers Sutra (see Dōgen Kigen)
Nirvana Sutra (Mahāyāna Parinirvāna Sutra), 131, 136, 207, 223
Perfection of Wisdom Sutras (Prajnāparamitā sutras), 131, 160, 250
Platform Sutra, 432n5
Pure Land sutras, 164, 184, 540
Queen Śrīmālā Sutra, 91–92
The Sutra of Brahmā’s Net, 131
Larger Sutra of Eternal Life (Sutra of the Land of Bliss), 160, 167, 169–70, 172, 175, 184, 194 (see also Pure Land Buddhism)
Vimalakīrti Sutra, 92, 131
budō (martial ways), 309n5, 311–12, 317n39, 322–25. See also bushidō, self-cultivation
bunmei kaika (civilization and enlightenment), 342. See also civilization, Enlightenment
bushidō (Way of the Warrier, Way of the Samurai), 67, 85n2, 271, 276, 295, 307–26, 350, 353n68, 523–24, 527, 564, 714n121
Bushidō zensho (Collected Works of Bushidō), 311–12, 312n19, 318, 320, 323n61, 324–25
Calichman, Richard, 66n211, 69n218, 342n28, 368n10
Carter, Robert E., xv, 39n133, 505n7, 506, 513n38, 691n17, 700, 719, 727n20, 736n4, 746n53
causality, 21n62, 22, 223, 226, 253–54, 262, 354, 686, 692
chance. See contingency
chaos, 24n70
cycle of order and disorder, 108–9
Oktoberfest, 492
political/social, 113, 285, 287, 299
primordial, 99, 102, 553–54, 586
Chen Beixi, 284–85, 300–4
The Meanings of Human Nature and Principle, 284, 300–2
(p. 785) Chinkon-sai, 106–7
Christianity, 6, 24n69, 49, 239, 339, 353, 552, 615, 689, 726, 756–57
Buddhism and, 248, 262, 264, 382, 568–70, 615n7
cosmogony and mythology, 99–102, 104, 107–8
dualism of body/soul or flesh/spirit, 577n4, 705
interfaith dialogue, 248, 261–62, 263–64, 382
Japanese Christian philosophy/theology/thought, 68, 563–73
love one’s neighbor, 720, 722
missionaries, 8, 8n22, 334, 563, 757
Mukyōkai (No-Church movement), 564
mysticism, 486, 497, 708, 710n104 (see also Eckhart, Meister)
nihilism and, 377
as paradigmatic religion, 37–38
persecution of, 334
Marxist socialism and, 566–67
Neo-Confucianism and, 67, 279
Pure Land Buddhism and, 162
Shintō and, 99–108, 615n7
Tanabe Hajime and, 431–45
theology of, 6n18, 9n24
as unscientific, 356
Zen Buddhism and, 378n50, 571, 691, 692n24 See also God
chthonic dialectic, 107–9
civilization (bunmei), 113, 545, 547
Asian, 273
clash of civilizations, 60n201
concept of, 60n201
Fukuzawa Yukichi on, 340–45
Inoue Enryō on, 361
Katō Hiroyuki on, 349
Mori Arinori on, 337
Nakamura Hajime on, 547–48
Ogyū Sorai and, 296
opposition to nature, 46–47n156, 696n41
outside logocentrism, 13n39
Western, 567, 571, 756, 758, 759n9
world-civilization, 768 See also culture, developmentalism
classicism. See National Learning
climate. See fūdo
coenesthesis, 579–82
colonialism, 564, 743
anticolonial critique/movements, 759, 770
colonial gaze, 737
decolonized world order, 771, 775
European imperialism and, 756, 759, 762, 764, 772
intellectual/hermeneutical, 12n34, 41
Japanese colonialization of Korea and Manchurai, 763–64, 769
Nishida/Kyoto School and, 765
neo-colonial arrogance, 761
neo-colonial global geopolitics/context, 756, 770
neo-colonial world order, 771
postcolonialism, 18
community, 112, 124, 526n10, 571, 595–96, 620, 624, 714, 726, 736, 744, 765
Ainu, 742–43
divided postwar intellectual, 594
Japanese emphasis on, 720, 724
Kyoto School as a community of thought, 375, 440
Miki Kiyoshi on imagined, 453, 458–59
poetry and community in National Learning, 111–12, 122–25
Hiratsuka Raichō and, 625
Watsuji Tetsurō and, 510, 512, 515, 518, 724–25 See also betweenness, individual
communism. See Marxism
compassion (hi, jihi), 91, 130–31, 131, 182, 170, 177–78, 253, 441, 486, 496, 628, 726–29, 775
compassionate return to the relative, 439, 441, 443
conjunction of wisdom and, 162–64, 166, 172, 177, 252, 690
freedom/spontaneity and, 708, 712, 714, 719, 722, 727, 733
Kannon, bodhisattva of, 88, 92, 178
Ōhashi Ryōsuke on, 380 See also bodhisattva
Comte, August, 338, 758n7
