Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 January 2020

(p. 557) Index

(p. 557) Index

Abdulmutallab, Umar Farouk, 441
absentia trials, 532, 537n35, 537n36
absolute pacifism, 281
acquisitive prescription, 129–30
act-consequentialism, 24
action-guiding principles, 167, 169–74, 177–78, 182, 183n3, 183n4, 183n7
active shielding, 11, 383
Addams, Jane, 277, 281
administrability of jus in bello, 85–87, 94n32
Adomnán of Iona, 5, 109–10
Adrian VI (pope), 128–30, 141n51, 142n58
aftermath of war. See jus post bellum
After War Ends (May), 508
Alexander of Hales, 74n4, 114
alienation, 253
Altman, Andrew, 327
altruism, Lewis conventions and, 94n28
Ambrose of Milan, 67, 105, 107–9
Anderson, Kenneth, 480
annexation, 242, 250–51
anti-impunity norm, 16, 519–35
Appian, 192
Aquinas, Thomas, 5, 100–101, 114–16, 143n79
on authority, 294
historiography of just war theory and, 59–60, 63, 65–68, 70, 72–73, 74n4, 76n35, 78n86
late scholastics and, 122–23, 130–32, 135–36, 143n79
war as defined by, 61, 63, 75n10
‘Arbitration Model’ (Shapiro), 314n40
Aristotle, 63, 76n39, 102–3, 115, 260
Arneson, Richard, 26
Arthaśāstra (Kautilya), 74n2
Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, 546
Augustine of Hippo, 4, 5, 57n22
analyses within works of, 104
on authority, 294
on dehumanizing nature of war, 488
historiography of just war theory and, 63–65, 67, 69–70
late scholastics and, 123, 132–33, 143n79
personal pacifism as reaction to, 282
tradition of just war theory and, 100, 102, 104, 106–8, 110, 113, 115, 119n53
authoritarianism, 213–16, 221n36
authority. See legitimate authority
autonomy, 81
of drones/robots, 478–81, 486n33
Ayala, Balthazar, 67, 72, 147
Azpilcueta, Martin (Navarrus), 127–28, 133
Bacon, Francis, 63–64
Bainton, Roland H., 78n67
Báñez, Domingo, 132–33, 142n61
Barry, Christian, 10
Bartolus of Saxoferrato, 67, 76n34
Bass, Gary, 507
Bazargan, Saba, 11, 35, 40n48, 342–43, 347
bearer, 9
humanitarian intervention and, 299
of legitimate authority, 297–98, 300, 302–6, 308–11, 313n24, 314n38
of national defence rights, 246
of occupancy rights, 246
Beaufort, Leo J. C., 77n56
Beitz, Charles, 22
belief-relative permissibility, 50, 57n28
Bellamy, Alex, 129, 508–9
Benbaji, Yitzhak, 9, 30–31, 219
on exceptionalism, 333n18
on moral equality of combatants, 346, 348
(p. 558) beneficiary, 9, 11
authority and, 297–98, 300, 302–6, 308–11
humanitarian intervention and, 299
unjust, war profiteers as, 363–64, 368–74, 378–79
of war-building, 289
Bengali Famine, 280
Bentham, Jeremy, 81
Biel, Gabriel, 126
Bismarck, Otto von, 544
bloodless invasion, 7, 209, 213, 323, 334n37, 335n58
Blum, Gabriella, 189
Bonet, Honoré, 66
Boniface, 107, 119n53
Bourne, Randolph, 288
Braun, Megan, 51
Breivik, Anders, 441
Brunstetter, Daniel, 51
Bryan, William Jennings, 277, 290
Buchanan, Allen, 6, 31
on insurgencies, 334n36
on internationalizing intervention, 240n34
on international law, 216–17
on violence towards combatants, 232
Bull, Hedley, 147
Bush Administration, 177
Butler, Smedly D., 364
Caedel, Martin, 291n10
Caesar, Julius, 192–93, 198
Cáin Adomnán, 5, 109–10
Cajetan (Thomas de Vio), 63, 75n23
Aquinas and, 114, 122
late scholastics and, 122, 128, 131, 133
no-inquiry claim and, 186
on tripartite scheme of obligation, 196–97
canon law/canonists
historiography of just war theory and, 64–65, 76n34
tradition of just war theory and, 100, 110–16
capital punishment, 75n10, 89
Card, Claudia, 442, 446, 448
Casas, Bartolomé de las, 124
CAT (United Nations Convention Against Torture), 14, 456–58
Catholic Church. See Roman Catholic Church
Causa 23, Decretum Gratiani, 59, 64–66, 110
Ceadel, Martin, 105
Chavez, Cesar, 277
chivalric law, 100, 105
Chobham, Thomas, 114
Christian Attitudes Toward War and Peace (Bainton), 78n67
Christie, Lars, 10
Churchill, Winston, 515
Cicero, 63, 102–5, 108–9, 115
civilians. See also noncombatant immunity
control of military by, 186, 197–99, 202n41, 202n43
defined, 359
selective conscientious objection by, 199n2
civil law, 76n34, 81, 91. See also criminal law/courts
civil rights/human rights
individual vs. collective, 328–29, 335n58
political independence and, 213–16, 221n36
value of sovereignty and, 227–28, 239n15
civil war/revolution, 10, 315–31, 332n3. See also insurgencies
authority and, 325–26
consent and, 325–31, 335n51, 335n57, 335n58
defined, 315
equivalence thesis and, 322–25, 334n36, 334n37, 334n39, 334n46
exceptionalism and, 318–20, 333n18
fiduciary obligations and, 324–25, 334n39, 334n46
jus ad bellum and, 321–22, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31
just cause and, 320–22, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31
national partiality and, 322–23
obedience and, 323–24, 334n36, 334n37
reconciliation after, 538, 551n2
reductive individualism and, 318–20
regular war tradition and, 161n22
Classics of International Law, The (Scott, ed.), 67, 77n47
Clausewitz, Carl von, 62, 266, 278, 287
on escalation of war, 266
on question of war, 278
on war system, 287
(p. 559) Clinton, William Jefferson, 300, 313n23
Coady, C. A. J., 75n13, 442, 451
Coates, A. J., 312n5
collateral damage, 94n35, 359. See also noncombatant immunity; proportionality
adverse consequences as, 24
civil rights and, 215
doctrine of double effect and, 403–4
just war theory and, 423, 438n9
late scholastics on, 135–37
collective necessity constraint, 34–35
collectivism
drones/robots and, 484
exceptionalism and, 10, 316–17, 319
individualism vs., 328–29, 335n58
jus ad bellum-jus in bello distinction and, 43
moral equality of combatants and, 56n4, 340–48, 352–53, 354n7, 354n9
colonialism, 242, 250–51, 254, 258
reparations/restitution after, 548–50, 554n51
combatants
clerics as, 111, 115, 120n76
collective vs. individual, 224–25
conduct of, 42
conscripted (See conscripts)
Crusades and, 113–14
defined, 358
discrimination requirement and, 453n21
distinction of targets and, 81–82, 93n6
humanitarian intervention and, 230–33, 235–36, 240n27
jus ad bellum theorizing and, 7
jus in bello proportionality and, 427–35
just cause and, 42, 49–50
late scholastics on, 128–29
mercenary (See mercenaries)
moral equality of (See moral equality of combatants)
privilege of, 358–61
proportionality and, 419, 427–35
riskless killing and, 477–78
selective conscientious objection by, 185–99, 199n2
‘combatant’s privilege’, 358–61
common good, 102, 107, 131, 135, 307
Concordia discordantium canonum. See Decretum Gratiani
conditional threats, 206–10, 219n6, 220n10, 220n12–n17
