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date: 15 December 2019

(p. 564) Index

(p. 564) Index

Note: Figures are indicated by an f; tables by a t, and footnotes by an n.

A
absolute time, 400
abstract objects, 74
academic research teams, using open innovation contests, 386
accelerometers, in smart phones, 164
accented adjectives, 539
access, decreasing barriers to, 553–554
accuracy
ignoring base rates, 243
less common in validation, 242
of motion capture systems, 152
acoustic emotions, 312–313
acoustic features, 173, 175
acoustic measures, standard, 509
acoustic parameters, covarying, 174
acoustic-prosodic features, 4
acoustic speech analysis, 248
AcqKnowledge software, 453
ACRES model, 60f
ActAffAct model, 60f
acted affective expressions, databases of, 247
acted data, versus naturalistic data, 362
acted or posed expressions, 371
acted performances, 274
action(s)
of agents, 98
predating or inspiring cognition, 112
action descriptors, 132
action generation, 28
action impulse, 30
action-independent model, 164
action-perception loops, 89
action tendencies, 96, 96t
implemented as a reflex-based agent, 100
represented explicitly, 401
vocabulary proposed, 402
action units (AUs), 559
anatomically based, 132, 133f
coding, 133
detection, 138
examples, 133f, 144, 518
intensity, 138–139
recognition/detection systems, 134, 138
recognition step, 139
activation network, 424f
active appearance and shape models (AASMs), 517
active appearance models (AAMs), 135, 140, 143, 510, 553
active information acquisition, guide labeling efforts, 411–412
active input, 225–226, 225f
active learning, 144, 328, 329, 559
active methods, 372, 376–379
active prolonged engagement (APE), 440
active self-induction of affective states, 224
active shape modeling (ASM), 510
active user engagement, 411
actors
databases recorded by, 287–288
socially influencing one another, 497
ACT-R community, 101
actuators, 99, 100, 475
AdaBoost algorithm, 235, 236
AdaBoost kernel LDA, 136
Adam, Douglas, 123
adaptable game features, classes of, 465
adaptation, 304, 467
adaptation module, 465, 467
adaptive behavior, 22, 483–484
adaptive control of thought-rational (ACT-R) symbolic theory, 100, 101, 354
adaptive educational systems, 440
adaptive effects, of emotions, 27
adaptive exhibits, possibility of, 440
adaptive game interactions, 528
adaptive intentional actions, 28
adaptive learning environment, four-phase model, 440
adaptive museums, vision to build, 444
adaptive systems, ability to model learners, 444
adaptors, 277, 279, 504
adult smiles, occurring in a range of contexts, 518
(p. 565) Advanced Agent Animation (AAA) Engine, 316f
advanced imaginal system, VR as, 550
advanced learning technologies (ALTs), 420, 430
affect, 507
ability to recognize, 406
communities interested in, 18
describing processes related to emotions and mood, 475
detecting from text, 4
distinguishing core affect from, 43
in health provider-patient relationships, 539
indicated by behavior, 241
inferring from interaction between user and software, 233
as a key human social characteristic, 487
modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network, 238
modeling, 429
negotiating meaning in our interactions, 364
as quite a general term, 422
as representation of the agent’s current emotional state, 62
role of in health care, 538–541
sensing, 424f
unimodal recognition of, 100
affect annotation, presenting open issues, 248
AffectAura system, 410f, 411, 415, 415f
affect-aware advanced learning technologies (AALTs)
categories of, 420
issues, challenges, and open problems, 428–430
modeling nonbasic affect, 422
positioning within the landscape of affect, learning, and technology, 420–422, 421f
systems, 423–426
affect-aware educational technologies, types of, 7
affect-aware learning technologies, 419–430, 559
affect-aware robots, 7
affect-based agents, 526
affect-based game interaction, 459
(p. 566) affect classification tools, 350, 353
affect classifiers, 373, 374
affect-consequent model, 62
affect correlates, 227
affect-derivation model, 62
affect descriptors, 363
affect detection
algorithms, 6
alternate approach, 233
as an extremely difficult problem, 429
facial expression-based, 3
fully automated using predictive models, 423
physiologically based, 4
Section 2 focusing on, 2
system, robots requiring, 296
from text, 196–201
from verbal or nonverbal expressions, 549
affect-detection and affect-response strategies, ideal, 423
affect detectors, 234, 242, 371, 559
