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date: 22 October 2019

(p. 919) Index

(p. 919) Index

Abbas, S., 770
Abeysekera, S., 20, 531, 532, 571, 572
Abu Ghraib prison, 639
Abu-Lughod, L., 655
Abzug, B., 709
Academic profeminism, 326–27, 332–35, 334t, 337n6
Accra Agenda for Action (AAA), 496–97
Ackerly, B., 886
Activism. see also specific organizations
achievements, 124–27
Africa, 56, 62, 65–67
Assembly of Social Movements, 67
Bosnia, 62
China, 595–600
community-based struggles, 126–27
definitions, 54–57
Eastern Europe, 54
Feminist Dialogues, 66, 67, 186n72, 457, 477n21, 534
feminist principles, 54–55
fundamentalisms, 55, 61, 66, 658–62, 665, 666nn5–8
global civil society, 56
globalization effects, 78n1
global restructuring effects on, 57–59
grassroots, 56–57
history, 55, 57–58
humanitarianism, 62–66, 63t, 65t
ideological divergences, 57–58, 78n2
information and communications technologies (ICTs), 56
internationalist identity-solidarity logic, 56
Latin America, 56, 62
literature review, 54–57
Middle East, 54, 62
neoliberalism, 51–52, 56, 61
organizations list, 60–61t
overview, 25–26, 28–29, 51–53, 76–78, 78n1, 79nn20–21
platforms, priorities, 54–55, 57–59
privilege, 126
profeminism, 327–30, 332–35, 334t
social media (see social media activism)
social networking media, 56
structural adjustment policies, 57–58
transnational feminist networks (TFNs) (see transnational feminist networks (TFNs))
transnational IGO-advocacy logic, 56
war, imperialism, 62
women’s international nongovernmental organization (WINGO), 53, 56–57
World Social Forum (WSF), 56, 64, 66–68, 68t, 77, 127, 477nn20–21, 579, 818
Addams, J., 707–9
Addis Ababa Declaration on Population and Development, 286–87
Addou, H., 741n4
Adolescent girls. see girls in development
Affective Communities (Gandhi), 560
Afghanistan
activism, 62
al-Qaeda, 671–72, 674, 691nn13–14
civilian casualties, 673, 674
constitution, 674–75
elections, 674
gendered Islamist agenda, 670
gender equality reforms, 670
gender segregation, 671
history, 669, 690nn1–3
Hizb-e-Islami, 672, 690n8, 691n17
loya jirga, 674
mujahideen, 669–71, 690n8, 690nn4–6, 691n15
Northern Alliance, 672, 673, 690n8, 691n15
(p. 920) Operation Enduring Freedom, 671, 672, 691nn13–14
Pakistani intervention, 669–71, 674 690nn4–6, 691n10, 691n12, 691n14
political participation, representation, 229, 234, 748
Soviet intervention, 669–70, 690nn4–6
Taliban, 670–74, 689, 690n8–9, 691n10
US intervention, 669–70, 672–73, 675, 689, 690nn46, 691n17
wars on terror, 33–36, 45nn1415, 91, 407, 644–45, 655, 669–75, 688–89, 690nn49, 691n10, 691nn1121
WLP activism, 71t, 75
women’s rights, 671, 673–75, 691nn1921, 771
Afkhami, M., 68
Africa. see also specific countries
activism, 56, 62, 65–67
apartheid, 489
Binti Pamoja program, 907–8
Botswana, 792, 826–28
Burundi, 16, 287, 381, 728, 741n4, 748
care, caregiving in, 433–40
cash transfer programs, 433–34
Child Support Grant (CSG), 433, 442n8
colonial history, 183n3
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), 770
crises identification, 164
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 63t, 77, 203–5, 287, 773, 827, 888
discrimination universality, 381–83
economic justice organizations in in general, 451, 463–65
gender-responsive budgeting, 487, 488
Ghana, 183n3, 287, 387–88, 496, 827
girls, benefits in education of, 899–900, 913n2
“Growing Girls and Women” (GWIN) Programme, 492
human rights, security, 350, 351, 356
illiteracy, 898–99
Liberia, 63t, 218, 225, 238, 287, 463, 477n18, 726, 773
political participation, representation, 16, 221–23, 229, 236, 239, 769
preschool education, 434
primitive accumulation in, 513–16, 524nn46
Rwanda, 16, 72, 748, 771
Sierra Leone, 183n3, 226, 715
SRHR movement, 286–88
state-society relations, 618–19
Sudan, 63t, 183n3, 204, 274, 275, 287, 498, 659, 671, 769–70, 773
Transvaal death camps, 705
Uganda, 63t, 462–64, 727, 769, 772, 775, 792, 826, 827
WLP activism, 71–72t, 73, 75
women, subordination of, 380–81
Women’s Budget Initiative (WBI), 489–90
Zimbabwe, 26, 63t, 72t, 73, 74, 197, 463
African Feminist Forum (AFF), 509
African National Congress (ANC), 232, 489
African Women in Crisis (AFWIC), 727, 741n4
African Women’s Development Fund (AWDF), 509
Africa Trade Policy Centre (ATPC), 464–65
Agathangelou, A., 398
Agency
body ownership, 254–58, 261, 264–65, 267nn78
fundamentalisms, 652–54, 663, 664
sex trafficking, 295–96, 299, 300, 305–6
Agenda 21, 824–25
Agostino, A., 22, 42, 791, 792, 818, 819, 828
Aguiar, N., 172, 185n46
Ahmed, S., 87, 108
Ahmed, Z., 165
Aid for Trade initiative, 471, 473–75
Akirachix, 856, 911
Alami, N., 198, 207
Alcoff, L. M., 82, 101, 108
Alexander, M. J., 6, 117, 118, 121, 122, 124
Alibhai-Brown, Y., 888
All-China Federation of Trade Unions, 592
Alliance building
China, 40, 597, 601
citizenship, 610–12
DAWN, 175–77, 185n58
engagement with, 17–19, 39–40, 100–102
(p. 921) Latin America, 40, 610–11
Nepal, 566–67, 574n24
political participation, representation, 240
profeminism, 36, 332, 334
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 289–90
Southasian feminist movements, 553–61, 566–67, 572nn16, 573nn714, 574n24
Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP), 517–18, 522, 524n7
United Nations, 192–93, 210
warriors within, 192–93, 210
Alliance for the Female Vote, 536
Alternative Summit, 817
Alt-WID, 450–52, 475n7
Alvarado, M. J., 535
Alvarez, S. E., 20, 56, 553, 610, 611, 612
Ambrose, Rona, 408
Amnesty International, 402–3
AMPLIFY, 911
Amuchastegui, A., 328
Andaiye, 98, 108
Anderlini, S., 726
Anderson, C., 256–57
“A New Global Partnership,” 889–90
Annan, Kofi, 205, 273, 732
Antrobus, P., 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, 25, 31, 82, 108, 134, 164, 185n51, 364n2, 456
Anwar, Z., 661
Anzaldua, G., 119
Appleby, R. S., 664
Arab Spring, 29, 67, 104, 180–81, 222, 238, 261, 662, 718, 856, 863
Arab Women’s Solidarity Association (AWSA), 60t
Arat-Koc, S., 398
Argentina
care, caregiving, 433–34, 439
climate justice, 825, 827
democratization processes, 535–37
motherist, difference identities, 150–51
neoliberalism, 85
peace movements, 712
profeminism, 326, 330
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 282, 284, 285
state building, rebuilding, 782
Armed conflict. see militarism
Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 680, 680f, 683
Armstrong, E., 709, 710
Asia. see Southasian feminist movements; specific countries
Asia Pacific Conference on Population and Development, 285
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 460, 477n26
Assembly of Social Movements, 67
Assisted reproductive technology (ART), 296–97, 308–13, 315n1, 316nn1417
Association for Progressive Communications, 862, 866
Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID), 28, 30, 60t, 278, 496, 658–61, 776
Association of African Women for Research and Development (AAWORD), 451, 508, 610
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 460, 477n27
Association of Women of the Mediterranean Region (AWMR), 60t, 713
Augspurg, A., 706, 707
Australia
Afghan refugees, 261
data collection, 423–25, 442n3
East Timorese (see Timor-Leste)
femocrat terminology, 197
Gender Budget Initiative, 490–92, 501nn45
gender equality policies, 489
gender-responsive budgeting, 420, 442n3, 452, 486–91
Idle No More (INM) movement, 106
peace camps, 711
Regional Assistance Mission (RAMSI), 749, 756, 758, 761
scholarly collaborations, 327
sex trafficking, 306, 315n12
Solomon Islands (see Solomon Islands)
Women’s Budget Program, 488–89, 501n23
Australian Sex Workers’ Association (Scarlet Alliance), 315n12
Austria, 375–77, 885
(p. 922) Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB)
Action Plan on UNSCR 1325, 760
Agreement on Peace, Security and Development in Bougainville, 756–57, 760
armed conflict, 755
Bougainville Action Plan, 758
Bougainville Constitutional Commission (BCC), 759
Bougainville Peace Agreement, 757, 759
Constitution, 758–59
Council of Elders Act, 759
international interventions, 757–58
justice system, 757
Peace and Security Commission, 760
political participation, representation, 700, 748, 758–61, 763n9
reserved legislative seats, 748, 759–60
UN Observer Mission in Papua New Guinea (UNOMB), 758
UN Political Office in Bougainville (UNPOB), 757
weapons disposal, 758
women’s political impacts, 748–49, 756, 760
Autonomy. see agency
Baby 101, 316n17
Bachan, K., 29, 41, 856
Bachelet, Michelle, 66, 435
Bahrain Women Association for Human Development, 71t
Bahuguna, S., 843
Bain, B., 89, 94, 99, 108
Baksh, R., 715
Balakrishnan, R., 499
Balchin, C., 656–57, 665n1, 883
Bali Global Youth Forum Declaration, 283–84
Bali Principles of Climate Justice, 816
Banerji, R., 884, 885, 886
Bangladesh
anti-acid violence movement, 620
birongonas (heroic women), 562
creation of, 532, 555, 557
gender, climate change tribunals, 792, 826–28
glocal movements, 20
Koitta workshop, 556–60 573nn912
Pakistan war crimes apology, 559, 573n12
political participation, representation, 230, 234
power configurations 2006, 562
social protection programs, 909