conduct of war, 10–15
conscience, 7, 65
conscientious objection, 68
conscripts
distinction of targets and, 82
humanitarian intervention and, 225
human shields and, 12, 388–89, 399n14, 399n16–n18
rioting by, 289
selective conscientious objection by, 199n2
consent
insurgencies and, 325–31, 335n51, 335n57, 335n58
proportionality and, 329–31
consequentialism, 24, 29
enriched jus ad bellum and, 171
liberation strategy for, 372
content-independent reasoning, 302
contingent pacifism, 22, 36n4, 280–81, 288
contractualist exceptionalism, 10, 317, 319, 484
conventions of jus in bello, 83–85, 87–89, 94n27, 94n28, 94n32, 94n34–95n37
‘Cosmopolitanism’ (Fabre), 220n12
Cosmopolitan War (Fabre), 42
Coste, René, 71
costs of war, 15, 490, 492–97, 501n37
coups, bloodless, 323, 334n37, 335n58
Cox, Rory, 5
Crawford, James, 546
Crawford, Neta, 376
created evil, 260–65, 267, 269–72, 274
criminal gangs, 295, 299, 312n5, 313n14
criminal law/courts, 16, 522, 529, 531–32. See also civil law; international law; specific court; specific tribunal
in absentia trials and, 532, 537n35, 537n36
aggression and, 527–29, 536n24, 536n25
authority and, 296, 312n7, 312n8
(p. 560) candidates for trial and, 522–24
crimes against humanity and, 525–26, 536n12, 536n15
jurisdiction and, 529–31, 536n28, 537n31, 537n33
jus post bellum and, 519–35, 535n8, 535n11, 536n12, 536n15, 537n31
negotiated justice, 532–33
nonpenal mechanisms and, 16, 519–21, 523
plea bargains, 532–33
punishment and, 533–35
terrorism as crime and, 452n1, 527
victim participation and, 531
critical war theory, 291
criticism, moral, ethics of, 80–81, 92–93
Crito (Plato), 81
Cromwell, Oliver, 198
Crusades, 113–14
cultural practice/culture. See social practice/society
Day, Dorothy, 285
death camps, 448–51, 454n27, 454n30
death penalty. See capital punishment
De bello (Suárez), 196, 202n38
decision-making, 9, 65, 69, 196–97, 202n37, 202n43
declaration of war, 6
authority of Church and, 110–12, 120n71, 120n76
historiography of just war theory and, 68–70, 73, 78n86
just war framework and, 43–47, 50–51, 54–55
method in morality of war and, 34
regular war tradition and, 146, 153–55, 162n41
decline of warfare, 2
Decretum Gratiani, 4, 59, 64–66, 76n33, 76n34, 110–11, 120n76
Defensive Killing (Frowe), 221n29
deference. See obedience
De jure belli ac pacis (Grotius), 60, 65, 73, 79n86
demarcation, 10
exceptionalism and, 318–20
within pacifism, 279
Demjanjuk, John, 535n8
De Officiis (Cicero), 102
dependence, jus post bellum and, 510–14, 516
De Re Publica (Cicero), 102
Descartes, Rene, 64
descriptive individualism, 33–36
deterrence, human shields and, 391–92, 399n24
Dewey, John, 289
dictatorships. See authoritarianism
Dill, Janina, 362
Dinstein, Yoram, 79n91
disciplined obedience, 197, 202n43
discrimination requirement, 12. See also noncombatant immunity
combatants and, 453n21
drones/robots and, 14, 474–75, 478–79
enriched jus ad bellum and, 169, 171
displacement, 1
distinction of targets, 81–82, 93n6
Doctrine de la guerre juste de Saint Augustin à nos jours (Regout), 69
doctrine of double effect, 12–13, 135
bad intention and, 411–12
exclusionary, 407–10
harming as side effect and, 403–4
means without intention and, 407–12
national defence/military advantage and, 402, 405–7, 412
opportunism and, 412–15
terrorism and, 401–2, 405–14
ways of killing and, 402–15
Doctrine scholastique de droit de guerre (Vanderpol), 67
Donatists, 106
Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 539
drafts. See conscripts
‘Dream of the Ridiculous Man, The’ (Dostoyevsky), 539
Droit des Gens (Vattel), 78n83
(p. 561) drones/robots, 14–15, 472–85
accountability and, 479–81, 486n33
advantages of, 473–75
arguments against, 475–78
autonomous, 478–81, 486n33
collectivism and, 484
contractualist exceptionalism and, 484
discrimination requirement and, 474–75, 478–79
emotion and, 481
individualism and, 483–84
jus ad bellum and, 483
jus in bello and, 473–74, 477–79
proportionality and, 473–75, 478–80
results of use of, 481–82, 487n40
riskless killing and, 477–78
self-defence and, 483–84
targeted killing and, 482–84
early church. See Roman Catholic Church
economics
humanitarian intervention and, 226–30, 239n15, 239n22
just war theory and, 99
territorial rights and, 244–46
education, 227, 239n15
efficacy. See success, prospect of
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 346
Elkins, Caroline, 549
Emerton, Patrick, 28
emotion, drones/robots and, 481
empire. See colonialism
ending a war. See jus ex bello
Ends of Harm, The (Tadros), 471n21
enriched jus ad bellum, 167–82, 183n3, 183n4, 183n7
enrichment, unjust, 363–64, 368–74, 378
Epic of Gilgamesh, 99
equivalence thesis, 322–25, 334n36, 334n37, 334n39, 334n46
Erichsen, Casper W., 548
Erinys, 364
escalation of war, 266
‘Essay on Civil Disobedience’ (Thoreau), 285
Estlund, David, 30, 345, 348
‘Ethics of Killing in War, The’ (McMahan), 82
Etymologies (Isidore of Seville), 108
evaluative individualism, 30, 33, 36
evidence-relative permissibility, 50, 57n28
evil, 260–75
created, 260–65, 267, 269–72, 274
as jus ad bellum requirement, 8–9
exceptionalism, 10, 22–23, 28–33, 36, 316–17
civil war and, 318–20, 333n18
demarcation and, 318–20
nonconsensual harming and, 44
political independence and, 205–6, 211, 216, 219, 222n51
properties of war and, 29–32
exclusionary doctrine of double effect, 407–10
exemptionist pacifism, 105
export of resources, 365–67, 369, 377. See also resource-based war profiteers
extreme virtue ethics, 177
Fabre, Cécile, 11–12, 15–16, 26, 42, 51, 57n32, 189, 315
on authority, 302
on conditional threats, 208, 220n12
on human shields, 11–12, 383–87, 398n6, 399n14, 400n27
on insurgencies, 321–22, 334n36
on jus ex bello, 490, 493, 497, 499
on moral equality of combatants, 355n25
on noncombatant immunity, 361
reductivism and, 39n21
on terrorism, 443–44, 449
fact-finding
fact-relative permissibility and, 50, 57n28
factual condition and, 9
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 190–91, 200n20
factions, 101–2, 113, 315
failed states, 295
FDLR (Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda), 367
Ferzan, Kimberly, 356n51
fetial law tradition, 103
fiduciary obligations, 324–25, 334n39, 334n46
(p. 562) Fishback, Ian, 31
forced removal, 243–46, 250, 255
Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda, 367
Frowe, Helen, 3–4, 26
on human shields, 399n17, 399n18
on moral equality of combatants, 347
on proportionality, 221n29
