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date: 25 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter articulates Yuasa’s thought on how human beings can transform the everyday standpoint of existence into an extraordinary standpoint by engaging in the practice of self-cultivation or a move from disjunctive dualism to correlative dualism. To explain this, he devises his own body scheme in terms of four information circuits: (1) the external-sensory-motor circuit, (2) the circuit of coenesthesis comprised of kinesthesis and somesthesis, (3) the emotion-instinct circuit, and (4) the circuit of the unconscious quasi-body. In explaining the transformative process of deepening awareness, which one gains by moving from the first circuit to the fourth circuit, Yuasa also provides a methodological reflection on how the philosophy of self-cultivation deems that practice is more important than theory. By making the perspectival shift to the extraordinary standpoint, he concludes that human beings are “beings-in-nature” in contrast to the Western philosophical perspective of “beings-outside-of-nature.”

Keywords: Disjunctive dualism, body-scheme, external-sensory-motor circuit, coenesthesis, kinesthesis, somesthesis, unconscious quasi-body, prāxis over theōria, self-cultivation, being-in-nature

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