- The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War
- The Ethics of War
- Method in the Morality of War
- The Just War Framework
- Historiography of Just War Theory
- Deep Morality and the Laws of War
- The Ethics of War up to Thomas Aquinas
- Late Scholastic Just War Theory
- Early Modern Sources of the Regular War Tradition
- A Richer Jus ad Bellum
- Knowing When Not to Fight
- National Defence and Political Independence
- Humanitarian Intervention and the Modern State System
- Territorial Rights and National Defence
- Last Resort and Proportionality
- Legitimate Authority in War
- Civil War and Revolution
- The Moral Equality of Combatants
- Noncombatant Immunity and War-Profiteering
- Human Shields
- Dimensions of Intentions: Ways of Killing in War
- Proportionality and Necessity in Jus in Bello
- Torture: Rescue, Prevention, and Punishment
- Drones and Robots: On the Changing Practice of Warfare
- Ending Wars
- War’s Aftermath and the Ethics of War
- Justice After War
- Reconciliation and Reparations
Abstract and Keywords
Much work in the ethics of war is structured around the distinction between jus ad bellum and jus in bello. This distinction has two key roles. It distinguishes two evaluative objects—the war ‘as a whole’, and the conduct of combatants during the war—and identifies different moral principles as relevant to each. I argue that we should be sceptical of this framework. I suggest that a single set of principles determines the justness of actions that cause nonconsensual harm. If so, there are no distinctive ad bellum or in bello principles. I also reject the view that whilst the justness of, for example, ad bellum proportionality rests on all the goods and harms produced by the war, the justness of combatants’ conduct in war is determined by a comparatively limited set of goods and harms in a way that supports the ad bellum–in bello distinction.
Helen Frowe is Professor in Practical Philosophy at Stockholm University. She is also a Wallenberg Academy Research Fellow in the Department of Philosophy and directs the Stockholm Centre for the Ethics of War and Peace.
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