violence against women, 620
women food vendors, 141
Ban K., 477n18
Bannerji, H., 83, 90, 97, 99, 108, 406–7
Barron, T., 902
Barrow, N., 162
Barry, K., 298, 299
Baskin, C., 397
Basu, A., 685
Batliwala, S., 839
Bat Shalom, 712
Baumol, W., 425
Beal, J., 236
Bebel, A., 706
Because I Am a Girl: State of the World’s Girls, 902, 903, 906
Beckwith, K., 5, 76
Bedford, K., 653
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
abortions, sexuality, 272
anniversary, 1
care policy agenda, 39
crises identification, 726
critical areas of concern, 896
drafting, 224–25
economic, social policymaking, 448, 473n3
employment policies, 190
global negotiations, twenty year review, 209
history, 58–59, 192, 224, 538, 715, 768
ICT activism, 862
policy achievements, 224
review process, 211n5, 726–27
roles, 55, 224, 348, 583–84, 896
security of the person, 258–59, 265n2
ten-year evaluation, 126
violence against women, 404, 405
Bekaouf Azadi (Freedom Without Fear) for Women, 103–5, 113n15
Bello, A., 542
Benard, C., 770
Beneria, L., 142, 184n21, 610
Bennett, J., 770, 773
Bernardino, M., 161
(p. 923) Betteraid Coordinating Group (BACG), 497
Bhan, G., 253
Bhasin, K., 559, 568, 572n6
Bhatt, C. P., 843
Bhatt, E., 140
Bhattacharjee, A., 396
Bhatti, S., 678
Bin Laden, O., 671, 675, 691n13
Black, A., 397
Black and Third World Women’s Liberation Alliance, 710
Blofield, M., 440
Body ownership. see also sex trafficking; sexual, reproductive health/rights (SRHR)
abortion rights, 254–55, 258
activism history, 254–59, 265n1
agency, autonomy, 254–58, 261, 264–65, 267nn78
bioinformatic bodies, 259
biopolitics, 259–61, 266nn36, 267nn78
bodily integrity, 254–55, 258, 265n2
capitalism’s influence, 260
China, 588–90
as entitlement, 258
forced sterilization, sterilization abuse, 254–55
forced sterilization policies, 542
forced virginity tests, 252
fundamentalisms, 258, 265n2
gender binary, 255–57, 265n1, 266n6
identity, 253, 256–57, 262–63
organ trafficking, 253
overview, 249–50
political theory, 255–59, 265n1
racism, 253–54
rape culture, 103–5, 113n15, 254, 262–63, 574n19, 681–84, 692nn3236, 872, 887–90
reproductive rights, 252
security of the person, 258–59, 265n2
self-propriety, 256–57
sexting, 262
sex workers, 262–64, 266nn56
social ontology, 257–58
trans* people, 262–63, 265n1, 266n6
victim politics, 266n5
weaponized bodies, 261–62
Body politics, 26–27. see also body ownership
Bolivia
climate justice, 825
democratization processes, 536, 540–41, 549n14
feminist political ecology, 804
fundamentalisms, 660
political violence legislation, 230
profeminism, 326, 328, 330
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 284
trade liberalization, 480n51
Boserup, E., 7, 140, 160, 162, 184n21, 425
Bosnia-Hercegovina, 62, 63t, 205, 356, 712, 713, 727
activism, 62
Botswana, 792, 826–28
Bouazizi, M., 261
Boulding, E., 149
Brah, A., 23–24, 99, 108–9
Brahimi, L., 730
Brazil
adolescent sexuality, 281–82
anti-globalization movement, 539
Brasilia Consensus, 543, 549n13
care, caregiving, 433, 435, 440
cash transfer programs, 433, 435
citizenship, 540–41, 911
climate change, 792, 799–800, 826–28
democratization processes, 536, 539
economic development, 179, 825–27
fundamentalisms, 660
gender equality, 186n65
indigenous communities activism, 541
organ trafficking, 253
participatory budgeting, 782
profeminism, 325–32, 335
Republican Feminist Party, 536
Rubber Tappers’ movement, 798–800
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 252–53, 263, 277, 281–85
SOS Corpo, 185n56
STEM, 865
trade liberalization, 456, 460
WLP activism, 71–72t
women’s economic roles, 162
World Social Forum, 477n20, 712, 818
Brumberg, R., 54
Brzezinski, Z., 669
Budlender, D., 452, 491, 501n4
Buen vivir, 543–44, 549n14, 795, 803–4
Bunch, C., 561, 726
Burns, J. M., 219
Burundi, 16, 287, 381, 728, 741n4, 748
Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, 497
Bush, G. W., 34, 272–75, 305, 629, 630, 644, 672, 726
Bustamante, Alexander, 183n3
Butalia, U., 82, 89, 97, 109, 887–88
Butler, J., 257, 262, 264, 635, 716
Cacho, L., 718
Çağatay, N., 449
Caglar, G., 32, 196
Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics (COYOTE), 300
Cameron, D., 477n18
Canada
Bill C 45, 105–6
criminal justice approach, 399–402, 411n11, 412nn1215
data collection, 423–25, 442n3
First Nations peoples exploitation, 103, 105–7
fundamentalisms, 660
funding, withdrawal of, 403, 409, 411n2
human rights, security, 345, 356–57
Idle No More Movement, 103, 105–7
immigration policies, 408
mandatory charging, 401, 412nn1213
neoliberalism in, 89, 94
Ontario Women’s Justice Network, 412n12
political economy, 88–89
political participation, representation, 233–34
privilege in, 88
protection of civilians, 732
rape, sexual assault legal definitions, 399–400, 411n5
restorative justice in, 412n15
shelter services in, 399
Sisters in Spirit campaign, 402–3
social media activism, 103, 105–7
social movements, 85, 102–3
violence against women, 345, 397, 399–403, 406–8, 411n2, 411n11, 412n21, 412nn1215
Women’s Program, 89
Caprioli, M., 774
CARASA (Committee for Abortion Rights and Against Sterilization Abuse), 254–56, 265n1
Care, caregiving
care mix/care diamond, 428
cash transfer programs, 433–37, 442nn78
child-centered interventions, 430–31, 442nn46
class/race exclusion, 434–35
concepts, definitions, 427–28
conditionalities, 437
cross-border migration, 427
data collection, 423–25, 442n3
developing countries, 427–28, 432–38, 441, 442nn78
early childhood education and care services (ECEC), 433–37
economics, 423–27, 441n2, 442n3
engagement, 423–25
gender wage gap, 431, 442n4
good quality care, 425–27
human capital perspective, 430
Latin America, 433–40, 542, 545, 550n15
neoliberalism, 426–27, 429–30, 432
overview, 419, 422–23, 440–41, 442n9
poverty, 432–34
preconditions, 438
preschool education, 434–35
public policy, 426, 429–31, 438–40
service segmentation, 435
services provision, 434, 437–38
as social expectation, 227, 368, 370–71, 385, 423
social investment state, 430, 442n5
social reproduction, 425
Tanzania, 437–38, 509, 512, 520
voluntarism, 437–38
wages, salaries, 435–36, 441
welfare states, 426–27, 429
(p. 925) Caribbean
abortion, 549n9
activist training, 144–45, 243n16
body ownership, 254–55
care, caregiving, 426–27
DAWN activism, 175, 183n1, 185n47, 451, 480n48
democratization processes, 534, 538, 543, 548n3
encuentros (encounters), 29, 553, 610
gender mainstreaming, 714
profeminism, 327, 337n7
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 281, 284, 291n4, 291n9, 549n9
trade liberalization, 451, 454–60, 464, 465, 477n25, 480n48
transnational feminist histories, 51–52, 83–92, 108–12
UN Regional Coordinator, 548n3
“Women Leaders as Agents of Change,” 243n16
Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action (CAFRA), 185n56, 451, 458, 470, 480n47
Carnero, S., 540
Carter, J., 669, 690n5
Cartography
achievements, 124–27
asymmetries, 119
Eurasia, 119
First World–Third World, 118, 119
gender decentralization, 120–23
gender equality, 125
gender mainstreaming, 126
globalization of perspectives, 117, 123
nation-state, 119–20
non-essentialism, 122
place, 117
post socialism, 119
racial politics, 117–18, 122
Second world, 119
solidarity, 118, 123–24
unidirectionality vs. bidirectionality, 118–19
Carty, L. E., 8, 10, 23, 24, 30, 36, 51, 716
Cash transfer programs, 433–37, 442nn78
Casper, M. J., 310
Castillejo, C., 769
Catholic Family and Human Rights Institute (C-Fam), 274
Catholics for Choice, 661
CEDAW
achievements, 383–88, 391n21, 543
compliance monitoring, 369
culture, stereotyping effects in general, 370–71
discrimination universality, 381–83, 389
educational achievements, 373–74
features, strengths, 369–70
gender segregation in education, 376–77
gender stereotyping, 344, 371–77, 389
General Recommendation 19, 404–5
Global Gender Gap Index, 14, 344, 373, 379, 909
governments’ accountability for implementation, 386–88
history, 11, 13, 44n4, 125, 192, 224, 368, 609, 768, 877
ICT activism, 862
Islamist attacks against, 662
legal discrimination, 380–81
male superiority, cultural acceptance of, 378–80, 391nn1718
MENA campaign, 75
NGO involvement, 383–88
objectification of women by the media, 377–78
overview, 344, 367–69, 390nn48
power relations, 371, 372, 390n10
religious discrimination, 380–81
Resolution 12 on Violence Against Women, 715
roles in general, 14, 16, 55, 224, 348, 368–69, 389–90
universality, 371–77, 381–83, 389
violence against women, 378–80, 389, 391nn1718, 402–5
wage disparities activism, 373–77, 431, 442n4
women, subordination of, 380–81
Center for Global Development, 906
Center of Concern, 448, 450, 460, 469, 478n28
Central Appalachian Women’s Tribunal, 827
Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), 489–90
(p. 926) Centre for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL), 168
Centro de Investigación para la Acción Femenina (Center for Feminist Action and Research, CIPAF), 326–27
Centros Belén de Sárraga, 536
CEPAL, 543, 550nn1516
Chandralekha, 557
Chandran, R., 783
Chan-Tiberghien, J., 122, 125