affect dimensions, representing social emotions, 88
affect elicitation, 371–380, 559
affect/emotion modeling, developing an overall theory for, 99
affect expression, 353–356
tools, 350, 356t
affect generation, 2, 4–5
affect incidence, across studies, 423
affect induction
approaches, 227
limitations of, 224
procedures, 224
protocols, 227, 228
affect intelligence, building sets of algorithms, 365
affect intensities, situation-appropriate, 483, 484f
affect-intensity model, 62
affective agents, modeling of realistic, 75
affective arousal, 421
Affective AutoTutor, 423–425, 424f, 526, 552, 559
affective biases, modeling on cognition, 100
affective biofeedback systems, 7
affective body expressions, 559
automatic recognition of, 151–165
identifying clusters of, 160
perception of, 153–156
affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCIs), 217, 222–227, 559
approaches, 224
different approaches, 225–227
main challenges for reliable, 229
motivation behind, 217–218
multitude of possible applications for, 227
neurotechnological challenges, 228–229
parts of, 222–225
research, 222
studies, 223
systems, 224
affective communication, 537
affective computations, 54
affective computing (AC)
applications, 6–8, 359, 384
assisting cyberpsychology, 548
biofeedback in the domain of, 472
child development and, 516
community, 2
contributing to systems at all levels of positive technology, 551
defined, 13
developing systems recognizing and responding to the affective states of the user, 371
development of autism spectrum disorders and, 516–517
differences in methodologies adopted, 364–366
disparate terminology used in, 8
emotion psychology and, 34
as ethically unacceptable, 336
giving talks on, 17
history and theory, 2–3
introduction to, 1–8
making contributions to health and well-being approaches, 553
methodologies, 5–6
multidisciplinary field, 1
opportunities for different modalities of e-therapy, 549
portraying human beings, 341
powerful and deeply important area of research, 19
promise of, 11–20
roles of, 339
supporting health and well-being, 7–8
systems, 81, 495
tools, 528–529
trying to integrate all the disciplines, 222
types of objection to, 338
whole enterprise as deceptive, 339
Affective Computing (Picard), 2, 359
Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction conference, 8
affective concepts, entangled in computers, 473
affective content, conceptualizing, 360
affective crowdsourcing, 6
affective data, collecting, 5, 389
affective databases, building, 6
affective diary, 366, 367
affective dimensions, 411, 441, 559
affective disorders, modeling, 102–103
affective events, response to, 227
affective experiences, 48, 460
affective expressions, 152, 350, 519
affective expressive behavior, 95
affective gestures, studying, 212
affective interactive systems, 378
affective learning companion, 411, 415
affective lexicons, 185, 191, 192t
affective loop
describing, 5
establishing, 251–252, 296
expression of emotion in, 299
in games, 461
integration in, 467
realization of, 460
affective loop-enabled games, realizing, 465
affective models, incorporating into robotic architectures, 484–487
affective music player (AMP)
distinguished two contrasting moods, 479
exploring strategies for affective computing, 475
personalized using the preprocessed gathered data, 477
validation of, 477–479
affective norms for English words (ANEW), 186, 186t
affective phenomena, 94, 99
affective predispositions, 397
affective processes, 421, 422
affective profiles, 430
affective rating system, 186
affective reasoning components, 403
affective representation model, 6
affective responses, 424, 424f
affective response strategies, 430
affective robotics, 484–489
affective robots, new opportunities for, 305
affective science, 22
affective self-induction techniques, 226
affective signals, 214
affective space, 489
affective states, 455
automatic detection of, 550
automatic recognition of spontaneous, nonprototypical, 247
capturing in an emergent manner, 298
of children with ASD, controlling robot reactions and responses, 528
comparing to the neutral state, 236
comparison of contrasting, 237
computational models of, 102
detecting, 428
emerging at specific instants of the interaction, 248
incidence moderated by the source of the affect judgements, 423
labels corresponding to, 409
model predicting, 236
more transitory than moods, 422
occuring during interactions with learning technologies, 422
rapidly prepare the bodily systems for action, 422
(p. 567) recognizing from sensor data, 406