(p. 786) conditioned co-arising. See interdependent origination
Confucianism, 273
benevolence (Ch. ren; Jp. jin), 722
Buddhism and, 3n6, 18, 49, 84–85, 89–95, 112, 235, 273–74, 277, 280–83, 293, 299, 307, 372, 719, 721, 724, 726, 738
bushidō and, 308, 311n14, 312, 318–19
Christianity and, 279–80
Confucius Sinarum Philosophus, 274–75
Dutch Studies and, 335, 337, 346
Five Classics, 274
five relationships, 526, 724
Four Books, 274, 278–79
iki and, 527
importation/appropriation of, 5–6, 48–49, 83, 93–95, 273, 334, 703
harmony, 526n10
history and, 7–8, 273–74, 291, 298
Japanese, 67, 271, 276–77, 292, 295, 297, 335, 350, 356, 353–54, 687, 701
mandate of heaven, 93–94
modern critiques of, 304–5, 340–41, 344–6, 701n67, 702–4
metaphysics, 112, 115, 120, 123, 280–81, 283, 285, 293, 701
Neo-Confucianism, 47, 273–89, 480, 553, 554, 557
New Confucianism, 13n40
practical learning (jitsugaku), 286–88
presented as philosophy (or not), 9, 14, 17, 41, 43, 274–77, 350–51, 758
presented as religion (or not), 38, 38n128
rectification of names (Ch. zheng ming; Jp. seimei), 299, 556–57
Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsilu) 283, 288
terms used to translate Western thought, 4, 5n11, 289, 335, 337–39, 352–53
Watsuji Tetsurō and, 724
Way of Heaven (tendō), 700–3 (see also heaven)
women and, 288
Confucius, 11n33, 22n66, 90, 92, 273, 299–301, 319, 356, 722, 733
Analects, 281, 299–300
consciousness, 339, 358, 460, 466, 582, 653
aesthetic as a phenomenon of, 525, 528
the athematic as that which does not appear to, 637
ālaya-vijñāna (storehouse consciousness), 194–97, 556, 558
brain and, 358
consciousness that is conscious (ishiki suru ishiki), 401–3
cosmic unconsciousness, 255
Cartesian, 644
Dharmākara-consciousness, 198
Daoism and transformed states of, 585
ego-consciousness, 580
fallible, 354
historical, 355, 594, 600, 703–4
historical materialism and value, 593, 595–97, 599
Indian Buddhist theories of, 358
individual and beyond, 723, 725, 730, 744
Izutsu Toshihiko on, 550, 552–558
kinesthetic, 638
meditative states of, 239
mythical, 101–2, 107, 109
Nishida Kitarō on, 391–93, 397–43, 405, 407–9, 420–21, 426
Nishitani Keiji on the field of (ishiki no ba), 466, 469–70, 472, 479–82
as one of six elements, 147
political, 297, 607
possessor of, 56
postwar, 592, 601, 604, 607, 609
pre-reflective, 651
pure, 195, 239
(p. 787)
religious/mystical, 177, 614–15
self-consciousness, 225, 238, 421, 433, 597, 696, 736
Tanabe Hajime on, 433, 437
Ueda Shizuteru on, 490
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 506–7, 511, 514
worldviews and, 756
Clarke, J. J., 11n33
contingency (gūzen-sei), 523, 529–40
categorical contingency, 530–32
chance encounter, 535–40
disjunctive contingency, 531, 535
hypothetical contingency, 530, 532–34 See also fate
contradictory self-identity (mujun-teki jiko-dōitsu), 21n62, 252, 412, 423, 588, 725
Critical Buddhism, 48n163, 69n217
Critchley, Simon, 20, 27, 64n209
culture
cross-cultural dialogue, 54–58, 57, 61, 264, 770n39
cross-cultural philosophy, 23n67–68, 29, 43n144, 53n181, 54, 54n186, 55–58, 261, 263–64, 689, 770n39
cultural essentialism, 61, 761–63, 765
Japan as a musical, 5
as singulare tantum vs. plurality of cultures, 60n201
modern concept of, 60n201
multiculturalism, 459, 756, 770–71
Curley, Melissa Anne-Marie, xv, 379n52, 447
Cusanus, Nicolaus, 639
Cutrofello, Andrew, 25n72
Dahui Zonggao, 218, 220–21, 227
Dainichi Nyorai (Mahāvairocana Buddha), 146–55
Dale, Peter, 44n151, 308n1, 763n16, 766
Dalissier, M., Y. Sugimura, and S. Nagai, 10n28
Danto, Authur, 642
Daodejing. See Laozi
datsu-a nyū-ō (escape Asia and enter Europe), 17
Davis, Bret W., xvi, 1, 201, 244, 247n1, 266, 413, 505, 509n24, 517–18, 685, 756n1, 764n18, 771, 775n54
death, 572, 578, 711, 749
between life and, 654–55