Charlesworth, H., 736
Charrad, M. M., 618
Charter of Feminist Principles for African Feminists, 509
Charter of People’s Rights, 567
Chatterjee, P., 615, 616
Chattopadhaya, K., 257
Chavez, M., 219
Chen, L., 21, 33, 40, 531–33
Chen G., 599
Chhachhi, A., 20, 531, 532, 572
Chicago Metro tribunal, 827
Chicago Women’s Liberation Union, 710
Child Support Grant (CSG), 433, 442n8
Chile
activism, 150–51
care, caregiving, 433–36, 439–40
cash transfer programs, 433–34
climate justice, 825
democratization processes, 20, 536, 538
feminist movements historically, 536, 538
fundamentalisms, 652
neoliberalism, 85
political participation, representation, 238
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 285, 326–28
China
activism, 595–600
All-China Federation of Trade Unions, 592
All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF), 33, 584–85, 587, 589, 595–96
alliance building, 40, 597, 601
asset appropriation, 593–95, 602n19, 602nn1617, 603n23
body ownership, 588–90
care, caregiving, 580–83, 589–90, 601n4
Chinese Communist Party, 33, 579, 582, 584–85, 587, 595
Chinese Constitution, 579
citizenship, 581–83, 587, 600–601
co-optation, collusion in, 33
divorce law, 598–99
economic reform policies, 578–80, 582–83, 588, 596, 600
economic transition, 532–33, 587
employment (informal), 585–87, 586t, 594
Equality between Men and Women Policy, 21, 579, 583–84, 589, 596
feminist political economy, 580–87, 586t, 600, 601n4
floating population, 592
forced evictions, 594–95
gender biases, 33
glocal movements, 21
grassroots engagement, 21, 40, 587
household contract responsibility system, 590–93, 602n11
household registration system, 582–83, 592, 601n4
labor camps, 595, 603n23
labor laws, 590, 592, 599
labor strikes, 592
land ownership, 583, 584, 590–91, 593–95, 599
Marxism, 587
maternity leave, 599
migrant women, 583, 589–93
neoliberalism, 532–33, 582–83, 588, 601n4
one-child policy, 33, 588–90
open door policy, 591–93
patriarchy, customary rights, 143–44, 148, 154–55, 156n4, 582–84, 596
pay-as-you-go system, 594
peace movements, 712
political participation, representation, 585, 596–97
poverty headcount ratio, 578–79
relief efforts, gender-blind approach to, 599
reproductive rights, 581, 588–90
retirement age, 594
sex ratio, 371
sex trafficking, 589
social media activism, 21, 533, 579, 592, 597
social reproduction, 425
(p. 927) social security reforms, 584
state feminism, 580, 583–85, 596
township and village enterprises (TVEs), 590
trade unions, 592
violence against women, 581–84, 597–99
wage disparities, 373, 585, 591, 594, 602n13
Women’s Federation, 146
women’s rights reversals, 579, 583–85, 600
Women’s Voice, 597
Chinkin, C., 736
Chipko movement, 22, 792, 798–800, 838, 842–44
Chowdhury, E., 122, 620, 622
Christensen, H. S., 891
Citizen by the National Constituent Assembly, 353
Citizenship
alliance building, 610–12
bounded communities, 619
concepts in development discourse, 613–15
democracies, issues in, 616–17
feminist activism history, 608–11
feminist voice, influence, 614–15
First-Third World tensions, 610
fundamentalisms, 655
gender justice, 614
good governance agenda, 613–14, 616–17
governance feminism, 611–12
governmentality, 617
human rights, security, 350, 353, 358–63
ICTs, 872, 875–79, 890
identity, 608, 612, 615, 616, 618–19
India, 561–62, 567
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), 611
international conflict feminism, 621–22
Latin America, 531–32, 535, 540–43, 547, 549nn69, 550n1919
legal personhood, 617–18
marginalization, subordination, 610
minority women, 607–8
Nepal, 558
Pakistan, 561–62
patriarchy, 610
peace movements, 704
privilege, 610
rights, 613, 616–18, 620
social welfare, 616
solidarity in difference, 876
Southasian feminist movements, 532, 554–55, 558, 567
Sri Lanka, 558
state building, rebuilding, 779–80, 783
state-society relationships, 617–19, 779–80, 783
subject-citizen status, 615–16, 623n3
Third World difference, 609
transnationalism reversed, 611, 619–22
WID advocacy, 610
Climate justice
care, reciprocity, 821–22, 831
ecofeminism, 796–98, 824, 840
economic growth paradigm, 792, 805–6, 817, 819–22, 831
engagement with, 22
epistemic violence, 829
gender, climate change tribunals, 792, 826–28
gender balance, 824–25
globalization, 817–19
green economy, 830
human rights approach, 817
movement history, 816–17
overview, 792, 815
patriarchy, 821, 823
restorative justice, 829, 831
South Africa, 816
sustainable development, 822–31, 833n48
transformative justice, 829, 831
transnational feminist networks, 817–19
UN conferences participation, 828–29
women, passive imaginary of, 825–26
Climate Justice Now! network, 816
Climate Justice Summits, 816
Clinton Global Initiative conferences, 900, 909
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW), 263, 267n7, 299
Coalition for Adolescent Girls, 900
Coalition on Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR), 279
(p. 928) Cockburn, C., 712
Cockell, J. G., 347
Code Pink, 60t, 62, 63t, 77, 645, 718
Coelho, P., 782
Cohn, C., 637, 725
Colectivo de Hombres y Masculinidades, 329, 332
Coleman, I., 239
Collazo, M., 536
Collectif 95 Maghreb Egalité, 56, 61, 65–66
Collins,P. H., 398–99
Colombia
humanitarianism, 63t
international conflict feminism, 621
peace movements, 204, 712–14
profeminism, 326–29, 331–33, 335
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 284–85
Color of Violence conference, 409, 413n24
Comadres, 537
Combahee River Collective, 118
Comité Eureka, 537
Commission on Human Security, 352, 357
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)
CEDAW relationship to, 368, 390n5
Draft Agreed Conclusions, 879
establishment, 13, 192, 390n5
47th Session, 35, 45n15
fundamentalisms, 659
gender-responsive budgeting, 487, 496
global advocacy role, 11, 64, 144, 177
monitoring, review roles, 224
NGO engagement, 726, 727, 733
peacekeeping operations, 726, 727, 733
violence against women, 877–81
women in development advocacy, 610
Commonwealth Secretariat, 451, 452, 460, 462–64, 714–15
Communities Against Rape and Abuse (CARA), 409–10
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), 770
Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó, 713, 714
Conflict. see militarism
Connell, R. W., 636
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. see CEDAW
Conway, J., 67, 127
Cordova, T., 83, 90, 99, 109
Cornwall, A., 782
Corral, T., 185n46
Correa, S., 170
Costa Rica, 138, 326, 330, 440, 540
Cottingham, J., 144
Council for the Economic Empowerment of Women in Africa (CEEWA), 451
Craviotto, N., 776
Crenshaw, K., 398, 411n11
Crespo-Kebler, E., 110
Crimes of honor/honor killings, 34, 63, 407–8, 413n23, 661
Critical mass, 215, 219, 242n2, 748, 763n8
Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC), 311
Cross-border surrogacy, 296–97, 308–13, 315n1, 316nn1417
Cruzalta, J., 543
Cuba, 62, 63t, 183n3, 282, 285, 327, 536, 549, 714
Customary rights. see patriarchy
Dairiam, M. S., 11, 14, 344
Dalton, R., 890
Daltro, L. de Figueiredo, 536
Daly, M., 427
Dankelman, I., 825
Davis, A., 83, 91, 99, 101, 109, 122, 401, 703, 704, 708
DAWN
achievements, 171–72, 180–81, 185nn4041, 186n69
agenda, goals, 166–67, 184nn2124
Alternatives, 173
anti-colonial struggles activism, 160–61, 183n3, 183n56
Bangalore meeting, 164–65, 172, 183n16
Challenging the Given, 168
contraceptive technologies, 169–70, 184n38, 185nn4041
crises identification, 164, 166, 179, 610
DAWN Development Debates (DDD), 179
DAWN Informs, 173, 184n32
DAWN Training Institutes (DTI), 171, 177, 278
debt crisis, 166
Development Crises and Alternative Visions (Grown), 25, 45n9, 165–67, 173, 184nn2024, 185n47
(p. 929) diversity of standpoints, 25
environmental crisis, 166, 168–70
family planning programs, 169–70, 184n38, 185nn4041
feminist scholarship, 162–63, 183n9
fundamentalisms, 169–70, 177, 184n38
gender, ecology and economic justice (GEEJ) project, 171–72, 177
gender-responsive budgeting, 495–96
global development agenda influence, 166–71, 176–77, 184n36, 184n38, 185n58, 473n3
governance crisis, 166
history, 7–8, 56, 58, 160–63, 183n3, 183nn59, 451, 479n9
interlinkages work (alliance building), 175–77, 185n58
management structure, 174–75
Markers on the Way: The DAWN Debates on Alternative Development, 169
Marketisation of Governance: Critical Feminist Perspectives from the South, 171, 178
movement response effectiveness, 179–80
neoliberalism, 61
network memberships, 170–71, 173, 184n29, 185n41, 185n56, 451, 458, 465, 469–70, 509
overview, 134, 159–60, 181–82, 183n1, 186nn7172
patriarchy customary rights, 143–44, 148
Population and Reproductive Health: Feminist Perspectives from the South, 170
population policies, 168–70, 184n38
program, structure evolution, 167–72, 175–76, 184n26, 184n29, 184n32, 184nn3738, 185n44, 185nn4041
regionalization, 175, 185nn5657
Regional Training Institutes (RTIs), 171, 177, 278
reproductive crisis, 166, 168–70, 184n38, 185nn4041, 186n69
research themes, 171
roles, 17–18, 25, 45nn89, 349, 364n2
Secretariat, 172–74, 185n55
sexual, reproductive health/rights (SRHR), 279–80