Fulgosius, Raphaël, 72–73, 76n34, 147
Gaddafi, Saif, 537n31
Gandhi, Mohandas, 277, 285
gangs. See criminal gangs
Gardner, John, 324, 347, 356n51
Garrison, William Lloyd, 285
Gauthier, David, 314n43
Geneva Convention, 93n6, 95n41, 358
Geneva Declaration Secretariat, 376
Geneva Protocol I, 272, 359, 398n3
Genocide Convention, 526
genocide/war crimes, 16, 526–27. See also torture
pacifism and, 289
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 193
reconciliation after, 540
terrorism and, 448–51, 454n27, 454n30
Gentili, Alberico, 66–67, 147
Gilgamesh, 99, 198
Gonzales, Alberto, 95n41
Goodin, Robert, 442
Graham, Virgo, 370
Gratian, 4
historiography of just war theory and, 59–60, 63–66, 74n4, 76n33, 76n34
on reparations/restitution, 110
tradition of just war theory and, 102, 110–11, 115, 120n71
on vengeance, 110, 120n71
Greenawalt, Kent, 350
Grotius, Hugo, 5–6
on authority, 310
historiography of just war theory and, 60, 62–67, 72–73, 74n4, 75n23, 77n47, 78n86, 79n88
on jus post bellum, 505
on promises made to the enemy, 497–98
regular war tradition and, 145–51, 153, 155–56, 158, 160n6, 162n41
Guthrie, Charles, 262
Guzmán, Jacobo Arbenz, 366
Haggenmacher, Peter, 67, 77n47, 141n42
Hague, The, 73, 529–30, 532, 534
Hague, William, 549
Handbook on Reconciliation after Violent Conflict (IDEA), 539
Handfield, Toby, 28
Haque, Adil Ahmad, 11–12, 31, 189
Hare, Caspar, 463
Harnack, Adolf, 104
Heisenberg, Werner, 347–48
Held, Virginia, 363
Henry of Segusio (‘Hostiensis’), 112–13
Henry V (Shakespeare), 185–87, 192–95, 341
heresy as just cause, 59, 65, 106, 110–11
Herodotus, 541
Herzog, Roman, 550
historical pacifism, 281, 289
historiography of just war theory, 2, 4–6, 63–65, 76n28, 76n33–76n35, 76n38, 76n39. See also tradition of just war theory
canon law and, 64–65, 76n34
classical period of, 59–74, 74n4, 79n91
emergence of, 66–67, 77n47
History (Herodotus), 541
Hitler, Adolph, 16, 186–87, 193, 280, 301, 348, 515
Hobbes, Thomas, 283, 497
Hohfeldian privilege, 88
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 194–95, 199, 201n32
Holmes, Robert, 22, 26, 36n4
Holocaust. See genocide/war crimes
holy war, 100. See also jihad
‘Hostiensis’ (Henry of Segusio), 112–13
Hugh of St. Cher, 114
humanitarian intervention, 5, 223–38
authority and, 299–300, 313n23, 313n24
collective vs. individual violence and, 224–25
combatants and, 230–33, 235–36, 240n27
incommensurability and, 229, 239n21, 239n22
(p. 563) individualism and, 223–38, 239n23
internationalizing, 233–38, 240n34, 240n38, 241n42, 241n46, 241n47, 241n49, 241n52
just cause and, 51
policing model of, 234–35
pragmatic humanitarian exceptionalism and, 10, 317, 320
reconstruction of defeated states and, 232
right to life and, 223–24
self-defence and, 236
voluntary, 225
human rights. See civil rights/human rights
human shields, 11–12, 383–98
averting attacks with, 384, 398n5
avoidability and, 394–96, 400n30, 400n31
conscripts and, 388–89, 399n14, 399n16–399n18
deterrence and, 391–92, 399n24
liability to be killed as, 394–97
proportionality and, 383, 385, 390–97, 398n3, 399n24, 400n31
responsibility toward, 12, 389–91
wrongdoing and, 396–97, 400n32, 400n33
Hume, David, 81
Hurka, Thomas, 28, 46
on conditional threats, 220n13
on human shields, 400n31
on moral equality of combatants, 345, 348
on noncombatant immunity, 360
ICJ (International Court of Justice), 527–28
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 192
ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), 526, 528–32, 535n11
ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia), 522, 529, 531–32
IDEA (Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance), 539
illegal orders, 195–97, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
immunity, noncombatant. See noncombatant immunity
imperialism, 102
impugned sovereignty, 231
incommensurability, 229, 239n21, 239n22
independence
jus ex bello and, 490–92
jus post bellum and, 510, 513–14
political, 30
indeterminacy, 248–49
individual combatants. See combatants
individualism
collectivism vs., 328–29, 335n58
descriptive, 33–36
drones/robots and, 483–84
evaluative, 30, 33, 36
humanitarian intervention and, 223–38, 239n23
metaphysical, 33, 36
moral equality of combatants and, 339–54, 354n24, 355n25, 355n31, 355n48, 355n49, 356n51, 356n57
reductive (See reductive individualism)
Innocent IV (pope), 112
innocents. See noncombatant immunity
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 539
institutional processes
action-guiding principles and, 174
enriched jus ad bellum and, 173–74
morality of, 178–79
institutions governing war, 30–31
instrumentalist justification, 16, 303–6, 314n37, 314n38
insurgencies, 320–31, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31, 334n46, 335n57. See also civil war/revolution
authority and, 325–26
consent and, 325–31, 335n51, 335n57, 335n58
equivalence thesis and, 322–25, 334n36, 334n37, 334n39, 334n46
fiduciary obligations and, 324–25, 334n39, 334n46
jus ad bellum and, 321–22, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31
just cause and, 320–22, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31
national partiality and, 322–23
obedience and, 323–24, 334n36, 334n37
(p. 564) intelligence agencies, 190–91
intention, 107
killing and, 25–26, 38n15
late scholastics on, 132–33
means without, 407–12
nonconsensual harming and, 45, 57n22
opportunism and, 412–15
significance of, 404–5
ways of killing and, 401–15, 415n1
international community. See also international law
humanitarian intervention and, 233–38, 240n34, 240n38, 241n42, 241n46, 241n47, 241n49, 241n52
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 189–90
International Court of Justice, 527–28
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 192
International Criminal Court, 91, 179
jus post bellum and, 525, 528, 530–32, 536n25, 537n31, 537n33, 537n35
no-inquiry claim and, 201n35
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 189–92, 200n20
Rome Statute of, 528, 530–31, 536n24, 536n25, 537n35
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 526, 528–32, 535n11
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, 522, 528–29, 531–32
international law, 4, 21–22, 66. See also criminal law/courts; international community; jus in bello
authority of, 31
human shields and, 11
noncombatant immunity and, 358–59
political independence and, 216–17
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 191–93, 201n23, 201n24, 201n26