relevant to learning with technology, 422–423
representing, 298
revealed through verbal content and linguistic style, 507
tracked with a number of methodologies, 423
translation of external and internal events to, 219
of writing, 449
affective symbiosis, with robots, 305
affective systems, evaluation of, 341
“Affective Text,” 185, 189
affective touch, 162–163
affective traits, 422
affective weight, 191
affective words, lists of, 192
affect labeling or annotation, 6
affect labels, obtaining for training, 411
affect learning companion, 411
AffectML markup language, 397
affect modeling, in real time, 361
affect patterns, 362
affect recognition. See also affect detection
applications utilizing, 414f
classification methods, 250
performance of, 412
researchers’ insight into, 413
technologies, 361
using speech, 175–176
affect recognition systems
basic framework of, 409
benefitting from the investigation of feature representation spaces, 164
building blocks in, 408f
context improving the performance and robustness, 249
current state of the art, 361–362
measuring the effectiveness of, 414
sensitive to context, 255
affect sensing, 254
affect-sensitive interfaces, 233, 371
affect-sensitive responses, 429
affect sensitivity, 246
affect state, represented as a point in a space, 360
affect transfer, interpersonal processes of, 75
afferents, from sympathetic and somatic nerves, 46
affiliative motives, dependence of empathy on, 71
affine transformation, 177
Afzal, Shazia, 6
age, heart-rate variability decreasing with, 210
aged. See older adults
agent(s), 559
adapting and expressing emotion through, 465–466
displaying multiple signals, 261
ethical status of, 345
first determining how it feels, 101
improving academic performance of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), 526
reporting differently on good rather than bad news, 90
respecting conventions of politeness, 340
treating as social actors, 498
agent architectures and cognitive models, 99–101
agent-based intervention systems, 526
agent facial display, 540
agent mind architectures, 315
agent’s cognitive evaluation, EMA modeling, 101
agent’s emotional behavior, reflecting cultural background of the designer, 310
agent’s emotional expressivity, adapted to cultural traits, 316, 316f
agent technology, utilizing as part of avatar actions, 498
age restrictions, imposing crowdsourcing platforms, 391
aggregation, power of, 134
agitation, behavioral profiles automatically detected, 510
agreement
by coders, 134
evaluation, 327
related to social attitude, 87
A.I. Artificial Intelligence (film), 121
Aibo robot, 301, 484, 485f
air stream, passing through the vocal fold, 171
a-labels, 187
a layered model of affect (ALMA), 60f, 62, 396–397, 466
alcohol use, excessive, 553
Alda, Alan, 17
Alelo Inc., 315
alexithymia, 11
algorithms
building affective models, 465
creating exaggerated variants of a motion, 300
detecting emotions in text, 190
investigated, 238
performance of proposed, 194t–195t
processing and analyzing data, 349
Alien, 119
alignment, between MIDI features and words, 199
ALMA (a layered model of affect), 60f, 62, 396–397, 466
alpha and beta rhythms, 220
alpha asymmetry, 221
alpha band, used in BCI paradigms, 223
“alpha blocking,” detecting, 212
alpha rhythm, 221
Alpha World of Warcraft, 224, 226
alternate-form unreliability, 137
alternative metrics, now common to use, 243
ALTs (advanced learning technologies), 420, 430
Amazon Mechanical Turk service, 188
ambiance, creating, 475
ambulatory skin conductivity sensors, 211
American Psychological Association (APA) code of ethics, 337
A' metric, 243
AMFED facial expression database, 138
amplitude, of the orienting response, 211f, 212
amygdala, 39, 40–41
activating, 33
coding original value of the stimulus, 219
part of a core brain circuit, 45
role of, 44
Amytal, injecting into an internal carotid artery, 40
anatomical level, specifying body parts described, 277
anatomically based action units (AUs), 132, 133f
ancestors, collective guilt for sins of, 74
ancient times, beliefs about emotions, 204
ancillary activities, during writing, 449, 451
André, Elisabeth, 5
androids, 118, 119, 124
ANEW (affective norms for English words), 186, 186t
anger
associated with lateral orbitofrontal cortex, 43
characterized by, 48
indicated by fast and jerky movements, 155
in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and parahippocampal gyrus, 43
motivating cognitive judgments, 63
prompting robots to adjust collaborative task strategy, 101