“Strengthening Policy Analysis and Advocacy on Gender, Economic and Ecological Justice,” 172
structure, 172–75, 185n47, 185nn5057
trade liberalization, 168, 178–79, 184n37
trends, trajectories, 178–79, 186nn6263
website, 60t
Deacon, R., 432
Decade for Women (1976–1985), 7, 11–13, 55, 125, 161–62, 177, 183nn78, 348
Declaration of Mexico, 738–39
Declaration of Rio, 325–26
Declaration of the Rights of Man, 353
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, 353
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, 715
De Galan, M., 904
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 63t, 77, 202–5, 287, 773, 827, 888
Democratization processes, Latin America
body ownership, 542, 543
buen vivir, 543–44, 549n14
citizenship, 531–32, 535, 540–43, 547, 549nn69, 550n1919
diversity, 545–47, 550nn1617
environmentalist movement, 543–44, 549n14
equality in power relationships, 545–47, 550nn1617
history, 535–40, 548nn13, 549n4
indigenous communities, 540–41
low-intensity democracies, 540, 549n5
neoliberalism, 539
Office of Depatriarchalization, 541, 549n6
political militancy, 542–44, 549nn1314
politics, subjectivity in, 545
politics, widening of, 544–45, 550n15
poverty, 540–41
religion, 543
right to have rights, 30, 326, 531–32, 547–48, 550nn1819
sexual pact, 546, 550n16
social exclusion, 540–42
voting rights, 535, 536
(p. 930) Deng Y., 598
Denmark, 221, 241, 375, 377, 431
Depatriarchalization, 30, 45n11
Derrida, J., 560
Desai, M., 6, 10, 12, 25, 36, 40, 43, 51, 52, 122, 124, 873
De Schutter, O., 461
De Sousa, B., 829
De Souza, K., 88
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN). see DAWN
Development Assistance Committee (DAC), 494, 497
Development Crises and Alternative Visions (Grown), 25, 45n9, 165–67, 173, 184nn2024, 185n47
Devi, G., 843
Dietrich, G., 559
Dirasse, L., 741n4
Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), 195, 206, 727, 734
Doezema, J., 304, 305
Domestic violence. see violence against women
Domestic Violence Act of 1998, 489–90
Donne in Nero, 712
Douglass, F., 256, 703
Du Bois, W. E. B., 703
Duffy, M., 428
Dufour, P., 556
Durano, M., 465
Durban Group for Climate Justice, 816
Dynamique Citoyenne, 492
Earle, L., 775
Early childhood education and care services (ECEC), 433–37
Earth Charter, 168
East African Community (EAC), 465
Ecofeminism, 796–98, 824, 840
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), 64, 727, 728
Economic and social justice. see also International Gender and Trade Network (IGTN); trade liberalization
acquisitiveness, 820–21
agriculture, 455–56, 461, 465, 479n35
Aid for Trade initiative, 471, 473–75
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 448, 473n3
care, caregiving, 423–27, 441n2, 442n3
care, reciprocity, 821–22
economic growth paradigm, 792, 805–6, 817, 819–22, 831
Economic Partnership Agreement, 454
engagement with, 18–22, 39
food security, 461–62, 476n14, 478nn3133, 479nn3638, 806, 846
food sovereignty, 461, 478n31
GEEJ project, 171–72, 177
gender divisions, 7–8
gender equality, mainstreaming, 449–50
girls, benefits in education of, 899–903, 913n2
global value chains (GVCs), 465–67, 470–72, 480n50
human rights, security, 448–50
intellectual property rights, 449, 450, 453–54, 476n11
macroeconomics, critiques of, 448–50
Multifibre Arrangement, 476n13
non-tariff barriers (NTBs), 455–56
organizations in general, 450–52, 475nn79
political participation, representation, 216–18
structural adjustment polices, 485–86
trade facilitation, 467–68, 472–73, 480n51
trade liberalization, 168, 178–79, 184n37
WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), 461–62, 479nn3638
WTO Agreements, 453–55, 461, 476nn1115
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 465
Economic Co-operation and Development-Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC), 494–95, 747, 779
Ecuador
climate justice, 825
democratization processes, 536, 541, 549n14
gender-responsive budgeting, 420, 486–87, 492–93
profeminism, 330, 332
(p. 931) Egypt
body ownership, 252
education access, 908, 911
feminist movements in general, 54, 92, 100–101, 107–8
fundamentalisms, 656, 664–65, 666n8
Muslim Brotherhood overthrow, 666n8
political participation, representation, 238–39
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 274, 275, 277
Street Food Project, 141
WLP activism, 71t, 74
Ehrenreich, B., 641
Eisenstein, Z., 83, 92, 109, 265, 267n7, 633, 710
Eitel, M., 904
El-Bushra, J., 715
Elmhirst, R., 802
El Saadawi, N., 10, 83, 111
Elshtain, J., 358, 359
Elson, D., 449, 452, 474, 486, 488, 499, 581
Emel, J., 801
Engagement
advocacy, 16, 19
alliance building, 17–19, 39–40, 100–102
bureaucracies (see United Nations; warriors within)
care, caregiving (see care, caregiving)
commodification, 86
cross-border praxis, 96–100
democratization processes, 19–20, 30, 45n11
diagnostic languages, 87, 98
discourse appropriation, 94–95
dispossession, 90
feminism, strategies, 91–92
femocrats, 14–15, 26
Free Cece movement, 101–2
gender-responsive budgeting (see gender-responsive budgeting)
global policy change arenas, 12–14
glocal engagements, 12, 19–22, 40–41, 44n1
grassroots, 21–22
historical differences, 87–88
imperialism, 91
importance of, 10
institutionalization, 88, 93
intersectionality, 102
knowledge production, 83, 97
labor movement, 101, 112n5
land rights, 21–22
language usurpation, 94–95
levels of in general, 11–12, 44nn56
marginalized communities, 7, 12, 16, 24, 33, 52, 56, 89, 97–98
militarization, 90–92
neoliberalism, 85–95
North–South divide, 87, 90, 95–97, 100–101
organizations, institutions, 13–17, 26, 32–33, 38–39
overview, 83–87, 112nn34
with patriarchy (see patriarchy)
place-based praxis, 96–97
political economy, 88–89
political representation, 15–16, 30, 45n11
primitive accumulation, 90
prison abolition movement, 101
privilege, power relations, 87–88, 92, 94, 96–99
property rights, 85, 86
public-private divide, 19–20, 25
sex trafficking (see sex trafficking)
situational positionality, 96
solidarity, challenges to, 87–93, 100
solidarity, strategies to achieve, 93, 95–102, 107–8
state building (see state building)
state funding, 32–33
state roles, 86, 86n1, 90–94
stigmatization, 40
structural adjustment policies, 88–89
survey questions, 84
violence against women (see violence against women)
whiteness ascendancy, 94
Engendering Adjustment for the 1990s, 451
England, L., 639
Enloe, C., 228, 637, 639, 640, 716, 736
Entre Tránsitos, 332
Envisioning Real Utopias (Wright), 201
Equality Now, 60t, 263, 267n7
Eritrea, 386
Eschle, C., 66, 67
(p. 932) Escobar, A., 807
Escuela Equinoccio (Equinox School), 330–31
Esping-Andersen, G., 431
Etchart, L., 6, 17, 699
Europe, European Union
antiwar activism (transatlantic), 705–7
austerity/fiscal stringency impacts, 20–21
child-care provision, 430–31, 442nn46
data collection, 423–25, 442n3
farm subsidies in, 479n37
gender segregation in education, 376–77
glocal movements, 20–21
Occupy movements, 777
peace movements historically, 704–5
political participation, representation, 222, 223, 235
sandwich strategy, 223
second wave feminism, 708–10
shelter services in, 399
state feminism, 237
STEM gender gap, 865
violence against women, 378–80, 391nn1718
voter turnout, 777
wage disparities, 375
European Employment Strategy, 431
Evans, D., 779
Eyben, R., 191, 200, 901
Family Research Council, 274
Farah, L., 93, 99, 109
Faria, C., 802
Fatah, S., 570
Fawcett, M., 705
Federici, S., 411n10
Femicide, 541, 549n8
Feminism and Institutionalism International Network (FIIN), 191
Feminist Dialogues, 66, 67, 186n72, 457, 477n21, 534
Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF), 644–45
Feminist political ecology (FPE)
agenda, goals, 807–8
analysis fields, topics, 805–7
anti-pollution activism, 795
birth as discipline, 794–96
body-mind divide, 804
buen vivir, 795, 803–4
Canada, 88–89
Chipko movement, 22, 792, 798–800, 838, 842–44
controversies, critiques, 796–98, 801–4
decolonial, 803–4
ecofeminism, 796–98, 824, 840
engagement, 88–89
environmental issues, 791
food security, 461–62, 476n14, 478nn3133, 479nn3638, 806, 846
fundamentalisms, 806–7
history, 793–94
indigenous identities, 807
intersectionality, 801–3
leadership, 798–800
nature-culture divide, 800–801, 803
overview, 18, 791
practical identity, 801–2
Rubber Tappers’ movement, 798–800
scholarly works, 795–96
sustainable development, 791, 794, 840–41
theoretical,methodological approaches, 805
trajectories, 793–94
Feminist Task Force (FTF), 818–19, 826–28
Feminist theory and praxis
body politics (see body politics)
collaboration, 10
collective thinking, 10
engagement (see engagement)
intersectionality, 10
knowledge production, 10, 41–42, 44n3
overview, 9–11, 44n3, 51–52
privilege, 11, 25–26
tensions, 22–29
transnationalization, 10
A Feminist Vision of a People’s Union of South Asia, 567–68
FEMNET, 496
Femocrats, 190, 197–207, 199f. see also warriors within
Fernandes, L., 122
Fernandes, M. D. A., 754
Ferree, M. M., 5, 54
Ferrell, J., 253–54
50 Million Missing, 856, 872, 878, 884–86
(p. 933) Figueroa, G., 328