reconciliation and, 544–48, 553n26, 553n37, 554n43
regular war and, 6
on reparations/restitution, 546–48, 553n37, 554n38, 554n43
international state system. See nation states
internment, 289
invasions
bloodless, 7, 209, 213, 323, 334n37, 335n58
jus in bello and, 428
proportionality and, 428
Iser, Mattias, 334n39
Isidore of Seville, 108, 110
James, William, 277, 281
Jesus and the Non-Violent Revolution (Trocme), 284
jihad, 100. See also holy war
Johnson, James Turner, 5, 70–71, 78n67, 78n71, 100, 189
Johnson, Lyndon, 186
John the Baptist, 113
Juarez, Jean, 277
judicial model of war, 5
jurisdiction
legitimate, territorial rights and, 242–43, 247, 249, 259n15, 259n16
sovereign’s, 5
for war crimes, 529–31, 536n28, 537n31, 537n33
jus ad bellum. See also just cause; just war theory
action-guiding principles for, 167, 169–74, 177–78, 182, 183n3, 183n4, 183n7
authority and, 9–10, 44–46, 302
combatants and, 7
defined, 2, 41
drones/robots and, 483
enriched, 167–82, 183n3, 183n4, 183n7
institutional processes and, 173–74
insurgencies and, 321–22, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31
judgments about, 438n13
jus ex bello and, 488–93
jus post bellum and, 15–16, 71–74, 78n79, 78n83, 78n86, 79n88, 79n91, 505–6, 508–16
just war framework and, 41–44, 56n7
late scholastics on, 123–33
narrow vs. wide, 167–69, 183n3, 183n4
no-inquiry claim and, 186, 195–97, 199, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
(p. 565) nonconsensual harming and, 44–46, 56n19, 57n22
pacifism and, 288
principles governing nonconsensual harming and, 44–46
proportionality and, 8–9, 13, 418–24, 426, 428, 432
proposed court of, 7, 187–93, 200n13, 200n20, 201n23, 201n24, 201n26
regular war tradition and, 6, 146, 148–54, 158, 161n22
for revolution, 332n3
self-defence and, 204–5
summative assessment of war and, 43–44
terrorism and, 444–45, 453n21
Williams’s epistemic claim and, 186–88, 193, 195
yi bing and, 99
jus ex bello, 15, 488–500, 501n23, 501n37
costs of war and, 490, 492–97, 501n37
defined, 41, 56n2
independence thesis and, 490–92
jus ad bellum and, 488–93
jus in bello and, 488, 490, 496–97
jus post bellum and, 488, 490, 496
promises made to the enemy and, 497–99
proportionality and, 490–91, 493–96, 499, 501n23, 501n37
Rodin on, 15
success and, 490–91, 499
jus gentium. See law of nations
jus in bello. See also international law; just cause
administrability of, 85–87, 94n32
Augustine and, 107–8
authority and, 296, 312n11
combatants and, 427–35
danger of tampering with, 82–83
defined, 2, 41
disciplined obedience and, 197, 202n43
discrimination requirement of, 12
drones/robots and, 473–74, 477–79
enriched jus ad bellum and, 180–81
illegal orders and, 195–97, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
invasions and, 428
judgments about, 438n13
jus ex bello and, 488, 490, 496–97
jus post bellum and, 15–16, 505–6, 508–16
just war framework and, 41–44, 56n7
late scholastics on, 133–37, 143n85
moral equality of combatants and, 340–41, 344
morality and, 80–93, 378–80
necessity in, 13, 418–19, 428, 435–37
noncombatant immunity and, 378–80
nonconsensual harming and, 44–46, 56n19, 57n22
obedience to, 81, 91
pacifism and, 288
principles governing nonconsensual harming and, 44–46
proportionality in, 13, 418–37, 438n8–438n11, 438n13
reform of, 355n31
regular war tradition and, 155–58, 163n54, 163n69
revisionism of, 81–82, 93n6
for revolution, 332n3
technicalities of, 85–88, 94n32
terrorism and, 440, 443, 445, 448–52, 453n21, 454n27, 454n30
vulnerability of, 89–93, 95n41
jus naturae. See natural law
jus post bellum, 15–16, 15–17, 519–35
anti-impunity norm for, 16, 519–35
criminal law/courts and (See criminal law/courts)
defined, 2, 41, 505–6
dependence and, 510–14, 516
independence and, 510, 513–14
International Criminal Court and, 525, 528, 530–32, 536n25, 537n31, 537n33, 537n35
jus ad bellum and, 71–74, 78n79, 78n83, 78n86, 79n88, 79n91, 505–6, 508–16
jus ex bello and, 488, 490, 496
jus in bello and, 505–6, 508–16
just war theory and, 507–9, 517n10
negotiation and, 514, 518n21
nonpenal mechanisms for, 16, 519–21, 523
(p. 566) proportionality and, 506, 513
punishment and, 508, 511–13, 517n10, 518n19
reconciliation (See reconciliation)
reparations and (See reparations/restitution)
tribunals and (See criminal law/courts; specific tribunal)
Just and Unjust Wars (Walzer), 11, 21, 41, 340, 359, 505
just cause, 8, 13, 44–45, 47, 52, 260–62, 264, 272, 274
civil war/revolution and, 320–22, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31
combatants and, 42, 49–50
defining, 67–73
defining war and, 61
emergence of concept of, 100, 102–3, 105–6, 108, 111, 113–14
heresy as, 59, 65, 106, 110–11
humanitarian intervention and, 51
late scholastics on, 125–31
national defence as, 242
politics and, 50–54
proportionality and, 260
justice after war. See jus post bellum
Justinian, 76n34
just war theory, 23–24, 38n11–38n13. See also jus ad bellum
acts of war vs. state of war in, 61–62
collateral damage and, 423, 438n9
conduct of combatants and, 42
defining war in, 61–63, 75n10, 75n13, 75n14, 75n19, 312n6
framework of, 41–55
historiography of (See historiography of just war theory)
jus post bellum and, 507–9, 517n10
methodology of (See methodology of just war theory)
modern warfare and, 6, 60
national defence and (See national defence/military)
pacifism and, 9
regular war tradition vs., 146–47, 159n3
terrorism and, 444–45, 453n21
timeline of, 100
tradition of (See tradition of just war theory)
Walzer’s departure from, 22, 36n2
Kahn, Paul, 14–15, 477–78
Kaldor, Mary, 283, 287
Kalmanovitz, Pablo, 5–6, 36n2
Kamm, Frances, 12, 14
on doctrine of double effect, 12–13, 407–8
on terrorism, 442, 450–51, 454n30
Kant, Immanuel, 63, 81, 284
on authority, 247–50, 259n15, 259n18
on jus post bellum, 505
on moral liability, 269
on obedience, 321
on pacifism, 282
on political independence, 217, 219
Kasher, Asa, 189, 474
Kautilya, 74n2
Keohane, Robert O., 169, 174–75
killing
bad intention and, 411–12
doctrine of double effect and, 402–15
drones/robots and, 475–85
harming as side effect and, 403–4
intentions and, 401–15, 415n1
means without intention and, 407–12
national defence/military advantage and, 402, 405–7, 412
opportunism and, 412–15
riskless, 477–78
in self-defense, 401, 413, 415n1
targeted, 482–84
Killing in War (McMahan), 26
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 277, 284
Kolb, Robert, 42
Krishman, Armin, 481
Kutz, Christopher, 342, 346–47, 351