biological, 580
bushidō and, 312–13, 317–19, 323–24
Dōgen on, 482
The Death of Nature, 695
of ego, 187, 479
fascist aesthetics and, 745
Great Death in Zen (daishi), 691, 473, 691
great matter of life and, 251, 465
Hakuin on, 479
Heidegger on, 472, 475, 505n11
Hiratsuka Raichō on, 616
looking at old art works as a matter of life and, 748
Japanese thinking on, 572
Kuki Shūzō on, 523, 529, 537
mortality/immortality, 34n112, 53, 339, 470, 474–75, 487, 577n4, 669, 711
National Learning and, 116–17
Nishitani Keiji on, 465–67, 470–82
no-death, 204, 251
philosophy as a matter of life and, 36, 465
philosophy as training for, 32, 34
A Philosophy of Death (Tanabe Hajime), 374
Pure Land Buddhism and, 171, 173–74, 177
samsāra as cycle of birth and, 135, 178, 193, 203–4, 223, 227, 251, 254–55, 469, 568
Shintō and, 102–3, 105–9
Tanabe Hajime on, 436, 442n48
Zhuangzi on, 467
deconstruction, 13, 512, 633, 654, 761, 767, 769
Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari, 24n70, 750n70
dependent origination. See interdependent origination
Derrida, Jacques, 13, 25n72, 41, 47n156, 341, 654–55, 769n36
(p. 788) Descartes, René, 3n6, 56, 240, 278, 336, 669, 686, 695, 705
Nishida Kitarō and, 56–57, 406–8
Ueda Shizuteru and, 487–88, 490
Yuasa Yasuo and, 576–78, 588
desire, 18n54, 140, 450, 676
able to follow his heart’s desire (Confucius), 733
Dōgen on, 205, 208
do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire (Confucius), 722
egoistic, 694, 701, 711, 730
for happiness, 348, 461
Hisamatsu Shin’ichi on, 256, 258
Hiratsuka Raichō on, 621–22, 625
Miki Kiyoshi on, 449–51, 457–58, 461
natural freedom and, 691, 698
for a new social whole, 598
Nishida Kitarō on, 409
Nishitani Keiji on, 470, 474
for permanence, 46–47
philosophy as desire for wisdom, 3n6, 35
Pure Land Buddhism on, 169, 177–78, 193
Tiantai/Tendai Buddhism on, 139–43
women and, 518, 625
Yuasa Yasuo on, 585
Deussen, Paul, 355
developmentalism, 756, 765
Dewey, John, 53
dharma rationale (hōri), 235
Dharmākara. See bodhisattva
Dharmakāya. See Buddha
dharmic naturalness. See naturalness
Dharma-nature (hosshō), 161, 173–74
dialectic
absolute, metanoetic dialectic, 438, 442
chthonic dialectic, 107–9
dialectical theology, 259, 434
dialectics of self and world, 493
Dōgen and, 221
Hegelian, 193, 353, 359, 438
historical narrative and conceptual meaning, 177
Inoue Tetsujirō on, 292, 353
Nishida Kitarō on, 373, 390, 405, 407, 411, 417, 709n104, 760, 763–65, 770–75
Nishitani Keiji on, 699
Tanabe Hajime on, 374, 436–38, 442
Umemoto Katsumi on, 597–98
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 506–7, 518
Zen logic of is/not and, 250
Zhuangzi and, 427n29
dialogue
Buddhist-Christian, 261–62, 264, 382
cross-cultural, 54–58, 57, 61, 264, 770n39
East-West, 369, 372–73, 376–77, 379, 382
interfaith, 248, 261–62, 263–64, 382
intrafaith, 248, 262
Kyoto School with Western philosophy, 369, 372–73, 376–77, 379, 382
dictionaries/lexicons, 2–4, 16, 235, 276, 284, 289, 295, 299–301, 303, 338, 339n18, 340, 344, 347, 351–53, 360, 543, 671
dilemma of inclusionary vs. exclusionary violence, 36–42
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 31–32, 355
Diogenes Laertius, 29
distinctions, 152, 204–5, 211, 225, 341, 344, 348–49, 354, 357, 359, 362, 417–28. See also non-discrimination
Dōgen Kigen, 18, 27–28n85, 47, 48n163, 62, 66, 85, 129, 254, 262–63, 359, 361–62, 696, 704
on Buddha-nature (Busshō), 207, 217, 220–28, 707 (see also Buddha-nature)
Deleuze and Guattari on, 24n70
dropping off the body-mind (shinjin-datsuraku), 208, 480, 585–86
egoless perspectivism of, 201–11
Eihei kōroku (Extensive Record), 217, 219
eisogesis, 217
entangled vines (kattō), 202, 218
expressing the Way (dōtoku), 202, 218, 680
Fukanzazengi (Universal Recommendation of Zazen), 205, 712