Financial crisis 2008, 701, 768, 776–77, 786n10
Financing for Development (FfD), 494–98
Finland
gender equality in, 373–75, 377
objectification of women by the media, 378
violence against women, 378–80, 391nn1718
First International Feminist Conference (1974), 144
Flores, L., 219
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 141, 162, 476n14, 478n34
Food security, 461–62, 476n14, 478nn3133, 479nn3638, 806, 846
Ford Foundation, 278n29, 460, 597
Ford-Smith, H., 83, 93, 96, 111
Foreign Assistance Act, 138
Foucault, M., 259–61, 266n4, 296, 302, 304, 306, 314, 617
Foxconn, 592
Francis (Pope), 186n69
Francisco, J. G., 185n54, 465, 477n20
Franzoni, J. M., 440
Fraser, N., 509, 653, 818, 832n8
Freedom Without Fear (Bekaouf Azadi) for Women, 103–5, 113n15
Freedom Without Fear Platform, 105
Free market capitalism. see neoliberalism
Freire, P., 545
French, J., 91, 109
French Revolution, 353
Friedan, E., 709
Friedman E. J., 610, 611
Friends of Special Products, 479n35
Fukuyama, F., 641
Fundamentalisms
activism, 55, 61, 66, 658–62, 665, 666nn58
agency, 652–54, 663, 664
Al-Azhar, 658
body ownership, 258, 265n2
Buddhism, 653
Christianity, 653
citizenship, 655
communitarianism, 665
DAWN activism, 169–70, 177, 184n38
dichotomization, 664
donor-driven activism, 654, 656–57
Egypt, 656, 664–65, 666n8
facing Fundamentalisms, 666n5
feminist political ecology, 806–7
gender debates, 652–54
identity, 656–57, 660, 663, 664
India, 561–62, 567
intersectionalities, 655
Islamic Republic of Iran, 61, 652–53, 658, 659, 691n10
Islamism, political Islam, 651, 654–58, 662–63, 666n2
Latin America, 658–59, 661
Muslim women, 652–58, 662–64, 666n2
overview, 630, 651–52, 665n1
Pakistan, 561–62
patriarchy, 652–54
political participation, representation, 239–40
privilege, 656–57
religion as political force, 652–54, 664
religious essentialism, 651, 654–58, 662–63, 666n2
rights erosion, 658–62, 666nn58
sacred texts engagement, 662, 664
secular reductionism, 651, 654–58, 664–65, 666n2
sexual rights, reproductive health, 274, 657, 659
Southasian feminist movements, 561–62, 567, 573nn1618, 574nn1920
Ulama of Iran, 658
United States, 653, 660
veiled women’s engagement, 656
WLUML activism, 61, 66, 661
G-77 (Group of 77), 170, 173, 184n37, 727, 741n6
Gandhi, I., 681
Gandhi, L., 560
Gandhi, M., 183n3, 840
Garita, A., 28, 37, 40, 250
Gaventa, J., 524n11
(p. 934) Gender, ecology and economic justice (GEEJ) project, 171–72, 177
Gender Action Plan (GAP), 901
Gender and Economic Reform Programme (GERA), 465
Gender and Trade Network in Africa (GENTA), 465
Gender at Work, 191
Gender at Work analytical matrix, 198–200, 199f, 205, 210
Gender Budget Initiative, 490–92, 501nn45
Gender Equality Architecture campaign, 205–6
“Gender Equality as Smart Economics,” 901
Gender identity. see identity
Gender mainstreaming
Caribbean, 714
cartography, 126
economic and social justice, 449–50
girls in development, 897–98, 898t
women in development, 150
World Bank, 126, 150
GENDERNET, 497
Gender-responsive budgeting
Accra Agenda for Action (AAA), 496–97
budget-classification systems, 492–93, 502n7
call circulars, 492, 501n6
civil society organizations, 492
Domestic Violence Act of 1998, 489–90
expenditure categorization, 491
Financing for Development (FfD), 494–98
five-step approach, 491, 501n4
Fourth High Level Forum (HLF4), 497
funding, 493–500, 502nn812, 503n13
gender-aware beneficiary assessment (GABA), 492
Gender Budget Initiative, 490–92, 501nn45
Gender Equality Action Plan, 502n11
Gender Helpdesk, 502n11
government ministries, 492
“Growing Girls and Women” (GWIN) Programme, 492
Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) policy, 490
history, 487–94, 501nn26
inside government models, 488
Latin America, 492, 493
Monterrey Consensus, 495, 502n9
OECD Aid Effectiveness Agenda, 494–95
OECD gender equality policy marker, 494
overview, 18, 39, 420, 452, 485–87, 500, 501n1
Paris Declaration, 495–96, 502n8
postconflict states, 754
public-finance management cycle indicator, 497–98, 502n12
structural adjustment polices, 485–86
Tanzania, 452, 463, 479n35, 488, 495, 498, 511, 520–21
terminology, 501n5
Third High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF3), 496, 497
Women’s Budget Initiative (WBI), 489–90
Women’s Budget Program, 488–89, 501n23
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 447, 453, 475n1, 476n11, 478n32
Gettleman, J., 202–3
Ghana, 183n3, 287, 387–88, 496, 827
Giles, M. V., 219–20
Gillan, K., 717
Gilligan, C., 821, 822, 832n22
Gillis, S., 719
Girl Centered Program Design toolkit, 907–9, 908f
the Girl Effect, 904–6
Girl Hub, 905
“Girls Count: A Global Investment and Action Agenda,” 906
Girls in development
Beijing Platform for Action, 896
child marriage, 903, 910
citizenship, concepts in, 613–15
education benefits, 899–904, 913n2
evolving capacity concept, 903
feminist concepts, 896–97
gender discrimination, 902–6
gender mainstreaming, 897–98, 898t
girl effect, 904–6
global advocacy, 909–10
global youth bulge, 898
human rights, security, 348–49, 352–53, 363
(p. 935) ICT activism, 910–12
instrumental vs. rights perspective, 901–2, 905, 912–13
movement, 898–99
paradigm shifts, 896–97, 900–901
poverty, 902–6
program models, 907–9, 908f
social media activism, 906
urbanization, 898
work, wage statistics, 902
A Girl’s Right to Say No to Marriage, 903
Girls Who Code, 856, 911
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW), 300–301
Global Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP), 819
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, 275, 276
Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA), 457, 477n22
Global Gender Gap Index, 14, 344, 373, 379, 909
Global value chains (GVCs), 465–67, 470–72, 480n50
Glocal engagements, 12, 19–22, 40–41, 44n1
Goetz, A-M., 193, 205, 207, 614
Goldman, Emma, 705, 708
Goonasekera, H., 238
Gorbachev, M., 670
Gordon, B. S., 188
Gordon, J., 105
Gouges, O. de, 353
Goyal, R., 74
Grail, 450, 475n7
Grandmothers for Peace International, 60t
the Greatest Silence, 202–3
Green, M., 524n11
Greenham Common, 710–11
Grewal, I., 6, 117, 118, 120, 121, 123
Grimké, Angelina/Sarah, 703, 704
Grosser, K., 905
“Growing Girls and Women” (GWIN) Programme, 492
“Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries,” 900
Grown, C., 25, 165, 448
Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR), 490
Guatemala, 63t, 274, 284, 330, 498, 549n8, 807, 825
Guha, R., 798
Gumbonzvanda, N., 197
Guo, J., 598
Gutiérrez, R., 804
Guy-Sheftall, B., 100, 111
Hague Congress, 706
Hall, R. J., 8, 25, 32, 34, 38, 344
Halley, J., 611
Hans, A., 101, 109
Haq, M. ul, 355
Haq, Zia-ul-, 676
Harcourt, W., 623, 769, 807
Hardt, M., 718
Hawkesworth, M., 5, 55
Hawkins, R., 806
Hayden, Casey, 709
Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin, 672, 690n8
Hemispheric Social Alliance, 460, 477n24
Hendricks, S., 29, 41, 856
HERA (Health, Equality, Rights, Accountability), 277
Hernandez, A., 92, 94, 101, 109
Herrero, Y., 824, 833nn3536
Hess, E. B., 5, 54
Heymann, L. G., 706, 707
Heywood, E., 257
Hill, C., 256
Hirway, I., 424
HIV/AIDS, 511, 513, 515–16, 520
Hobhouse, E., 705
Honor killings/crimes of honor, 34, 63, 407–8, 413n23, 661
hooks, b., 8, 344, 394, 395, 410
Hosken, F., 144
Hossain, S., 407
Huainato, M., 208
Hubbard, P., 307
Hudson, V. M., 774
Hug, J. E., 460
Hughes, M., 239
Human Development Report 1994, 352, 355
Human Development Report 2003, 351
(p. 936) Human Life Institut 274
Human rights, security
activism historically, 347–48
armed conflict (militarism), 343–44, 350, 351, 354, 357–59, 641–43
citizenship, 350, 353, 358–63
concepts of, 347, 355–57, 360, 361
critical feminism, 346, 363, 364n1
development discourses, 348–49, 352–53, 363
economic policy, 448–50
exploitation, oppression, 347, 349–51
globalization, 360–62
history, 352–53
identity, 350, 353, 358–63
paradigm shifts, 354–56
patriarchy, 357–60, 363
policy decisions, 348–51, 363
poverty, 347, 350–51
sex as a weapon of war, 351
state’s roles, 350, 357–60, 362–63
strategies, 349, 356–57, 360
UN policy, 348, 352–56, 361
violence, relationships to, 347
violence against women, 350–51, 353, 357–59
wars on terror, 343, 361–62
weapons availability, 350, 358
women’s experiences of, 346–49, 357–59, 362–64
Human Rights Caucus, 301
Human Rights Charter, 352
Human Rights Commission, 390n4
Human Rights Conference, 59, 538, 828, 882
Human trafficking. see sex trafficking
Huntington, S., 643
Hybrid Geographies (Whatmore), 801
Ibrahim, S., 252
Iceland, 373–80, 391nn1718
Identity
body ownership, 253, 256–57, 262–63
citizenship, 608, 612, 615, 616, 618–19
fundamentalisms, 656–57, 660, 663, 664
human rights, security, 350, 353, 358–63
indigenous, 807
militarism, 637–38, 642, 646
sex trafficking, 295–96, 306–7, 316n13
Southasian feminist movements, 553–54, 558–60, 568–69, 574nn2627
Identity politics, 288–89
Identity Politics and Women (Moghadam), 151
Idle No More Movement, 103, 105–7
IDS Women Study Group (IDSWSG), 510
iKNOW Politics, 240, 241
INCITE, 412n13
India
Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 680, 680f, 683