role for left PFC in the emotion of, 40
as a shared emotion, 75
usage of the pharyngeal region for, 172
anger face, prototypical, 72
anger module, 30
angry movements, 279
angry speech, 173, 174f, 176
angular posture, 278
animated character with audio (FULL), 540
animated character with text balloons (ANIM), 540
animating scenes, modern, 114
(p. 568) animation
early film depictions of, 114
principles, for expressing emotions in robots, 299–300
Anna on IKEA, emotional behavior of, 310
annotated corpus of human or virtual faces, analysis of, 264
annotating (coding) data, with appropriate emotion labels, 175
annotation(s)
of affect, 248
classification of, 464
controlling for errors, 188
of the corpus attributing labels to expressions, 264
formalisms, 288–289
guidelines for, 188
performing, 189
process, 362
saving labor, 328–330
speech recordings, 293
annotators, 324, 390
anonymity, 78
anterior cingulate, 39
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 41
anterior insula, 42
anthropomorphic agents, 100, 310–311
anthropomorphic designs, popular publications favoring, 113
anthropomorphizing artifacts, 484
anticipatory system, generating an affective signal, 298
ANVIL, 353t
Anvil software, 176, 396
anxiety
associated with decreased HRV, 45
robot’s expression of, 487, 491
anxiety disorders
modeling alternative mechanisms underlying, 103
treatment of, 548, 549–550
apatheia, achieving, 342
APE exhibits, leaving because of external factors, 440
apex phase, of face and body expressions stream, 251
apocalypticism, sense of, 112
appearance, 145, 500
appearance component, of the AASM, 517
appearance features, extracting, 136
applications
of AC, 2
adapting the behavior of, 226
for affective body expression recognition, 161–162
reflecting the current affective state, 224
application scenarios, influencing choice of the window length, 249
application-specific tools, 350
applicative scenarios, for affective analysis, 185
appraisal(s), 559
depending on other people’s apparent reactions and orientations, 70
dimensions of, 25
by Gratch and Marsella, 402
as a means to influence behavior, 59
modeled as the cause of emotion, 59
processing constraints underlying, 57
represented explicitly, 401
resulting from an attraction to or repulsion from objects, 298
as a special kind of value judgments, 34n2
of a state of affairs, 25
three vocabularies proposed, 402
used in a broad sense, 34n4
appraisal approach, 263
appraisal-based agent architecture, 102
appraisal-based schemes, Scherer’s Component Process Model, 360–361
appraisal-based theories, of emotion, 97
appraisal-derivation model, 61–62, 61f
appraisal dimensions, 55, 97
appraisal mechanisms, triggering emotions, 396
appraisal models, 54–64
family history of, 60f
appraisal theories, 178, 261, 275, 288
affinity for computational scientists of emotion, 59
agent architecture, and cognitive models, 101–102
challenges and future directions, 63–64
connection between emotion and symbolic reasoning processes, 55–59
drawing connections with other areas of automated reasoning, 64
impacting individual and social behavior, 57
improved, 26
Lazarus,’ 101
modeled within the affective computing community, 97
representing emotions in computer systems, 2–3
traditional, 69
appraisal theorists, 55, 56, 56t
appraisal variables, 55, 56t, 62, 275
assigning specific values to, 97
from componential theories, 102
defined by Scherer, 102
evaluation of the event through, 263
representing the resulting emotion, 101
approach and withdrawal motivations, 43, 559
approach-related emotions, 48
approval, obtaining, 337
arbitrary speech synthesis, 287
ARCS model, 449
ARD (automatic relevance detection), 413, 413f
Aristotle, physiological view of emotions, 204–205
Arkin, Ronald, 7
arm movement, 279, 280t
AR model, 60f, 62
Arnold, Magda B., 24, 48, 55, 298
Arnold-Lazarus theory, 24–25
arousal, 97, 247, 250, 360
liars experiencing increased, 506
people exhibiting in different ways, 507
reporting overall level of, 491
taking many different forms, 507
arousal-based model, of dyadic human-robot attachment interactions, 102
“arousal” dimension, acoustic modification rules for, 288
arrival, at a museum, 438
articulators
at anatomical level, 277
tangential speed of critical, 174
articulatory data, collecting, 172
articulatory kinematics, interplay between voice source and, 173, 174f
articulatory mechanisms, of expressive speech, 172
articulatory models, 290
articulatory speed dimension, 174f