labour conditions, 227
language usage
defining innocents and, 133–34, 143n85
(p. 567) defining war and, 61–63, 75n10, 75n13, 75n14, 75n19
self-defence and, 193
last resort, 8–9, 15, 169, 260, 262–63, 274
just war framework and, 44, 51
national defence and, 212
tradition of just war theory and, 115
Laurentius Hispanus, 112
law of nations. See international law
Law of Nations, The (Vattel), 145
Law of the Innocents (Cáin Adomnán), 5, 109–10
Lazar, Seth, 3, 15, 43, 53–54, 56n19
on bloodless invasion, 334n37
on civil rights, 221n36
on conditional threats, 206–7, 209, 219n6, 220n10, 220n14
on jus ex bello, 491, 497, 499, 501n37
on jus post bellum, 508–9, 512, 517n10
on moral equality of combatants, 355n48, 356n51
on peace, 15
on proportionality, 211–12, 501n37
on reductive individualism, 219n2
on utilitarianism, 218, 222n51
Lee, Steven, 260, 264
legitimate authority, 5–6, 8–10, 39n40, 294–11, 311n1, 312n6
beneficiary and, 297–98, 300, 302–6, 308–11
challenges to requirement of, 301–3
of Church to declare war, 110–12, 120n71, 120n76
contextualizing, 297–98, 312n12
criminal law/courts and, 296, 312n7, 312n8
of democratic states, 30–31
emergence of concept of, 100, 102–3, 105–16, 117n15
enriched jus ad bellum and, 176–78
exceptionalism and, 10, 317, 318
failed states and, 295
humanitarian intervention and, 299–300, 313n23, 313n24
instrumentalist justification of, 303–6, 314n37, 314n38
insurgencies and, 325–26
of international law, 31
as jus ad bellum requirement, 9–10, 44–46
jus in bello and, 296, 312n11
late scholastics on, 131–32
narrow vs. wide, 167–68, 183n4
nonconsensual harming and, 46
obedience and, 296, 312n11
proceduralist justification of stateless political society, 306–9, 314n40, 314n41, 314n43
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 188–90
regular war tradition and, 150–51, 161n22
rogue states and, 295
scope restrictions of, 309–11, 314n44
of stateless political societies, 294–311, 313n13
state vs. stateless, 300–301, 313n25–313n27
territorial rights and, 247–50, 259n15, 259n16
terrorism and, 295, 312n4, 312n5
vigilantism and, 299, 313n15
legitimate jurisdiction, 242–43, 247, 249, 259n15, 259n16
Legnano, Giovanni da, 67
lesser evil justification, 23–25, 27–30, 38n11, 38n16, 39n40
Levinas, Emmanuel, 284
Lewis conventions, 94n27, 94n28
liberation strategy, 372
liberty, 102
Lichtenberg, Judith, 187
Lieber, Francis, 358
life plans, 245–46, 258n10, 258n11
life-saving restitution, 372
Locke, John, 209, 283, 313n14
Lombard, Peter, 122
lone-wolf terrorism, 441
Lorca, Pedro de, 134
loss of right to life, 23–29, 38n12–38n13, 38n15, 39n40
Lu, Catherine, 16–17
Luban, David, 7, 22
on crimes against humanity, 525
on humanitarian intervention, 299
on stateless political societies, 312n4
(p. 568) Lucas, George, 189
Ludlow, Lewis, 290
machinery of war, 2
mafia. See criminal gangs
Māhabhārata, 99
Mair, John (Major), 129, 141n51
Mandler, Michael, 239n22
Mapel, David, 7–8
Mavrodes, George, 84–85
May, Larry
on jus post bellum, 507–8, 511
on noncombatant immunity, 363
pacifism and, 36n4
McGrary, Howard, 546–47
McMahan, Jeff, 4, 11, 13, 46
action-guiding principles and, 172
on conditional threats, 220n17
on conventions of jus in bello, 83–89
on drones/robots, 483
on human shields, 386–87, 395, 398n9
on insurgencies, 333n27
jus ad bellum court proposal of, 7, 187–93, 200n13, 200n20, 201n23, 201n24, 201n26
on jus ad bellum-jus in bello distinction, 42–43, 71–73
on jus ex bello, 494–95
on moral equality of combatants, 344–45, 348–50, 352–53, 354n24, 355n48, 355n49, 356n51
on noncombatant immunity, 360–62
on pacifism, 291n8
on proportionality, 210–11
on Rodin, 25–26, 38n19
on torture, 468
on violence towards combatants, 232
vulnerability of jus in bello and, 90, 93
on Walzer, 22, 26, 32, 34–35, 68
McPherson, Lionel, 26
Medina, Bartolomé de, 127
Meisels, Tamar, 442
Meister, Robert, 540, 550
Melian Dialogue (Thucydides), 101, 117n8
Mencius, 74n2
mercenaries, 122, 126
Metaphysical Disputations (Suárez), 76n38
metaphysical individualism, 33, 36
methodology of just war theory, 2–4, 21–36, 37n6
Meyrowitz, Henri, 78n79
Middle Ages and tradition of just war theory, 108–16, 120n71, 120n76, 159n3
Miller, Manjari Chatterjee, 549
modern wars, 6, 60
defining war and, 61–63, 66, 75n13, 75n14, 75n19
vulnerability of jus in bello and, 91
Moellendorf, Darrel, 15
on jus ex bello, 490–93, 497, 506
on reconciliation, 552n10, 552n16
Molina, Luis de, 4, 5, 63, 74n4
historiography of just war theory and, 68–70
late scholastic just war theory and, 122, 125–26, 128, 131–36, 141n44
Moore, Margaret, 216
Moore, Michael, 95n37
moral costs. See costs of war
moral criticism, ethics of, 80–81, 92–93
moral equality of combatants, 10–11, 26, 32, 172, 339–54, 357n60, 357n62
collectivist approach to, 56n4, 340–48, 352–53, 354n7, 354n9
of democratic states, 30, 39n40, 40n42
jus in bello and, 340–41, 344
proportionality and, 353, 356n59
morality
disagreement about, 248–49
of institutional processes, 178–79
jus in bello and, 80–93, 378–80
moral shields, 393, 395–96
mortality rates, 1–2
Mueller, John, 279
Napoleon, 544–45
narrow proportionality, 419–22, 436, 438n8
Narveson, Jan, 284–85
(p. 569) Nathanson, Stephen, 442
national defence/military advantage, 22. See also self-defence
bearer of rights to, 246
civilian control of, 186, 197–99, 202n41, 202n43
doctrine of double effect and, 402, 405–7, 412
proportionality and, 424–27, 438n11
territorial rights and, 242–57, 258n2, 258n10, 258n11, 259n15259n18
national partiality, 322–23
nation states, 30–31. See also stateless political societies
authority of (See legitimate authority)
democratic, equality (moral) of combatants of, 30, 39n40, 40n42
humanitarian intervention and, 223–24
reconstruction of defeated states and, 232
terrorism sponsored by, 442
war system and, 286–90
native populations, 124–25
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 181, 217
natural law, 64–65, 76n28, 103
regular war tradition and, 147–49, 155, 160n6
in time of war, 73, 78n86
natural right, 31, 76n28
Navarrus (Martin Azpilcueta), 127–28, 133
necessity, 24–25, 27, 30–31, 33–35, 38n17. See also proportionality
collective necessity constraint and, 34–35
jus ad bellum-jus in bello distinction and, 52–53
in jus in bello, 13, 418–19, 428, 435–37
negotiation, 514, 518n21, 532–33
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 76n39
no-inquiry claim, 186, 195–97, 199, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