Genjōkōan (Presencing of Truth), 201–10, 481
Kūge (Empty/Sky Blossom), 680
language and hermeneutics, 215–28, 671–72, 679–82
to learn the self is to forget the self, 63n206, 207
Mu Kōan and, 217, 220–28
multiperspectivism, 225–26
Nishitani Keiji and, 468–69, 480–82
(p. 789)
oneness of body–mind (shinjin ichinyo), 208
oneness of practice and enlightenment (shushō ittō), 206–7, 690n14, 713
original enlightenment and, 707
Sansuikyō (Mountains and Rivers Sutra), 218–19, 681
Shōbōgenzō (Treasury of the True Dharma Eye), 10, 202, 207, 215, 217, 435
Sokushinzebutsu (This Very Mind is Buddha), 680n30
Tanabe Hajime on, 435–36
Uji (Being-Time), 212, 671
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 503–4, 512, 514
Döll, Steffen, xvi, 485
Dongshan Liangjie, 222n13, 248, 251
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 465
double negation (nijū hitei), 512, 698
doubt
Abe Masao on, 265
Descartes’s method of doubt, 56, 473, 487
Great Doubt (daigi) in Zen and Nishitani Keiji, 465, 473, 477–79
Fukuzawa Yukichi on, 341, 344
kōan practice and, 220, 232
Confucianism and, 277, 285–86, 294, 300–1, 305, 341n23
Shinran on, 167–68, 175
Dower, John, 766
dropping off the body-mind (shinjin-datsuraku), 208, 480, 585–86
dualism and nondualism
absolute nonduality of all beings and Buddha, 135–37
art/nature nonduality, 694
Cartesian dualism, 487, 489, 577–78, 582–83, 587
commonsensical dualism, 576, 578, 583–85
creator/creature dualism, 101
delusion/enlightenment nonduality, 141–42
disjunctive dualism, 578, 582–83, 587
Dōgen on, 206, 208–9, 223
duality inherent to iki, 528
East–West dualism (see East–West dichotomy)
emptiness/embodiment nonduality, 145
form/emptiness nonduality, 514
Hiromatsu Wataru on, 651, 653
Hisamatsu Shin’ichi on, 259
Honda Masaaki on, 569
human/nature nondualism, 22n63, 47, 511–19, 517n52, 575, 581, 585, 685–714, 723, 726
initiated/original enlightenment dualism, 713n113
Inoue Enryō on, 358
Kant and dualism, 25n72, 698
Kūkai on nonduality, 145, 147–56
life/death dualism, 102
loyalty/piety nondualism, 320n46
mainstream dualist strand of Western philosophy, 558–59, 685–86, 705
mind/body dualism, 103, 208, 358, 392, 509–12, 517, 577–78, 585, 634, 656, 685, 695n33, 705
material/mental nonduality, 147
nature/supernatural dualism, 47n156, 47n157, 139, 143, 156
Nishida Kitarō on, 391–92, 423, 764n19
Nitta Yoshihiro on, 638–40
nonduality as “neither one nor two,” 135, 211, 514, 517, 709, 714
Plumwood, Valerie on, 517
practice/enlightenment nonduality, 206
Ōmori Shōzō on, 656
reality/imagination nondualism, 636
Sakabe Megumi on, 634–36, 645n30, 654
samsāra/nirvāna nonduality, 141, 205
self/other nondualism, 47, 725
self-power/other-power duality, 708
Shinran on nonduality, 159, 168, 171, 173–74, 183
Shintō myth and, 108
subject/object dualism, 46, 171, 391, 433, 489, 514, 568, 632, 645, 651, 653, 656
Tanabe Hajime on, 433, 442
thematizing I/thematized I dualism, 638–39
transcendence/immanence dualism, 46, 709
Ueda Shizuteru on, 487–89, 496
Washida Kiyokazu on, 645
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 506, 509–14, 516–19
Yuasa Yasuo on, 576–79, 582–85, 587–88
Zen and, 239–40, 425n20, 699 See also betweenness
Dutch Studies (rangaku), 335, 337, 341, 346
(p. 790) East–West dialogue, 369, 372–73, 376–77, 379, 382
East–West dichotomy, 548–49, 558, 560
Eckhart, Meister, 256, 378–79, 434, 441, 486, 497, 558, 708n97, 710n104
Eisai (Myōan Eisai), 85, 129
Eliade, Mircea, 106, 109
Ellis, Havelock, 621
embodiment. See body
Emerson, Ralf Waldo, 695, 695n37, 696
emotion (jō, kanjō)
art and, 524, 731, 742, 750
emotion-instinct circuit, 579–80, 582
Hiratsuka Raichō on, 622
Inoue Tetsujirō on, 354
Japanese language and, 670
Maruyama Masao on, 703–4
Miki Kiyoshi on, 450–52, 454–55
National Learning and, 46n156, 111, 115–25