Bekaouf Azadi (Freedom Without Fear) for Women, 103–5, 113n15
care, caregiving in, 437–40, 838
CEDAW, activism on, 387
Chipko movement, 22, 792, 798–800, 838, 842–44
citizenship, 561–62, 567
colonial history, 183n3, 555, 557
Constitution, 680, 692n35, 847, 849, 850n1
crèche-nutrition units (anganwadis), 437–38
democracy, 679–84, 680f, 692nn3236
female genocide, 884–85
food security in, 461–62, 479n37, 846
fundamentalisms, 561–62, 567
gender, climate change tribunals, 792, 826–28
gestational surrogacy in, 311–12
glocal movements, 20
Hindu Succession Act, 387
Indian Divorce Act, 387
Kashmir, 671, 676, 680, 682–85, 689, 691n14, 691n23, 692n36
Kerala, 885
Kunan Poshpora, 683
land ownership, 844–45
militarism, 566
One Billion Rising campaign, 105, 878
Pakistani intervention, 671, 676, 682
panchayati raj, 155n1
patriarchy, 838, 843, 847–50, 886
peace movements, 712
(p. 937) political participation, representation, 239
power configurations 2006, 562
public distribution system (PDS) programs, 846
rape culture, 103–5, 113n15, 254, 262–63, 574n19, 681–84, 692nn3236, 872, 887–90
resources access, 844–45
social media activism, 887–89
social movements, 85, 102–3
social reproduction, 425
SRHR movement, 286
states, population, 680f
STEM gender gap, 865
sustainable livelihoods (see sustainable livelihoods)
tensions within movements, 24
Uttarakhand, 842–44
wage disparities, 373
wars on terror, 679–84, 680f, 688, 692nn3236
WLP activism, 71t
WSF participation, 67
Indigenous identities, 807
Indonesia. see also Timor-Leste
government policies and privilege, 151
political representation, 155n1
STEM gender gap, 865
WLP activism, 71t
women food vendors, 141
Informal Working Group on Gender and Trade (IWGGT), 454, 480n47
Information and communications technologies (ICTs)
activism, 56
activism in general, 855–59
citizenship, 872, 875–79, 890
cyborg phenomenon, 859
digital public spheres, 863–65
digital solidarity, 867
empowerment, entrapment, 859
geospatial engagement, 861
innovation, 859–60, 865–67
liberation, 864–65
limitations, 889–91
Making IT Our Own, 69, 73
politics, political agency, 860–62
potentials, 889–91
power relationships activism, 855–56, 863–65
science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), 857, 859, 865–68
sensor technologies, 866
slacktivism, 891
social media (see social media activism)
sociospatial engagement, 861
violence against women, 27–29, 41–42
Instituto Costarricensede Masculinidad, Pareja y Sexualidad (Costa Rican Masculinity, Couples, and Sexuality Institute, WEM), 330
Instituto Papai, 330
Intellectual property rights, 449, 450, 453–54, 476n11
Interamerican Convention of Belem do Para, 543
International Abolitionist Federation (IAF), 303
International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE), 447
International Bureau for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, 303
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD, Cairo Consensus)
democratization processes, 538
movement building, 59
political fundamentalism, 658
regional reviews, 284–88
rights recognition, claims to, 581
SRHR movement, 168–70, 250, 258, 271–72
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), 44n4, 390n6
International Council of Women (ICW), 705
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 44n4, 224, 390n4, 390n6, 680
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), 44n4, 390n4, 390n6, 499–500, 503n13
International Criminal Court (ICC), 65, 732
International Day of the Girl, 895, 903
International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 490
(p. 938) International Gender and Trade Network (IGTN). see also economic and social justice; trade liberalization
agenda, goals, 457–58, 461–62, 470–75, 477n22, 479nn3638
evolution time line, 468–69
gender-responsive budgeting, 495–96
legacy, 466–67, 480n46
macroeconomic theory, critique of, 448–50
network coordination, 456–58, 477nn2022
network organizations, 469–70
overview, 419–20, 446–47, 475nn13
policy impacts, 462–65
power relations, 449
roles, 18, 455–56, 476nn1617, 477nn1819
strategic approach, 458–62, 477nn2327, 478nn2829, 478nn3134, 479nn3538
structure, 456, 477n23
International Labour Organization (ILO), 150, 162, 424, 463, 464
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 9, 20–21, 30, 57–58, 361, 451, 452, 508, 513, 515, 613
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), 195, 211n14, 727
International Trade Centre, 464
International Women’s Day Conference, 706
International Women’s Health Coalition (IWHC), 185n41, 277
International Women’s Tribune Centre (IWTC), 60t, 145, 278
International Women’s Year, 1, 7, 11, 138, 368, 896
International Working Group on Gender, Macroeconomics and International Economics (IWG-GEM), 459
International Youth Activist Network, 911
Internet of Everything (IoE), 866–67
Iraq
Abu Ghraib prison, 639
activism, 62
honor killings, 63
Organization of Women’s Freedom in Iraq (OWFI), 63
parliamentarian diversity, representativeness, 221
wars on terror, 33–36, 45nn1415, 91, 639
Ireland (Irish Republic)
activism, 62
austerity/fiscal stringency impacts, 20–21
financial crisis 2008, 776
peace movements, 712
voter turnout, 777
Isis International Foundation, 144–45
Isis Women’s International Cross Cultural Exchange, 145
Islamic Republic of Iran
feminist movement in general, 54
fundamentalisms, 61, 652–53, 658, 659, 691n10
humanitarianism, 62, 63t
political participation, representation, 218
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 274, 285–86
Stop Stoning Forever Campaign, 882
WLP activism, 71t, 75–76
Islamism, political Islam, 651, 654–58, 662–63, 666n2
Israel
antiwar movements, 712–13
humanitarianism, 63t
Israeli–Palestinian conflict, 194
neoliberalism, 77, 91
peace movements, 712
wars on terror funding, 690n5
ITForChange, 911
Jackson, L., 202–3
Jad, I., 83, 100, 109–10
Jain, D., 173, 193
Jamaica
colonial history, 183n3
DAWN activism, 162, 163
engagement, 98
gender-responsive budgeting, 498
neoliberalism, 85
online spaces activism, 911
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 284, 285
structural adjustment policies, 451, 475n7
trade facilitation, 451, 475n7, 480n51
UNSCR 1325, 734
(p. 939) Japan
Constitution, 188
human rights, security, 356–57
political participation, representation, 218
rights, claiming, 388
sex trafficking, 267n7
women’s rights, 188
Jaquette, J., 151
Jenichen, A., 652
Jenson, J., 429–30, 442n5
Jimomi, K., 681
Joint Monitoring Committee on the Improvement of the Quality of Life and Status of Women (JMCW), 489
Jordan, 54, 63t, 70–72t, 73–74, 76, 659, 661
Joya, M., 674
Juba Peace Talks, 769
Justice Verma Report, 103, 104, 113n15, 887, 890
Kabeer, N., 370, 486, 616, 780, 896, 897
Kaga, M., 877
Kali for Women, 560
Kandiyoti, D., 35, 655, 664, 771
Kant, I., 298, 309, 314, 703
Kaplan, K., 6, 117, 118, 120, 121, 123
Kapur, R., 262, 406
Karl, M., 144
Karzai, H., 674
Kaufman, M., 326–27, 337n6
Kazakhstan, 71–72t, 73
Kazi, S., 34, 35, 38, 343, 630
Kazibwe, S., 727
Keck, M., 873
Kelkar, G., 559
Kelleher, D., 198
Kennedy, J. F., 137
Kerstein, S. J., 310
“Key Learnings from Feminists on the Frontline,” 660
Keynes, J. M., 820–21
Khalid, M., 33, 34, 343, 629
Khan, N. S., 559
Khan, Z., 18, 39, 419, 420
Khanna, A., 261
Kimmel, M., 321, 325
King, M., 709
Kingston, M. H., 190
Kitunga, D., 524n3
Klot, J. F., 14, 25, 38, 362, 699–700
Kollontai, A., 706
Korea, 144, 183n3, 235, 385, 497, 519, 591, 865
Koshan, J., 399, 401
Kothari, A., 838, 849
Krishna, S., 19, 22, 40, 41, 791, 792, 848
Kristof, N., 267n7
Krook, M. L., 191, 201, 224, 235
Kulkarni, S., 844, 845, 849
Kunin, M., 238
Kurian, P. A., 27, 855–56
Kyoto Protocol, 816
Kyrgystan, 71–72t, 75
Labarca, A., 536
Labor Contract Law, 590, 592
Lagarde, M., 330
Land Contract Law, 584
Lane, M., 361
Lanza, G., 405
Laos, 7, 146, 156n4
Latin America. see also specific countries
activism, 56, 62
Afrodescendientes, 540–41
alliance building, 40, 610–11
androcentric dualism, 36–37
antipoverty policies, 433
care, caregiving, 433–40, 542, 545, 550n15
conditional cash transfers, 433–34
Costa Rica, 138, 326, 330, 440, 540
crises identification, 164
Cuba, 62, 63t, 183n3, 282, 285, 327, 536, 549, 714
democratization processes (see democratization processes, Latin America)
discourse appropriation, 94–95
economic justice organizations in in general, 451
encuentros (encounters), 20, 56, 548n2, 610
family power relationships, 147–48, 156n4
forced sterilization policies, 542
fundamentalisms, 658–59, 661
gender, climate change tribunals, 792, 826–28
gender-responsive budgeting, 492, 493
(p. 940) Guatemala, 63t, 274, 284, 330, 498, 549n8, 807, 825
human rights, security, 356
indigenous identities, 807
Isis International Foundation, 144–45
peace movements, 712–14
political participation, representation, 221–23, 230, 235, 237–38
preschool education, 434–35
profeminism (see profeminism)
Puerto Rico, 110, 536, 549n9
Resistance Societies, 535–36
right to have rights, 30, 326, 531–32, 547–48, 550nn1819
scholarly collaborations, 327
social investment state, 430, 442n5