noncitizens, treatment of, 333n31, 334n46
noncombatant immunity, 4, 11–13, 26–28, 32, 84–85, 87–89, 94n34–95n37, 358–80. See also civilians; collateral damage; discrimination requirement
distinction of targets and, 81–82, 93n6
exceptions to, 361–80
human shields and, 11–12
international law and, 358–59
jus in bello and, 378–80
late scholastics on, 130–31, 133–37, 142n58, 142n61, 143n85
Law of the Innocents (Cáin Adomnán) and, 5, 109–10
orthodox view of, 359–61
purposelessness of, 401, 416n7
responsibility dilemma and, 362
revisionist view of, 360–65, 378
terrorism and, 442, 448–51, 454n27, 454n30
war profiteers and (See war profiteers)
nonconsensual harming, 44–46, 56n19, 57n22
nonresistance, 277
nonviolence, 277
normal justification thesis, 296
Norman, Richard, 22, 26, 36n4
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 181, 217
Nour USA, 364–65
Nuremberg trials, 525, 528, 532
Nys, Ernest, 66
obedience, 81, 91
absolute deference claim and, 186, 193–97, 199, 201n32
authority and, 296, 312n11
disciplined, 197, 202n43
illegal orders and, 195–97, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
insurgencies and, 321, 323–24, 334n36, 334n37
late scholastics on, 126
no-inquiry claim and, 186, 195–97, 199, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
tripartite scheme of obligation and, 196–97, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
O'Brien, William V., 332n3
occupancy
military, 251, 253
O’Donovan, Oliver, 42, 53
Ohlin, Jens, 16
Olusoga, David, 548
(p. 570) opportunism, doctrine of double effect and, 412–15
Orend, Brian, 51, 314n44, 507, 512, 518n20
Origen, 104
Osiel, Mark, 164n69, 199
overdeterminedness, 423, 426, 438n10
Øverland, Gerhard, 210, 220n22
Oviedo, Francisco, 132
pacifism, 277–91, 291n8, 291n10. See also peace
absolute, 281
contingent, 22, 36n4, 280–81, 288
demarcation problem within, 279
emergence of, 100
exemptionist, 105
historical, 281, 289
just war, 9
no-inquiry claim and, 195, 201n36
personal, 9, 278, 281–86
political, 32, 277–81, 286–90
revisionists of Walzer’s orthodoxy and, 22, 36n4
Roman Catholic Church and, 104–5
self-defence and, 278, 280, 282–85, 288, 291n8
war system and, 286–90
Parfit, Derek, 57n28
Parry, Jonathan, 10, 40n42
on authority, 312n5, 312n11, 313n26
Parsons, Graham, 128, 141n44
partiality, national, 322–23
passive shielding, 11, 383
Pattison, James, 508–9
pax Dei, 108–9
Pax Romana, 105
peace, 15, 106. See also pacifism
regular war tradition and, 146
standing to negotiate terms for, 16
war as a means to, 102
Peace of God, 108–9
Peloponnesian War (Thucydides), 74n2, 101, 117n8
People v. Young (NY 1962), 350, 353
permissibility, 47–50, 57n28
Perpetual Peace (Kant), 63, 505
personal pacifism, 9, 278, 281–86
Peter the Chanter, 114
physical shields, 393
Pisan, Christine de, 66
Pissard, Hippolyte, 66
Pius XII (pope), 71
plan-based interests, 245–46, 258n10, 258n11
Plato, 74, 101–2, 113, 117n15, 198
plea bargains, 532–33
plundering, 117n15, 142n58
policing model of humanitarian intervention, 234–35
political independence, 30, 204–19
civil rights and, 213–16, 221n36
conditional threats and, 206–10, 219n6, 220n10, 220n12–220n17
exceptionalism and, 205–6, 211, 216, 219, 222n51
international law and, 216–17
proportionality and, 210–12, 220n21–220n22, 221n29
reductive individualism and, 205–6, 209, 211–15, 218–19, 219n2, 221n36
territorial rights and, 242–43, 250–54, 259n17
political pacifism, 9, 32, 277–81, 286–90
political realism, 101, 117n8
political societies. See stateless political societies
political sovereignty. See sovereignty
politics/political ramifications of war, 6
distinction of targets and, 82
just cause and, 50–54
selective conscientious objection and, 187
terrorism and, 441–43, 445–47, 450–52, 454n27
population size, 333n29
practice-dependent nature of rights, 29
pragmatic humanitarian exceptionalism, 10, 317
pre-emptive reasoning, 302–3, 305, 309–11
prescription, acquisitive, 129–30
presumption against injustice vs. against war, 70
prevention, torture and, 459, 461–62, 465–69, 471n21, 471n26
(p. 571) Primoratz, Igor
on noncombatant immunity, 363
on terrorism, 442, 446–47, 453n23
princeps defined, 111–12
principle, pacifism of, 283–84
prisoner's dilemma, 156–57
probabilism, 68–70, 127
proceduralist justification, 306–9, 314n40, 314n41, 314n43
properties of war, 29–32
property, recovery of, 106
acquisitive prescription and, 129–30
tradition of just war theory and, 103, 105, 108–10, 112
proportionality, 6, 8–9, 13, 24–25, 30, 33. See also necessity
combatants and, 419, 427–35
of conduct, 271–74
consent and, 329–31
drones/robots and, 14, 473–75, 478–80
enriched jus ad bellum and, 169, 171
human shields and, 383, 385, 390–97, 398n3, 399n24, 400n31
invasions and, 428
jus ad bellum and, 418–24, 426, 428, 432
jus ad bellum-jus in bello distinction and, 44–45, 47–53, 57n28, 57n32
jus ex bello and, 490–91, 493–96, 499, 501n23, 501n37
jus in bello and, 418–37, 438n8–438n11, 438n13
jus post bellum, 506, 513
just cause and, 260
moral equality of combatants and, 353, 356n59
narrow, 419–22, 436, 438n8
national defence/military advantage and, 424–27, 438n11
nonconsensual harming and, 44–45, 56n19
permissibility and, 47–50, 57n28
political independence and, 210–12, 220n21–220n22, 221n29
of resort, 263–74
self-defence and, 204–5, 419, 421, 429–32, 434
terrorism and, 356n59
Walzer on, 9
war-dependent good and, 50–53, 57n32
Pufendorf, Samuel von, 63
on authority, 294
on jus ex bello, 496–97
punishment
jus post bellum, 508, 511–13, 517n10, 518n19
torture and, 456, 458, 468–69, 471n21, 471n26
Putin, Vladimir, 189
Qing dynasty, 544
‘Quaestio de bello’ (Aquinas), 59
Quinlan, Michael, 262
Quinn, Warren, 399n13, 413–14
Quodlibeticae, 129, 141n51
Quong, Jonathan, 351–52
raison d’état, 62–63, 153
Ramsey, Paul, 78n71
Rawls, John, 219
on collective vs. individual violence, 224
on contingent pacifism, 280–81
Raymond of Peñafort, 65, 112
Raz, Joseph
on authority, 302–3, 314n37
normal justification thesis of, 296
realist doctrine, 32
reconciliation, 16–17, 538–51, 552n10, 552n11, 552n16
against, 539–40
after civil wars, 538, 551n2
after genocide, 540
international law and, 544–48, 553n26, 553n37, 554n43
reductive individualism, 10, 22–36, 38n19, 40n48, 316
civil war and, 318–20
Fabre and, 39n21
just war framework and, 41, 44
nonconsensual harming and, 44
political independence and, 205–6, 209, 211–15, 218–19, 219n2, 221n36
regular war tradition, 5–6, 72–73, 78n83
early modern sources for, 145–59, 159n3