artifacts, 210, 228, 491
artificial agents, 33, 89, 95
artificial bodies, animation of, 114
artificial entities, portrayed in the media, 3
artificial helpers, discussion of, 341
artificial intelligence (AI), 54, 94, 288
artificial life, 113, 114
artificial person, 121
artificial sciences, 60
artificial-sounding systems, preferred in certain conditions, 290
artificial women, marked by their sexuality, 120
art performances, context of, 162
Asimov, Isaac, 116, 117, 118, 127n5
ASM (active shape modeling), 510
aspects, of objects, 98
Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB), 473
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 19, 337
associative learning experiences, 23
assurances, 537
Astounding Science Fiction, 118
asynchronous deception, high-stakes, 509
asynchronous HMMs, 250
(p. 569) asynchronous scenarios, 509
atomic facial actions, identification of, 269
attention
acquiring the visitor’s, 442
affected by what matters to you, 13
coordination between parties, 74
attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction (ARCS), 449
attentional resources, encouraging more productive use of, 425
attention-directing function, of emotions, 27
attentive computing, research into, 449
attitudes, 486, 488
attribute values, 398
attribution theory, 424
attunement, context-dependence of, 72
AuBT, 354t, 356
audience reactions, political speeches tagged with, 199
audiobook recordings, use of, 293
audio data, applying speaker diarization approaches, 89
audio epitomes, for acoustic event detection, 408f
audio features, brute-forced by functional application to LLDs, 253
audiovisual affect recognition, in a real-life system, 252
audiovisual databases, 330
Audio/Visual Emotion Challenges, 327, 330
audiovisual emotion challenges, 253
audiovisual resources, exemplary, 330–331
audiovisual settings, in games, 461
auditory processing (tau-rhythm), 221
augmented gaze, 499
Augustine, 342
AuRA, robotic architecture, 486
Authentic Happiness (Seligman), 550–551
autism, building affective technology for, 19
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) task, 525f
autism emotion research, 525
autism spectrum, people on, 11
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 391, 559
agents and children with, 527
applications of affective computing to children with, 526–528
children with, 300, 527, 528, 530
electrodermal activation in children with, 524–526
emotion recognition, 164
interventions in children with, 516–517
siblings, 521
tools for helping children with, 8
vocalization of children with, 523
autistic children, understanding of a robot’s intentions, 300
autobiographical memory paradigm-inducing strategy, 274
autobiographical memory task, 379
autogenic training, 473
automated content creation, 468
automated detectors of affect, 239–243
automated differentiation, between cries, 529
automated face analysis (AFA), 131–145
automated face analysis and synthesis, applications, 138–144
automated face synthesis (AFS), 134
automated facial measurement, 517–518
automated feedback, 454–455, 456
automated measurement, 517–526, 559
automatic affect analyzers, training and validation of, 361
automatic affect inference, practicality of incorporating, 363
automatic affective body expression recognition systems, 158t–159t
automatic affect recognition, 160, 303
automatic classification techniques, 197
automatic emotion recognition system, 171
automatic facial affect recognizer, 363
automatic processes, 26
automatic question generation techniques, 454
automatic recognition systems, 157–160
automatic relevance detection (ARD), 413, 413f
automatic smile detector, 143
automatic uncertainty annotation, errors in, 426
automation, of content creation, 468
automotive factories, radically automated, 113
Autom robotic weight loss coach, 538
autonomic activity, leading to states of “action readiness,” 299
autonomic feedback, 473
autonomic nervous system (ANS), 205
activity, 206, 208–209
activity patterns, 376
function, 48
recent reviews of, 48
responses, 49
signals, 100
autonomic patterns, 205
autonomic responses, 472
autonomous, 559
autonomous agents, 530
autonomous biofeedback, enabling, 474
autonomous closed-loop biofeedback, 472–481
autonomous closed-loop interaction, 528
autonomous closed-loop systems, 530
autonomous systems, 329
autonomy, 335, 340–341, 345
AutoTutor, 423
compared to Prime Climb, 236
interfaces for, 234f
use of, 239
avatar(s), 559
digital embodiment or representation, 497–498
in multiperson games, 143