state feminism, 237
sustainable development movements, 825
Venezuela, 186n65, 326, 536, 825
violence against women, 405, 541, 549n8
Visitacion Padilla, 405
widow’s mandate, 237
WLP activism, 71–72t
“Women in the Labour Force in Latin America,” 162–63
WSF participation, 67
Latin American Union of Women (ULAM), 825
La Via Campesina, 67, 467, 478n31, 478n33
Lawrence, B., 122
Leading to Choices, 68, 73, 75
League of Women Freethinkers, 536
Lebanon, 63t, 70–72t, 73–75
Lechner, N., 545
Lee, K., 598–99
Lemrini, A., 387
Lewis, J., 427
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), 684–86, 693n40
Liberia, 63t, 218, 225, 238, 287, 463, 477n18, 726, 773
Limoncelli, S. A., 302–4
Linkage Caucus, 473n3
Lister, R., 55, 872, 876
Liu B., 585
Li Y., 585, 598–99
Locke, J., 256
Lovenduski, J., 231
Luisi, P., 536
Lund, F., 442n8
Luxembourg, 375, 377
Luxemburg, R., 706
Lynch, J., 644
Maastricht Treaty, 447
MacArthur, D., 188
Machel, G., 730
MacKinnon, C., 396, 399
MADRE, 60t, 62–63, 63t, 77
Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, 537, 548n1, 712
Madunagu, B., 167, 185n53
Mahmoud, S., 653
Mahon, R., 430, 431
Maicuashca, B., 66, 67
Mair, L., 149, 162, 163
Making IT Our Own, 69, 73
“Making Women Work for Development—Again,” 901
Malaysia
colonial history, 183n3
gender roles, inequality in, 372–73, 391n13
Ninth Malaysia Plan, 372–73
reproductive rights in, 255
WLP activism, 72t
Mama, A., 409
Mandatory charging, 401, 412nn1213
Mani, L., 357
Manjoo, R., 682
Manorama, T. D., 681–82
Maoist movements, 838
Mao Z., 588
Maracle, L., 96, 101, 110
Marche Mondiale des Femmes, 60t, 61, 66–67
Markers on the Way: The DAWN Debates on Alternative Development, 169
Marketisation of Governance: Critical Feminist Perspectives from the South, 171, 178
Marriage Law, 584
Marshall, T. H., 547, 616
Martin, C., 875
Martinez, N., 536
Masood, A. J., 678
Massoud, A. S., 691n15
(p. 941) Matorras, R., 310
Matthews, R., 307
Maunaguru, S., 573n16
Mauritania, 72t, 74, 75, 287, 882
Mazumdar, V., 848
Mazurana, D., 740
Mbilinyi, M., 21, 41, 42, 419, 420, 524n3
McAdam, S., 105
McAskie, C., 728
McClintock, A., 315n7, 406
McFarland, A., 890
McKay, F., 191, 201
McLean, S., 105
Mead, M., 138
Media, objectification of women by, 377–78
Medica Mondiale, 60t, 62, 63t
Medica Women’s Therapy Centre, 712
Mehta, H., 161
Mendoza, B., 553, 873
Men Engage, 326
Menocal, A. R., 774, 779
Menon, N., 32, 104
Menon, P., 197
Menon-Sen, K., 838
Mercosur Feminist Articulation, 67
Mexican Federal Daycare Program for Working Mothers, 436
Mexico
Agrarian Code, 536
conditional cash transfers, 433–34
democratization processes, 536, 537, 539
discourse appropriation, 94–95
First Feminist Congress, 536
land ownership rights, 536
peace movements, 718
preschool education, 434–35
profeminism in, 327–29
Zapatista uprising, 539
Micheletti, M., 890
Middle East. see also specific countries
Jordan, 54, 63t, 70–72t, 73–74, 76, 659, 661
Lebanon, 63t, 70–72t, 73–75
political participation, representation, 221–22, 238–39
postconflict change, 16, 238–39
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 274–75
state feminism, 237
Turkey, 72t, 661
WLP activism, 71–72t, 73–75
Middleton, E., 804
Migrant women, 300, 302–4, 306–7, 315n7, 583, 589–93
Migrant workers’ abuses, 384
Milevska, S., 572n1
Militarism. see also wars on terror
co-optations, collusions, 629–30, 644–45
empiricist feminism, 634
gender concepts, 633–35, 646
gender difference, institutionalization of, 636
gendered effects, assumptions, 632–33
gender roles, 637, 639–40
human rights, security, 343–44, 350, 351, 354, 357–59, 641–43
identity, 637–38, 642, 646
as ideology, 635–36, 643
as institution, 636–39, 642–43
intersectionality, 641–42
language, 637, 638
legitimization, 638, 642
military values, 633
national interest construction, 637–38
overview, 629–30, 645–47
patriarchy, 33–36, 44n6, 45nn1415, 636–38, 646
peace movements, 705, 708, 716–17
post structuralist feminism, 634–35
power relations, 636–38, 641
sexual violence, 405, 640–41
Southasian feminist movements, 561–63, 566, 573nn1618, 574nn1920
Sri Lanka, 555, 558–59, 620–21
standpoint feminism, 634
state’s roles, 635–38
symbolism, 643, 644
Wars on Terror, 643–45
women’s roles, 638–40, 646
Mill, J. S., 705, 707
Millennial Development process, 897
Millennium Declaration, 476n15, 897
Millennium Development Goals, 1, 66, 215, 225, 273, 476nn1516, 493, 828, 901
Miller, A., 406
Millet, K., 298
(p. 942) Mir-Hosseini, Z., 662
Mitchell, J., 471
Mlambo-Ngucka, P., 491
Moghadam, V. M., 4, 5, 8, 30, 51, 151, 446, 448, 451, 711, 712, 818, 832n6, 873
Mohanty, C. T., 6, 8, 10, 23, 24, 30, 36, 51, 117, 118, 121, 122, 124, 411n3, 508, 609, 818, 832n9
Mohapatra, S., 310
Mollett, S., 802, 807
Montes, M., 478n29
Morocco
CEDAW, activism on, 387
DAWN activism, 164
Family Code, 387
fundamentalisms, 61
gender-responsive budgeting, 420, 492, 493
humanitarianism, 63t
Personal Status Code, 387
transnational feminist networks, 56, 65–66
WLP activism, 70–72t, 75
Moser, C., 148, 486
Mott, L., 704
Moustafa, Y., 656
Movement for the Emancipation of Chilean Woman, 536
Movimiento Machista (Masculinist Movement), 335
Moyano, M. E., 537
Mozambique, 16, 492, 748, 772
Mujeres por la Paz, 714
Mukhopadhyay, M., 12, 32, 195, 343, 531, 533
Multifibre Arrangement, 476n13
Mumsnet, 862
Mundkur, A., 27, 855–56
Munshi, D., 27, 855–56
Musawah, 661, 663, 666n6
Musharraf, P., 676, 678
Muslim Arbitration Tribunal (MAT), 657
Muslim women, 652–58, 662–64, 666n2
NAACP, 703
Nagar, R., 24, 97–98, 110, 124
Namibia Plan of Action on Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in Multidimensional Peace Support Operations, 727
Naripokkho, 620
Narrian, A., 113n15
National Committee of Women, 536
National Feminist Party, 536
National Liberation Front (NLF), 710
National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS), 324, 337n4
National Organization for Women (NOW), 709
National Women’s Studies Association (NWSA), 152
National Working Committee on Women and Children, 583–84
Native Women’s Association, 403
Negri, A., 718
Neoliberalism
activism, 51–52, 56, 61
basis, goals, 777
care, caregiving, 426–27, 429–30, 432
climate justice, 792, 805–6, 817, 819–22
engagement with, 85–95
feminist critiques, 448–50
globalization effects, 78n1
human rights, security, 360–62
Latin America, 539
patriarchy, 8–9, 30–33, 38
sex trafficking, 306
Southasian feminist movements, 554–55, 558, 563–64, 570
Sri Lanka, 558
structural adjustment policies, 448
Tanzania, 85, 507–9, 512–14
transnational feminist movements in general, 8–9, 30–33, 38
United Kingdom, 85–86, 657–58
United States, 85–86, 95, 653, 708–10
violence against women, 89, 409, 411n10
Nepal
alliance building, 566–67, 574n24
CEDAW, activism on, 386, 390n10
citizenship, 558
Constituent Assembly, 771–72
gender-responsive budgeting, 492–93, 502n7
militarism, 555
political participation, representation, 771–72
(p. 943) Nesiah, V., 620, 621, 622
NETRIGHT, 496
Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), 301
Newman, E., 347
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), 465
Nicaragua
care, caregiving, 437–39
fundamentalisms, 659, 661
neoliberalism, 85
political participation, representation, 238
power relationships, 147–48
profeminism, 329–30
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 284, 549n5, 659
transnational feminist networks, 62–63
WLP activism, 72t
Nigeria
colonial history, 183n3
discrimination universality, 381–83
gender, climate change tribunals, 792, 826–28
gender-responsive budgeting, 492
WLP activism, 72t, 73
women food vendors, 141
Nike Foundation, 904, 905, 906
Nirmal, P., 18, 42, 791
Nkrumah, K., 183n3
Nobel Women’s Initiative, 60t
Nobre, M., 67
No Man’s Land initiative, 570–71
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), 160, 183n5
Noor, 607–8, 615
North-South divide
engagement with, 87, 90, 95–97, 100–101
overview, 23–25
profeminism, 333, 334t, 336n3
North South Institute (Canada), 463
Norway
gender equality in, 373–77
objectification of women by the media, 378
political participation, representation, 221, 241
violence against women, 378–80, 391nn1718
Nosseir, A., 662
“Notes on Transformative Feminism,” 511, 524n3
Nwosu-Juba, N., 73
Obama, B., 278, 656
Objectification of women by the media, 377–78
O’Brien, J., 197
O’Brien, R., 613
O’Connell, H., 17, 20, 700–701, 769
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 315n10
Ogata, S., 357
Okazawa-Rey, M., 99, 101, 110
One Billion Rising, 105, 878
One-child policy, 33, 588–90
Ontario Women’s Justice Network, 412n12
Oparah, J., 98, 100, 101, 110
Operation Enduring Freedom, 35
Orford, A., 731
Organization of Islamic Conference States, 275
Organizations, institutions, 13–17, 26, 32–33, 38–39. see also United Nations; warriors within
Osborne, H. E., 402
Oslo Donors’ Conference, 770
Otto, D., 194, 731, 735, 739
“Our Common Future,” 822
“Our Rights, Our Lives,” 280–81
Our World Is Not for Sale (OWINFS), 456–57, 460, 477n19
Overseas Development Institute (ODI), 463
Pacific Islands, 164, 286, 758
Padhi, R., 848, 849