historiography of just war theory and, 67
jus ad bellum and, 6, 146, 148–54, 158, 161n22
jus in bello and, 155–58, 163n54, 163n69
just war theory vs., 146–47, 159n3
principles of, 145–46
Walzer and, 22, 36n2
Reichberg, Gregory, 4, 5, 36n2, 128
Reid, Richard, 441
relational reconciliation, 16–17, 538–51, 552n10, 552n11, 552n16
religion. See also canon law/canonists; specific theologian
clerics as soldiers and, 111, 115, 120n76
Crusades and, 113–14
defining innocents and, 133–34, 143n85
fetial law tradition and, 103
heresy as just cause and, 59, 65, 106, 110–11
holy war and, 100
in the Middle Ages, 108–16, 120n71, 120n76
pacifism and, 104–5, 282–85
Roman Catholic (See Roman Catholic Church)
Rengger, Nicholas, 42, 57n22
reparations/restitution, 103, 106, 110, 363–64, 368–79, 538–51, 552n17, 553n26, 553n37, 554n43
after colonialism, 548–50
international law on, 546–48, 553n37, 554n38, 554n43
jus post bellum, 512, 518n19
war profiteers and, 11, 368–76
reprisals. See vengeance
Republic (Plato), 101, 198
rescue, torture and, 381n26, 459–60, 465–69, 471n21
resisted evil, 260–64, 266–68, 271–72, 274
resource-based war profiteers, 363–80
responsibility dilemma, 27, 362
restitutionary duty. See reparations/restitution
restrictive asymmetry, 322
revenge. See vengeance
revisionism, 2, 159n2
jus in bello, 81–82, 93n6
moral impact of, 4
on noncombatant immunity, 360–65, 378
pacifism and, 22, 36n4
Walzer and, 21–36
revolution. See civil war/revolution
right intention. See intention
Rights of War and Peace, The (Grotius), 147, 149, 160n6, 497
right to life. See also noncombatant immunity
humanitarian intervention and, 223–24
practice-dependent nature of, 29
right to war. See jus ad bellum
riskless killing, 477–78
Robert of Courson, 114
robots. See drones/robots
Rodin, David, 15, 22, 25–26, 25–27, 33, 37n5, 38n19, 42, 44, 56n2, 189
on civil rights, 213
on collectivist exceptionalism, 319
on international law, 216
on jus ex bello, 488–99, 491–94, 496, 499, 506
on last resort, 262
on moral equality of combatants, 351, 356n51, 356n57
on national defence, 254–56
pacifism and, 36n4
on personal pacifism, 283
on proportionality, 47, 49, 220n21, 266, 270
on terrorism, 442, 449
rogue states, 295
Roman Catholic Church
authority to declare war and, 110–12, 120n71, 120n76
clerics as soldiers and, 111, 115, 120n76
Crusades and, 113–14
historiography of just war theory and, 62–65, 67–71, 77n56, 78n67
pacifism and, 104–5, 285
tradition of just war theory and, 104–16
Rome Statute, 528, 530–31, 536n24, 536n25, 537n35
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 515
Roosevelt, Theodore, 277
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 159n2
(p. 573) Russell, Bertrand, 277
Ryan, Cheyney, 9, 30, 32
sanctions, 263
scale of suffering, 29–30
Scanlon, T. M., 219, 406–7, 410
Scheffler, Samuel, 372
Schell, Jonathan, 287
Schmitt, Carl, 67
scholastics, late, 5, 122–37. See also specific theologians
on authority, 131–32
on collateral damage, 135–37
on intention, 132–33
on jus ad bellum, 123–33
on jus in bello, 133–37, 143n85
on just cause, 125–31
on noncombatant immunity, 133–37, 143n85
regular war tradition and, 163n54
Schwartz, Daniel, 5
Scott, James Brown, 67
second-order reasoning, 386, 398n10
selective conscientious objection, 185–99, 199n2
absolute deference claim and, 186, 193–97, 199, 201n32
no-inquiry claim and, 186, 195–97, 199, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 187–93, 200n13, 200n20, 201n23, 201n24, 201n26
Williams’s epistemic claim and, 186–88, 193, 195
self-defence, 25–26, 38n19, 44
civil rights and, 213–16, 221n36
conditional threats and, 206–10, 219n6, 220n10, 220n12–220n17
drones/robots and, 483–84
enriched jus ad bellum and, 169
humanitarian intervention and, 236
international law and, 216–17
jus ad bellum and, 204–5
killing in, 401, 413, 415n1
language of, 193
late scholastics on, 123
noncombatant immunity and, 135
pacifism and, 278, 280, 282–85, 288, 291n8
tradition of just war theory on, 103, 105, 110, 112
self-determination, 243
self-rule, 251
Sentences (Lombard), 122
Sentences (Mair), 141n51
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de, 124
Shakespeare, William, 185–87, 193, 341
Shapiro, Scott, 314n40, 314n41, 314n43
Shaw, Martin, 281, 289
Sheehan, James J., 279
Shelton, Dinah, 547
Shue, Henry
on morality of war, 29
on noncombatant immunity, 362
on proportionality, 8–9, 47, 211
on torture, 14, 457–58
side effects. See collateral damage
Singer, Peter, 482
Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, 442
slavery, 102, 280
social practice/society. See also stateless political societies
communal self-determination and, 243
enriched jus ad bellum and, 174–76
reducing threat to, 234–35, 240n38
territorial rights and, 243, 245–47, 252–54, 258n10, 258n11
value of sovereignty and, 227–30
Socrates, 81, 91, 101
soldiers. See combatants; conscripts
solemn war. See regular war tradition
Soto, Domingo de, 128, 130, 136, 142n61
sovereignty, 5, 8, 106–7. See also territorial rights
authority of, 296
humanitarian intervention and, 226–30, 238n10, 239n15, 239n21–239n23
impugned, 231
political, 21, 26, 29–30
(p. 574) princeps defined and, 111–12
reconstruction of defeated states and, 232
regular war tradition and, 145–46, 159n2, 162n41
Sparrow, Robert, 479
Special Tribunal for Leganon, 527, 536n28
Stahn, Carsten on jus ad bellum-jus in bello distinction, 42
Stalin, Joseph, 301, 515
stateless political societies, 9. See also nation states
authority of, 294–311, 313n13
civil war and (See civil war/revolution)
contextualizing legitimate authority for, 297–98, 312n12
defined, 295, 312n4, 312n5
humanitarian intervention and, 299–300, 313n23, 313n24
instrumentalist justification of authority requirement and, 303–6, 314n37, 314n38
insurgencies and, 320–31, 333n27, 333n29, 333n31, 334n46, 335n57
jus ad bellum and, 321–22, 333n29
proceduralist justification of authority of, 306–9, 314n40, 314n41, 314n43
scope restrictions of authority and, 309–11, 314n44
state-of-nature, 248
Statman, Daniel, 14
Steinhoff, Uwe, 27, 36n4
Stephen of Tournai, 112
Stilz, Anna, 8
Stoicism, 102
Strawser, Bradley, 474–75
structural reconciliation, 16–17, 538–51, 552n10, 552n11, 552n16
Suárez, Francisco, 5, 36n2, 74n4
Aquinas and, 114
historiography of just war theory and, 63, 68–70, 72–73, 76n38
on jus post bellum, 505
late scholastic just war theory and, 122–38, 139n14, 142n58
no-inquiry claim and, 186