Nishida Kitarō on, 393–94, 407
Pure Land Buddhism and, 162, 177
reason/emotion dichotomy, 517
Tendai Buddhism and, 137
Yoshimoto Takaaki on, 608
Yuasa Yasuo on, 579–82, 585–86
Zen Buddhism and, 205, 747
emperor (tennō), 4n9, 8, 252, 296, 572
bushidō and, 295, 318–20
Emperor system in wartime, 594, 601, 603, 605
Hirohito, 305, 604, 736
Inoue Tetsujirō on, 305, 311n14
Japanese Christianity and, 572
Japanese feminism and, 625
as a kami, 97, 572, 762n14
Nakamura Hajime on, 720
Nishida Kitarō on, 768
Oneness of the Emperor and his people (kunmin ittai), 764
revere the emperor and expel the barbarians (sonnō jōi), 288, 320, 343n31
Shōtoku Taishi on, 90–94, 97–98,
Shintō myth and, 105–7, 111, 114, 636
Tanabe Hajime on, 438–40
empathy, 109, 111, 124, 730
emptiness (Sk. śūnyatā; Jp. ), 48
Abe Masao on, 248, 261, 264–66
bushidō thinkers on, 319n45
Confucian thinkers on, 274, 283, 293
Dōgen and Zen Buddhism on, 204n12, 205, 208–11, 224, 226, 256, 680
emptiness of emptiness, 204, 211
form is emptiness and emptiness is form, 48, 130, 145, 151, 428n31
Heart Sutra and, 204
history of Buddhist concept of, 48, 48n163
Izutsu Toshihiko on, 553–54, 557
Japanese nation and, 765, 768
Kūkai on, 145–56, 554
Nāgārjuna on, 130
Nishitani Keiji on, 369, 376–77, 379, 381–82, 466–67, 471, 475, 477–82
nonduality with embodiment, 145, 151, 156
Ōhashi Ryōsuke on, 380
phenomenology and, 632
Sakabe Megumi on, 636
Shinran and Pure Land Buddhist thinkers on, 167–68, 182–84, 195
Tanabe Hajime on, 434
Tientai/Tendai Buddhism on, 129–43, 204–5
true emptiness, wondrous being (shinkū myōu), 256, 557
Ueda Shizuteru on, 495
as the undifferentiated, 428
Varela, Francisco J. on, 727
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 85, 510, 511–14, 518 See also interdependent origination, nothingness, place
the Enlightenment, 5, 11n33, 14, 52, 275, 335, 337, 339, 342–43, 345, 346, 348n53, 626
Meiji Enlightenment thinkers (keimō gakusha), 337, 349, 702, 704
enlightenment
awakening in the midst of the deluding passions (bonnō soku bodai), 141–43, 205, 251
Dōgen on, 201–12, 216, 218, 222, 468, 481, 690n14, 713
ethics and, 719, 726–28, 730–32
Hiratsuka Raichō on, 615
(p. 791)
kenshō (seeing into one’s nature), 233n5, 469, 613, 615–17, 621, 692
Kūkai on, 146–55
Nishitani Keiji on, 731
oneness of practice and enlightenment (shushō-ittō), 713
original enlightenment (hongaku), 48n163, 129, 132–36, 148, 153, 205, 263, 707, 713
Pure Land Buddhism and, 160, 165, 167, 173, 175–77
satori, 242, 587
Shōtoku Taishi on, 92
Suzuki, D. T. on, 254, 692
Tanabe Hajime on, 436
Tiantai/Tendai Buddhism on, 131–42
Ueda Shizuteru on, 493–94
Zen Buddhism on, 201–12, 216, 218, 222, 232n2, 236, 238, 242, 254, 310n8, 323, 587
entrusting heart. See shinjin
environment
Aoki Yayoi on, 625
Ainu aesthetics and, 742
art and, 736
environmental crisis, 771
environmental ethics, 515–19, 722–23, 726, 731–32
environmental philosophy , 59n200, 68, 68n214, 516–17, 696
Izutsu Toshihiko on cultural, 555, 558
Miki Kiyoshi on, 448, 451, 455–57
Nakamura Hajime on sociocultural, 545–46, 548, 558
Nishida Kitarō on, 411, 418–19, 774–75
Nishitani Keiji on, 476
Oshida Shigeto on, 571
Watsuji Tetsurō on natural, 507–11, 513, 515–17, 519
Yuasa Yasuo on natural, 582, 588 See also environmental ethics, environmental philosophy, nature
environmental ethics, 515–19, 722–23, 726, 731–32
environmental philosophy, 59n200, 68, 68n214, 516–17, 696 (see also nature)
Epictetus, 18, 49, 187, 194
epistemology
Aristotelean, 32–33, 584n17
Buddhist, 722
Dōgen’s nondual perspectivism/multiperspectivism, 209–12, 225–26
dualistic (see dualism and nondualism)
Hiromatsu Wataru on, 651–52
Kantian, 25n72, 402
Nishida Kitarō on, 402–4, 759
essence (honshitsu), 84–85, 121, 151, 156, 175, 342, 583–84, 761
Izutsu Toshihiko on, 551–57, 559
