- The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War
- The Ethics of War
- Method in the Morality of War
- The Just War Framework
- Historiography of Just War Theory
- Deep Morality and the Laws of War
- The Ethics of War up to Thomas Aquinas
- Late Scholastic Just War Theory
- Early Modern Sources of the Regular War Tradition
- A Richer Jus ad Bellum
- Knowing When Not to Fight
- National Defence and Political Independence
- Humanitarian Intervention and the Modern State System
- Territorial Rights and National Defence
- Last Resort and Proportionality
- Legitimate Authority in War
- Civil War and Revolution
- The Moral Equality of Combatants
- Noncombatant Immunity and War-Profiteering
- Human Shields
- Dimensions of Intentions: Ways of Killing in War
- Proportionality and Necessity in Jus in Bello
- Torture: Rescue, Prevention, and Punishment
- Drones and Robots: On the Changing Practice of Warfare
- Ending Wars
- War’s Aftermath and the Ethics of War
- Justice After War
- Reconciliation and Reparations
Abstract and Keywords
Pacifism is the alternative to just war theory. In its strongest form, it is fundamentally opposed to war, unconditionally and absolutely. Because the pacifist position is undertheorised, a principal aim of this chapter is to review its main elements with an eye to further discussion. Two types of pacifism, personal and political, are discussed. The first is more religiously based and opposes war because it opposes all individual acts of killing. The second emerges from the Enlightenment, then coalesces in the nineteenth century. It opposes war because it opposes the war system and all acts of war as instances of that system. Some classical objections to pacifism are considered, as well as some new developments, such as ‘contingent pacifism’. Ultimately, the quarrel between just war theory and pacifism can only be resolved by expanding the discussion of war to include historical and institutional considerations.
Cheyney Ryan is Director of Human Rights Programs for the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law, and Armed Conflict (ELAC), co-chair of the Oxford Consortium on Human Rights, and a member of Merton College at University of Oxford.
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