regular war tradition and, 156
on tripartite scheme of obligation, 196–97, 202n38
substate conflict. See civil war
success, prospect of, 261–62
jus ex bello and, 490–91, 499
nonconsensual harming and, 46
regular war tradition and, 156, 158
Summa Parisiensis, 111, 120n76
Summa Theologiae (Aquinas), 100, 114, 122
summative assessment of war, 43–44, 53–55
Sussman, David, 14, 458
Tadros, Victor, 12, 56n16
on human shields, 400n32
on noncombatant immunity, 363–64, 372, 376
on torture, 468–69, 471n21
Tanguay-Renaud, Françoise, 347, 356n51
targeted killing, 482–84
Taylor, Charles, 367
technicalities of jus in bello, 85–88, 94n32
Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 194–95, 199
territorial rights, 5, 7–8. See also sovereignty
authority and, 247–50, 259n15, 259n16
claim of, 192, 242–43
defined, 242, 258n2
early church on, 112–13
economics practices and, 244–46
forced removal and, 243–46, 250, 255
historiography of just war theory and, 73
humanitarian intervention and, 226, 232, 235
just war framework and, 45
late scholastics on, 125, 127, 132, 134
legitimate jurisdiction and, 242–43, 247, 249, 259n15, 259n16
method in morality of war and, 21, 26, 29–30
national defence and, 242–57, 258n2, 258n10, 258n11, 259n15259n18
occupancy rights and, 8, 243–47, 258n10–258n11
political independence and, 204–5, 212–14, 242–43, 250–54, 259n17
regular war tradition and, 148–52, 155
selective conscientious objection and, 185–87, 192, 201n26
terrorism, 2, 399n13, 440–52
authority and, 295, 312n4, 312n5
(p. 575) as crime, 452n1
as a crime, 527
death camps and, 448–51, 454n27, 454n30
defined, 440–43
discrimination requirement and, 13–14, 440, 443–45, 448–52, 453n21, 454n27, 454n30
doctrine of double effect and, 401–2, 405–14
genocide/war crimes and, 448–51, 454n27, 454n30
jus ad bellum and, 444–45, 453n21
jus in bello and, 440, 443, 445, 448–52, 453n21, 454n27, 454n30
just war norm and, 444–45, 453n21
lone-wolf, 441
noncombatant immunity and, 442, 448–51, 454n27, 454n30
proportionality and, 356n59
state-sponsored, 442
vulnerability of jus in bello and, 91
as war, 452n1
wrongdoing and, 445–47, 453n23
Tertullian, 104
Tesón, Fernando R., 239n23
third-party intervention, 139n14
Thorburn, Malcolm, 312n8
Thoreau, Henry David, 285
threshold deontology, 89, 95n37
Thucydides, 101, 117n8
historiography of just war theory and, 59, 74, 74n2
on reparations, 553n26
Tolstoy, Leo, 284–85
Tomlin, Patrick, 438n10
torture, 14, 279–80, 456–70. See also genocide/war crimes
defining, 456–60, 470n8
normative issues re, 460–70, 470n9, 470n11, 470n13, 471n21–471n26
prevention and, 459, 461–62, 465–69, 471n21, 471n26
punishment and, 456, 458, 468–69, 471n21, 471n26
totalitarianism, 213–16, 221n36
traditionalists, 2–3, 22–23, 28, 30, 33, 36n3, 37n6, 38n15
tradition of just war theory. See also historiography of just war theory
on authority, 302
canon law and, 64–65, 76n34, 100, 110–16
Greco-Roman, 101–4, 113, 117n8, 117n15
in the Middle Ages, 108–16, 120n71, 120n76, 159n3
Roman Catholic Church and, 104–16, 119n53
up to the middle ages, 99–116
Treaty of Frankfurt, 544
Treaty of Nanjing, 544
Treaty of Versailles, 545–46
tribunals. See criminal law/courts; specific tribunal
tripartite scheme of obligation, 196–97, 201n35–202n38, 202n40
Trocme, Andre, 284
trolley argument
civil war and, 331
ending wars and, 494–95
intention and, 403
just war framework and, 47–48, 54
proportionality and, 433
torture and, 463
Truce of God, 109, 111
Truman, Harry S., 89
UAVs. See drones/robots
UNCC (United Nation Compensation Commission), 547, 554n43
Uniacke, Suzanne, 13
unilateral enforcement, 249, 259n15
unintentional killing, 25, 28, 38n17
United Fruit Company, 366
United Nation Compensation Commission, 547, 554n43
United Nations, 300
United Nations Charter, 237, 241n42, 241n46, 241n47, 241n49
humanitarian intervention and, 226
language usage and, 75n14, 75n19
prohibition of war and, 261
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 191–92, 201n24
regular war tradition and, 152
(p. 576) United Nations Convention Against Torture, 14, 456–58
United Nations peacekeepers, 236–37, 241n42, 241n46
United Nations Security Council, 7, 237
humanitarian intervention and, 226
proposed court of jus ad bellum and, 189–91
regular war tradition and, 152
sanctions by, 263
United States Constitution, 298, 312n12
United States Department of Defense, 398n3
United States Torture Statute, 14, 457–58
unjust enrichment, 363–64, 368–74, 378
unmanned vehicles. See drones/robots
USTS (United States Torture Statute), 14, 457–58
utilitarianism, 218–19, 222n51
Vanderpol, Alfred, 4, 66–70, 141n42, 141n44
Vattel, Emer de, 5–6, 63, 72–73, 78n83
on jus post bellum, 505
regular war tradition and, 145–47, 149–58, 159n2, 161n22, 163n54
Vázquez, Gabriel, 5, 122, 127
vengeance, 106, 110, 120n71
regular war tradition and, 151, 157, 163n69
tradition of just war theory and, 63, 103
victim participation in trials, 531
Victoria (queen of England), 544
vigilantism, 299, 313n15
Villalobos, Enrique de, 132
Vio, Thomas de. See Cajetan (Thomas de Vio)
Vitoria, Francisco de, 5, 36n2, 42, 100, 114
historiography of just war theory and, 63, 66, 68–70, 72–73, 74n4, 77n46, 77n62
on jus ex bello, 489
on jus post bellum, 505
late scholastic just war theory and, 122–36, 141n44
no-inquiry claim and, 186
on tripartite scheme of obligation, 196–97, 202n41
voluntary human shields, 383–84, 392–97, 400n30, 400n31
vulnerability of jus in bello, 89–93, 95n41
Waldron, Jeremy, 4, 29, 195, 258n11, 279
Walzer, Michael, 4, 9, 11, 189
action-guiding principles and, 171–73
on authority, 311n1
on communal self-determination, 243
historiography of just war theory and, 71–72, 74, 78n79
on history of national defence/military advantage, 22
on humanitarian intervention, 241n52, 313n23
on individualism, 225
on international law, 21–22
on jus ad bellum judgments, 438n13
on jus ex bello, 491–92, 501n23
on jus in bello judgments, 438n13
on jus post bellum, 505
just war framework and, 41–42
on McMahan, 29
method in morality of war and, 26–29, 32
on moral equality of combatants, 340–42, 346, 352, 354n7, 354n9, 354n24
on noncombatant immunity, 359–60
on proportionality, 212, 501n23
revisionists on, 21–36, 36n2, 68
on sovereignty, political, 21, 26, 29–30
on terrorism, 444
on value of sovereignty, 238n10
War and Self-Defence (Rodin), 25, 283
war crimes. See genocide
war-dependent good, 50–53, 57n32
‘War is a Racket’ (Butler), 364
war profiteers, 11,