“nature” and, 703, 705n87, 706, 711n109
no essence of Japanese philosophy, 1–2, 2n1, 7, 23, 63 See also essentialism
essentialism, 519, 556–57
cultural/national, 61, 66n211, 288, 296, 526, 559, 634, 700, 760–63, 765, 769n35
vs. existentialism, 559
Nishida’s antiessentialism, 767
Orientalist, 548
racial, 760
ethics (rinri, rinrigaku) and morality (dōtoku), 18, 38n128, 69, 471, 572, 772
aesthetics and, 735n2, 737–38, 744, 751
as praxis, 726–28
bioethics, 68n214
bushidō and, 67, 295, 308n1, 309n7, 310, 312–15, 318–26
care ethics, 627
Christian, 104, 262, 264–65
Daoist, 140
deontological, 18, 140
ethical transformation, 34
feminist, 626–27
first person perspective and, 775
Fukuzawa Yukichi on, 345n42
Hiromatsu Wataru on, 652n6
Inoue Enryō on, 360
Inoue Tetsujirō on, 349–54
Japanese arts/Ways () and, 728–29
Japanese, 719–33
(p. 792)
Kant on, 698
Katō Hiroyuki on, 346, 348–50
Kiyozawa Manshi on, 190–94
Kuki Shūzō on, 524, 527–28, 540, 688
Matsumura Kazuto on, 599–600
Maruyama Masao on, 593
metaethics, 360
Miki Kiyoshi on, 455–56
national morality/ethics (kokumin dōtoku), 276, 289, 291, 295–96, 350
National Learning, 111, 114–15, 117, 124, 304
Ōnishi Hajime on, 340
Shintō, 723
spontaneous/natural, 688, 716
Tanabe Hajime on, 432, 437, 439, 441
Takuan Sōhō, 713–14
Tiantai/Tendai Buddhism and, 135, 137, 139–42
Umemoto Katsumi on, 597–98, 600
utilitarianism, 338
virtue, 18, 140
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 85, 503–4, 506–7, 511–16, 518, 723–26, 732
Yoshimoto Takaaki on, 603, 605, 609
Yuasa Yasuo on, 578, 581, 584, 586–87
Eurocentrism, 17, 343, 756, 758, 760, 762, 766, 770
Eurocentric/Euromonopolistic conceptions of philosophy, 10, 10n28, 16–19, 21–22, 24n69, 28–33, 43n144, 50, 60n200, 62, 62n205, 65, 296, 755, 766
de-Eurocentralization, 40
progress and, 60n201 (see also developmentalism)
religion and, 38n127
evil
Abe Masao on, 264–66
Buddhism on, 769
Schelling on, 686n5
Shintō vs. Christianity on, 99–100, 102, 107–9, 700
Takuan Sōhō on, 324
Tiantai/Tendai Buddhism on, 132
Shinran on, 159, 168–69, 173, 177–78,
Kiyozawa Manshi on, 191
evolution
Hōnen on cosmic devolution, 162
Inoue Enryō on, 358–59
Katō Hiroyuki on social, 346–49
Spencer, Herbert and, 356, 359
existentialism, 59n200, 67, 552, 559, 566, 584, 633, 650, 711n108
expedient means. See skillful means
experience
mystical, 239, 614
pure (junsui keiken), 238–42, 249, 345, 372–73, 379, 389–91, 395, 397–98, 404, 417, 423, 489–91, 774–75
religious, 52n180, 98, 101, 109, 239, 250, 253, 315n30, 567, 615
externalism vs. internalism, 418–19
falsity (kyogi), 264, 265–66, 692
fate (unmei), 303n8, 467, 472, 529, 659
Kuki Shūzō on, 523–24, 526–27, 529–32, 538 See also contingency
Faure, Bernard, 44n151, 766
Fazang, 18
Feenberg, Andrew, 767
feminism, 16, 23, 68, 516–19, 613–28, 519, 695, 750, 761
feminist aesthetics, 740–41
feminist ethics, 626–27
Fenollosa, Ernest, 345, 356
Fichte, J. G., 379, 389, 397, 432–33, 639
fields of consciousness, nihility, emptiness. See Nishitani Keiji
floating world (ukiyo), 523, 528
Flueckiger, Peter, xvii, 111
Foucault, Michel, 49
freedom (jiyū)
bushidō thinkers on, 312, 319, 319n44, 322–24
compatibilism vs. determinism, 692, 686–87, 691–93, 711
of conscience, 567
from desire, 142
free will, 334, 432, 437, 692, 692n25
of the is/not, 254
Kuki Shūzō on, 529–30
Miki Kiyoshi on, 454
(p. 793)
nature and, 67, 69, 517, 685–712
negative vs. positive, 693–94, 698–99
political, 22n66, 289, 347, 454, 608, 703
practice of regaining, 712–14
Pure Land Buddhists on, 183, 191, 192–93
Hiratsuka Raichō and other feminist thinkers on, 624–26
samadhic (jiyū zammai), 713
from suffering, 138
Tanabe Hajime on, 432, 441
of thought, 563, 599
Umemoto Katsumi on, 597–99
unfathomability of, 710–11, 712n110
Zen Buddhists on, 223, 226, 239, 248, 254–55, 259, 685, 689–92, 697–99, 712–14
