- Copyright Page
- Introduction: What Is Japanese Philosophy?
- Prince Shōtoku’s <i>Constitution</i> and the Synthetic Nature of Japanese Thought
- Philosophical Implications of Shintō
- National Learning: Poetic Emotionalism and Nostalgic Nationalism
- Saichō’s Tendai: In the Middle of Form and Emptiness
- Kūkai’s Shingon: Embodiment of Emptiness
- Philosophical Dimensions of Shinran’s Pure Land Buddhist Path
- Modern Pure Land Thinkers: Kiyozawa Manshi and Soga Ryōjin
- The Philosophy of Zen Master Dōgen: Egoless Perspectivism
- Dōgen on the Language of Creative Textual Hermeneutics
- Rinzai Zen Kōan Training: Philosophical Intersections
- Modern Zen Thinkers: D. T. Suzuki, Hisamatsu Shin’ichi, and Masao Abe
- Japanese Neo-Confucian Philosophy
- Ancient Learning: The Japanese Revival of Classical Confucianism
- <i>Bushidō</i> and Philosophy: Parting the Clouds, Seeking the Way
- The Japanese Encounter with and Appropriation of Western Philosophy
- The Kyoto School: Transformations Over Three Generations
- The Development of Nishida Kitarō’s Philosophy: Pure Experience, Place, Action-Intuition
- Nishida Kitarō’s Philosophy: Self, World, and the Nothingness Underlying Distinctions
- The Place of God in the Philosophy of Tanabe Hajime
- Miki Kiyoshi: Marxism, Humanism, and the Power of Imagination
- Nishitani Keiji: Practicing Philosophy as a Matter of Life and Death
- Ueda ShizuteruThe Self That Is Not a Self in a Twofold World
- Watsuji Tetsurō: The Mutuality of Climate and Culture and an Ethics of Betweenness
- Kuki Shūzō: A Phenomenology of Fate and Chance and an Aesthetics of the Floating World
- Comparative Philosophy in Japan: Nakamura Hajime and Izutsu Toshihiko
- Japanese Christian Philosophies
- Yuasa Yasuo’s Philosophy of Self-Cultivation: A Theory of Embodiment
- Postwar Japanese Political Philosophy: Marxism, Liberalism, and the Quest for Autonomy
- Raichō: Zen and the Female Body in the Development of Japanese Feminist Philosophy
- Japanese Phenomenology
- The Komaba Quartet: A Landscape of Japanese Philosophy in the 1970s
- Philosophical Implications of the Japanese Language
- Natural Freedom: Human/Nature Nondualism in Zen and Japanese Thought
- Japanese Ethics
- Japanese (and Ainu) Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art
- The Controversial Cultural Identity of Japanese Philosophy
Abstract and Keywords
Hiratsuka Raichō (1886–1971) was a pioneer feminist philosopher and activist. This chapter discusses the development of Raichō’a thinking on questions of gender, embodiment, and women’s liberation, highlighting the influence of Zen practice on her life and work. In her early years, Raichō conceives of women’s liberation abstractly, based on her interpretation of Buddhist teachings on equality. However, after encountering the work of Swedish feminist Ellen Key, she comes to understand liberation not for an abstract, unsexed subject, but in terms of the “sexed body” and the uniqueness of women’s experiences. Her considerations of gender and sexuality remain relevant to feminism today, especially to debates within care ethics and feminist moral theory over the meaning of liberal values such as autonomy and individualism. Raichō’s commitment to both spiritual and political liberation brings added perspective to these debates and speaks to the breadth and depth of her philosophy.
Michiko YUSA, Ph.D., is Professor of Japanese Thought and Intercultural Philosophy at Western Washington University. She received a B. A. from International Christian University in Tokyo, and a Ph.D. from The University of California at Santa Barbara with a dissertation entitled Persona Originalis: Jinkaku and Personne according to the Philosophies of Nishida Kitarō and Jacques Maritain (1983), written under the guidance of Raimon Panikkar. Her field of research extends from Nishida’s philosophy to aesthetics and women’s spirituality, and, more recently, female philosophers. Her other interests include music and the study of languages. Among her numerous publications are Zen and Philosophy: An Intellectual Biography of Nishida Kitarō (University of Hawaii Press, 2002), Denki Nishida Kitarō [A Biography of Nishida Kitarō] (Tōeisha, 1998), and Basic Kanji (Taishūkan, 1989). Her Japanese Religious Traditions (Prentice Hall, 2002) has been translated into several languages.
Leah KALMANSON is an assistant professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion at Drake University. She received her Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. Her work in comparative philosophy has appeared in Continental Philosophy Review, Hypatia, Comparative and Continental Philosophy, and Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies. She is co-editor of the collections Confucianism in Context (SUNY Press, 2010), Levinas and Asian Thought (Duquesne University Press, 2013), and Buddhist Responses to Globlization (Lexington Books, forthcoming).
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