Pakistan
al-Qaeda, 676–78
Baluchistan, 678, 692n31
citizenship, 561–62
civilian government, 676
colonial history, 183n3, 555, 557
disappearances, 678
fundamentalisms, 561–62
gender, climate change tribunals, 792, 826–28
glocal movements, 20
(p. 944) Islamization, 675–77
militarism, 566
mujahideen, 676
Musharraf regime, 676, 678
power configurations 2006, 562
Punjab, 678
Quetta shura, 678
religious minorities killings, 676, 678, 692n30
sexual harassment, 205
Swat Valley war, 676–77, 691n24 692n26
Taliban, 676–78
US intervention, 675, 676, 679
violence against women, 678–79
war crimes apology, 559, 573n12
wars on terror, 675–79, 688–89, 691nn2224, 692nn2531
Waziristan, 677, 692n27
WLP activism, 72t
women’s rights, 675–77, 691n24, 692nn2530
Pakistan-India People’s Forum for Peace and Democracy (PIPFPD), 566
Palestine
humanitarianism, 63t
neoliberalism, 92
Palestinian Authority, 655
peace movements, 66, 712
transnational feminist networks, 62–63, 77, 99
WLP activism, 71–72t, 73–74
Pan-American Women’s Federation, 535
Pande, A., 311, 312
Pandey, J. S., 103–5, 254, 262, 872, 887–89
Papadaki, E., 298
Papp, A., 408
Paris Declaration, 495–96, 502n8
Parvez, A., 407–8
Parvez, M., 407–8
Patel, P., 657, 658, 664
Pathways to Women’s Empowerment, 209–10, 901
Patriarchy
as cause of violence against women, 32, 344, 395, 396, 399–400, 406–8, 411n5, 412n21
citizenship, 610
climate justice, 821, 823
collective emancipation, 40
contradictions/collusions/co-optations, 31–36
culture vs. rights debate, 34
depatriarchalization, 30, 45n11
dualisms, creation of, 34, 45n14
engagement with, 14–15, 89, 101
female genocide, 884–85
fundamentalisms, 652–54
gender binaries, working beyond, 36–37
gender roles, inequality in, 372–73, 382
human rights, security, 357–60, 363
men, working with, 36
militarism, 33–36, 44n6, 45nn1415, 636–38, 646
neoliberalism, 8–9, 30–33, 38
peace movements, 33, 705–7, 709, 716, 719
religions, 30
state building, rebuilding, 701, 767–72, 777
state funding, 32–33
sustainable livelihoods, 838, 843, 847–50, 886
Tanzania, 85, 507–9, 512–14
transformation of, 29–31, 45n11, 135, 205
United Kingdom, 657–58
wage disparities, 373–75, 431, 442n4
wars on terror, 33–36, 45nn1415, 91
women in development (WID) approach, 143–44, 148, 154–55, 156n4
Paxton, P., 239
Peace movements
abolitionism, 703–4, 709
activism (transnational organizations), 711–13
antiwar activism (IGOs, INGOs), 714–17
antiwar activism (transatlantic), 705–7
antiwar activism (United States), 707–9
CEDAW, 715
China, 712
citizenship, 704
class exploitation, 704
gender concerns, inclusion of, 620–22
goals in general, 6
history, Europe, 704–5
(p. 945) history, United States, 702–4
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), 711, 714–17
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), 711–12, 714–17
Latin America, 712–14
militarism, 705, 708, 716–17
nonviolent resistance, 703, 708
overview, 699, 719–20
pacifism, 703, 708, 709
patriarchy, 33, 705–7, 709, 716, 719
political representation, 16, 719–20
power relations, 716, 719
second wave feminism, 708–10, 719
separatism, 709–11
solidarity, 713–14, 718
sovereignty, 718
state building, rebuilding, 769–72 785nn12, 786n3
themes, 703
third wave feminism, 716, 719, 720n1
training, 32
transnational feminist networks (TFNs), 717–18
Vietnam, 710
women’s suffrage, 703–5
World War I, 705–6
Peake, L., 88, 110
People’s Earth Declaration, 824
People’s SAARC, 566–67, 574n24
Percy, C., 138
Peru
climate justice, 825, 827
democratization processes, 534–38, 541–42, 550n19
fundamentalisms, 660
humanitarianism, 63t
motherist, difference identities, 151
political participation, representation, 219
profeminism, 326–27
sexual, reproductive health/rights, 284
WLP activism, 69
Petchesky, R. P., 27, 36, 37, 249
Petraeus, D., 266n3
Philipose, E., 406
Philippines
CEDAW, activism on, 384, 386
fundamentalisms, 657
Gabriela Women’s Party, 223
Magna Carta of Women, 387
migrant workers, abuses of, 384
political participation, representation, 223
sexual rights, reproductive health, 258, 657
SRHR movement, 286
women food vendors, 141
Phillips, A., 219, 663
Pinochet, A., 20
Plan International, 902, 903
Plumwood, V., 823, 825
Polanyi, K., 821
Political ecology, 794–95. see also feminist political ecology (FPE)
Political participation, representation
alliance building, 240
appointments, 235–36
approaches to, 220–21
challenges, 225–30
China, 585, 596–97
critical mass, 215, 219, 242n2, 748, 763n8
cross-border networking, 240
degendering, 220
democratic structures, processes, 216
double bias, 230
double binds, 219, 223–24
economic, human development, 216–18
education, knowledge, 228–29
egalitarian ideologies, 236–37
electoral systems, 231
family, domestic responsibilities, 219, 225–26, 236–37
family relations (kinship), 237–38
feminist movement roles, 223–24
fundamentalisms, 239–40
increases in, 216
Indonesia, 155n1
institutional limitations, 230–32
international conventions, agreements, 224–25
justifications, 217
leadership style, 218–20
local government, 236
mechanisms, 222
money networks, access to, 226–27
Nordic countries, 221, 241
(p. 946) old boys’ networks, 229
overview, 215–16, 240–42, 242nn12
parliamentary systems, 231–32
peace movements, 16, 719–20
personal safety, 229–30
political parties, 232
postconflict change, 16, 238–39
postconflict states, 16, 238–39, 700, 747–48, 756, 758–62, 763n9, 772
quotas, 233–34
reserved seats, 234–35
socialization, 228
Southasian feminist movements, 221–22, 235–37, 239, 241
state building, rebuilding, 772–75
state feminism, 237
statistics, 221–22
stereotypical expectations, 219–20, 227–28
substantive representation, 220–21
symbolic representation, 220
temporary special measures, 233
transactional leadership style, 219
transformational leadership style, 219
UNSCR 1325 mandate, 204, 225
widow’s mandate, 237
women in development (WID) approach, 153–54
women’s interests, defining, 217
the Politics of Piety (Mahmoud), 653
Population Council, 906, 907, 913n2
Postcolonial theory
capitalist vs. communist models of integration, 7
center-periphery models, 6
feminist political ecology, 803–4
First World–Third World model, 6
marginalization factors, 7–8
overview, 6
Second World model, 6
Postconflict states. see also Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB); Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste
critical mass, 215, 219, 242n2, 748, 763n8
donor assistance, 747
gender equality, 747, 762–63
gender-responsive budgets, 754
international interventions, 750, 757–58, 762
overview, 700
political participation, representation, 16, 238–39, 700, 747–48, 756, 758–62, 763n9, 772
state building, 747, 762
UNSCR 1325 mandates, 746–47 (see also UN Security Council Resolution 1325)
violence against women, 754, 756
women as peacemakers, 755–57
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), 614
Power relationships
CEDAW, 371, 372, 390n10
engagement with, 87–88, 92, 94, 96–99
ICT activism, 855–56, 863–65
IGTN, 449
Latin America, 147–48, 156n4, 545–47, 550nn1617
militarism, 636–38, 641
peace movements, 716, 719
profeminism, 323, 324, 328–29, 332, 336n3
state building, rebuilding, 701, 767–72, 777, 781–83
sustainable livelihoods, 841
TFNs, 872–74
violence against women, 398–99, 406, 411n10
Pradhan, P., 848, 849
Pramanik, P., 253
Prashad, V., 709, 710
Pratt, M. B., 101, 102, 110–11
“Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations,” 779
Prinsloo, J., 360
Privilege
activism, 126
citizenship, 610
engagement with, 87–88, 92, 94, 96–99
feminist theory and praxis, 11, 25–26
fundamentalisms, 656–57
Indonesia, 151
Profeminism
academia, 326–27, 332–35, 334t, 337n6
activism, 327–30, 332–35, 334t
(p. 947) alliance building, solidarity with, 36, 332, 334
challenges, 331
colloquias, 326
Declaration of Rio, 325–26
engagement modes, 330–31, 337n7
experiences of, 329–32
gendered social expectations, 323–24
gender roles historically, 323–24
HIV/AIDS, 331–32
homophobia, 331–32
influences, debates on, 327–29
Latin American actors, 325–27, 332, 337n6
machismo, 328–29
masculinity studies, 327–29
NGOs, social organizations, 325–26
North-South divide, 333, 334t, 336n3
organization scale, structure, 331
overview, 251, 321–23, 336, 336nn12
power relationships, 323, 324, 328–29, 332, 336n3
prostitution, pornography, 323, 324
quasi-identities, 325
socioeconomic class, 335
stigma, 331–32
strategies, 331, 334t
subregions studies, 327
transgender men, 332
United States, 323–25, 328, 336n3, 337n4
violence, 328
women’s pleasure, 323–24
workshops, 329–30
youth, 328, 335
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, 299
Prügl, E., 32, 196, 611
Puerto Rico, 110, 536, 549n9
Quateart, J., 702
Quito Consensus, 543, 549n13
Rabbani, B., 690n8
Race, Space and the Law: Unmapping a White Settler Society (Razack), 402
Raday, F., 371, 381, 384
Raging Grannies, 718
Rahman, A., 522
Rahnavard, Z., 218
Rakhsha Bandhan, 573n9
Rao, A., 198
Rape culture, 103–5, 113n15, 254, 262–63, 574n19, 681–84, 692nn3236, 872, 887–90
Razack, S., 402
Razavi, S., 19, 39, 419,