Freedom and People’s Rights Movement, 289, 348n52
Fukansai Habian, 563
Fukuzawa Yukichi, 288, 305, 340–45, 702
Conditions of the West, 341
An Encouragement of Learning, 340, 357
New Great Learning for Women, 288
An Outline of Theories of Civilization, 340–44
fūdo (milieu of climate and culture), 56, 66n211, 503–17, 768
Fujita Masakatsu, xvii, 14, 58n198, , 389, 453, 759, 770n38
“The Significance of Japanese Philosophy,” 56–58
Funakoshi Gichin, 307, 324–25, 325n65, 325n66
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 14, 16, 52–53, 240, 637
Garfield, Jay and Bryan Van Norden, 19
The Gateless Barrier (Ch. Wumenguan; Jp. Mumonkan), 225n18, 235, 253–54
geisha, 523–29
generalizations (vs. universalizations), 2n1, 48–49, 49n165, 88, 525, 528, 584n17
generative theology, 570–71
Ghost Dog (film), 309–10
ghosts and spirits, 301–4
globalization, 31, 382, 756, 759
Glock, Hans-Johann, 26n77
God, 22, 32–33, 98–101, 108, 265, 339, 479, 527, 554, 565, 567, 570–72, 642, 692n24, 701n67, 708, 730
as absolute nothingness, 436
as absolute nothingness-in-love, 431, 441
of being, 432–34
death of, 471
deus sive natura, 686n5
God is not God, therefore God is God, 251
Hatano Seiichi on, 567–68
Hiratsuka Raichō on, 615–16
inseparable, non-identical, and irreversible (fukabun fukadō fukagyaku), 569
vs. kami, 98–104, 108
of metanoetics, 439–42
Nishida Kitarō on, 708
the nothing of the Godhead, 497
of nothingness, 434–36
Schelling on, 686n5
Takizawa Katsumi on, 569
Tanabe Hajime on, 431–45
Tsunashima Ryōsen on, 614–15
as wholly other, 248, 259 See also the absolute, Christianity, god(s), kami, religion
god(s), 84, 99, 210, 495n30, 538, 695n38
Goméz, Pedro, 334
Gorinsho (The Book of Five Rings), 310, 312n19, 317n39, 319n45, 324–26
Goto-Jones, Chris, xvii, 45n151, 307, 370n17, 389n1, 448n5, 765n20
great death (daishi), 691, 473, 691
great doubt (daigi), 465
great ultimate (Ch. taiji), 283, 285
Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, 448, 458–59, 760, 764
ground (konkyo), 658
groundlessness (mukonkyo), 265–66, 642n19
Habermas, Jürgen, 52, 52n180, 772n43
Hadot, Pierre, 34, 694–96
Hagakure, 310, 312n19, 313n21, 317, 317n39, 319, 319n45, 322, 324
hakarai (calculative thinking), 159, 634
(p. 794) Hakuin Ekaku, 67, 231, 254, 465, 469, 482, 616.
harmony (wa), 15, 108, 357, 359, 494, 526, 526n10, 571, 723, 726, 729–31, 733, 766, 768
Confucianism and, 526n10
National Learning on, 112–13, 124
Shōtoku Taishi on, 89–90, 93
Harootunian, H. D., 766
Harris, Melanie, 627–28
Hartmann, Peter, Einige Grundzüge des japanischen Sprachbaus, 666–67, 669–70
Hase Shōtō, 10n28, 378
Hashimoto Mineo, 14, 51
Hatano Seiichi, 567–68
Hayashi Razan, 6, 115, 278–86, 293, 300–1, 319, 701–2
Selections on Three Virtues, 286
Vernacular Explanation of the Meaning of Human Nature and Principle, 284, 300
heaven (Jp. ame/ama, ten; Ch. tian)
adhering to heaven, removing the ego (sokuten-kyoshi), 701–2
Confucian Way of (Ch. tiandao; Jp. tendō), 700–4
endows natural rights, 348
heaven-given talent, 619
Heaven-Human Correlativity, 588n26
mandate of (Ch. tianming; Jp. tenmei), 90, 93
natural freedom and, 688
as nature, 701–3
Confucian concept of, 90, 280–81, 283, 287, 301–3, 700–4, 704n82, 706, 733
phusis as both heaven and earth, 695n38
Shintō mythology, 100, 105, 636
Shōtoku’s hybrid concept, 93–94
unfathomable workings of heaven and earth, 113–14
Zhuangzi, 553
Hegel, G.W. F., 24n69, 83, 87n5, 193, 275, 292, 296, 315n33, 353, 359, 368, 378–80, 395, 423, 449, 459, 503n3, 563–64
Eurocentrism and, 3n6, 13, 18n54, 30, 49, 756
Tanabe Hajime on, 433–34, 436n24, 437n26, 438, 440–41, 445
Heidegger, Martin, 8, 13, 17–18, 24, 34n112, 35, 35n118, 40–41, 46, 47n156, 60n200, 65n210, 66n211, 67, 85, 203, 216, 240–41, 247, 264, 377, 379–380, 419, 441, 569, 587, 631–32, 637–38, 640, 646, 651, 668, 672, 695, 695n38, 711–12n110
“Dialogue Between a Japanese and an Inquirer on Language,” 40
Kuki Shūzō on, 524–25, 537
Nishitani Keiji on, 471–73, 475–77, 480–82
Ueda Shizuteru on, 487, 491, 496–97
Watsuji Tetsurō on, 503–6, 509, 516
What is Philosophy? 24n69
Heine, Steven, xvii, 202n5, 215, 247, 247n1, 248, 261, 671
Held, Virginia, 627
Heraclitus, 18, 49, 548
hermeneutics, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 37, 39, 40, 43–45, 52, 60n200, 62, 65n210, 111, 137, 181n1, 262, 275, 296, 433, 487, 491, 495, 597, 634, 637, 642, 653, 655
Dōgen’s, 215–28, 671–72, 679–82
hermeneutics of honji suijaku, 86, 95
Kuki Shūzō’s, 524–25, 528
Shinran’s, 159, 165–66
Hinduism, 9, 18n54, 41n141. See also Vedānta
Hiratsuka Raichō, 613–27
on the self, 614–15, 624–25, 627
on the sexed body, 614, 618–19, 621–22
Zen Buddhism and, 613–18, 621, 623–24
Hiromatsu Wataru, 641, 646, 650–53
Discourses on the “Overcoming of Modernity,” 652
The Intersubjective Ontological Structure of the World, 651
Things, Occurrences, and Words, 653
Hirota, Dennis, xviii, 159
Hisamatsu Shin’ichi, 35–36, 67, 247–48, 256–60, 369, 374, 377, 379, 697–98, 736n4, 746n53
Eastern Nothingness, 35, 256
Zen Buddhism and (see Zen Buddhism)
history
of bushidō, 313
bushidō as invented tradition, 309
of Buddhist thought, 160, 192, 194, 164, 175–76, 203–6, 232n2, 242, 264
Confucianism and, 7–8, 273–74, 291, 298
entangled histories, 43n144
(p. 795)
of Japan, 4n8, 7–9, 97, 113, 129, 307, 604, 625, 633, 757, 768
history of Japanese thought/philosophy, 6–9, 12, 14–16, 42–3, 49, 56, 58, 61, 63, 66–68, 83–84, 86, 88, 138, 145, 160, 289, 291, 297, 291, 307, 342, 351, 359, 431, 503, 591, 704, 739–40, 771
Hobbes, Thomas, 56–57, 300, 348
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 478
hongaku (original enlightenment), 48n163, 129, 132–36, 148, 153, 205, 263, 707, 713
honji suijaku (Buddhist–Shintō synthesis), 86, 95
Hori, Victor Sōgen, xviii, 231
hosshin. See Buddha
hosshin seppō (the embodiment of the dharma preaching the dharma), 145–49, 152, 155–56, 481n65
Hotei (Ch. Budai), 495n30
Huayan. See Buddhism
human nature
Buddhism on, 132, 137, 147, 183, 197, 202, 207, 232, 263, 266 (see also Buddha-nature)
Confucianism on, 273, 280–82, 284, 292–93, 300, 337, 687n7
Hiratsuka Raichō on, 615
Katō Hiroyuki on, 346–49
Miki Kiyoshi on, 455
Nakamura Hajime on, 548
National Learning on, 115–16, 119–21, 123–24
Yuasa Yasuo on, 587–88
human rights, 289, 346–48, 566, 703
humanism, 447–48, 566, 597
Husserl, Edmund, 17, 17n52, 28n87, 32, 373, 379, 397, 407, 425n21, 505n7, 506, 578–79, 631, 637, 638–39, 641–42, 644, 651
Ibsen, Henrik, 618
ideai (encounter-idea), 658–59
idealism, 86, 156, 339, 351, 353, 353n67, 354–55, 357–58, 362, 421n8, 578, 583, 594
bourgeois, 448, 759n10
German, 59n200, 67, 83, 292, 433, 449, 651, 690n13, 695n37
ideology, 336
art and, 746
bushidō and nationalist, 295, 307, 313, 315, 318–19, 321–22, 324
Confucianism and nationalist, 273, 276, 289, 295, 340
Emperor System, 594
feudal, 703
critique of the Kyoto School, 369, 652, 766
Imperial Way (kōdō-shugi), 368
nationalist, 438, 608 See also Nihonjin-ron
Ikeda, Tadashi, Classical Japanese Grammar Illustrated with Texts, 673–74
iki (Edo aesthetic of the pleasure quarters), 308n1, 524–28, 744–45n47
Ikkyū Sōjun, 67
Imai Jun and Ozawa Tomio, 14
imagination (kōsōryoku), 223, 308, 315, 317, 357, 571, 617, 636
Miki Kiyoshi on, 375, 381, 447, 449–61
Imanishi Kinji, 696
immanent transcendence. See transcendence
imperialism. See colonialism
impermanence (mujō), 46–47, 48n163, 223, 468, 473, 476, 482, 514, 728
the individual, 52, 90, 145, 260, 273, 282, 418–21, 422, 425, 476–77, 482, 546, 596, 601, 620, 719, 721, 723, 726, 732, 737, 745, 750
individualism, 85, 341, 349,