players’ association with, 226
simulating face-to-face doctor-patient interventions, 8
Avatar, 142
avatar/agent hybrid, incorporating, 498
AVATAR deception detection system, 511
AVEC series, 253
B
BabyFACS, 517
Bacigalupi, Paolo, 112
back-channel cues, simulating, 89
Backer, Jason, 8
backward masking, 375, 559
Baggia, Paolo, 6
bag-of-words representations, 200
Bailenson, Jeremy, 7
Bailey, Jakki, 7
Baker, Ryan, 4
balance, of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal interests, 552
BAP (body action and posture) coding system, 277, 282
Barrett, 97
baseline arousal (tonic EDA), 524
baseline/neutral film, suggestions for, 373
basic emotional states, representing, 298
basic emotion categories, 80
basic emotion modules, 30, 31
basic emotions, 262, 360, 422
agent architectures and, 100–101
associated with physiological and expressive responses, 31
certain, 42
characteristics distinguishing, 96
characterized by specific facial expressions, 32, 47
Ekman’s criteria for, 96, 132, 132f, 188
expressions of two “neighboring” computing new facial expressions, 262
limited number of, 275
list of, 422
localizing to distinct brain regions, 33
minor role to play in learning, 423
modern theories of, 31
notion of controversial among psychologists, 96
not represented in the same form across the glove, 75–76
overlooking other nonbasic emotions, 430
photos of, 132f
providing tools for living, 43
universally recognized across all cultures, 312
basic feelings, 29
Battlestar Galactica, 120, 121, 121f
Baum, L. Frank, 115
(p. 570) Bayesian networks, 137, 315–316
beats, 277
behavior(s)
approaches to manually coding, 132–134
attempting to identify specific, leading to lower interrater reliability, 240
rules determining, 59
strategically used to develop personal relationships, 537
used to maintain relationships established, 537
Behavioral Analysis Interview, 511
behavioral and emotional expressions, of subjects, 448
behavioral assessment, of one’s emotional state, 175
behavioral control, of deceivers, 507–508
behavioral cue, 363, 511
behavioral data, labeling, 176
behavioral engagement, 439
behavioral impact, of museum exhibit, 437
behavioral issues, helping people with milder, 95
behavioral manipulations, 376–377
behavioral measures, as observational, 490–491
behavioral patterns, of NPCs, 466
behavioral realism, 497
behavioral-related health issues, 553
behavioral scientists, face of keen interest to, 131
behavioral signals, 361, 366, 367
behavioral techniques, in HRI experiments, 490–491
behavior-based paradigm, TAME well suited for, 484
behavior consequent models, 62
behavior descriptors, 171
“behaviorist avalanche,” 24
behaviorist phase, of psychology, 21
behavior manipulation, 559
behavior markup language (BML), 264, 300, 301, 559
behavior patterns, adopting particular, 376
behavior planning, phase of SAIBA, 300
behavior realization, phase of SAIBA, 300, 301
behavior signal processing (BSP), 171
“being there,” experience of, 496
belief-desire-intention (BDI), 462, 463
belief-desire system, changes in, 27
belief-desire theory of emotion, 34n3
believability
of a character, 104, 299
increase in the agent’s, 261
benchmarking, on spontaneous facial behavior, 138
beneficence, 338–339
Benkler, Yochai, 387
Bentham, Jeremy, 335
Berger, Hans, 220
beta-adrenergic blocking agents, 29
beta rhythm, 221–222
BeWell real-time continuous sensing application, 555
Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia, 3
The Bicentennial Man (film), 117, 117f
Bickmore, Timothy, 8
bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) neural networks, 179
bidirectional projections, underpinning emotional experience, 38
“big-five” markers, Goldberg’s unipolar, 490
“Big Five” personality model, 88
“big six” basic emotions
by short story-based induction, 330
vocabulary by Ekman, 402
Binghamton-Pittsburgh 4D database (BP4D), 138
bioelectrical signals, 472
biofeedback, 472, 473, 479, 559
Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA), 473
biofeedback practice, 212
biofeedback systems, 474–475
biological emotion systems, 14
biological motion, pathways in the brain for recognizing, 154
biological signals, 75
biological systems, 12
biological theories, applied to behavior-based architectures, 99
biomedical apparatus, miniaturized, 473
biometric, face as a potential, 131
biosensors, datasets of real-world affective experiences from, 392
biosignals, 472–473
Black and White, 460
Blade Runner, 120
blended approaches, to e-therapy, 548
Blizzard Challenge, 294
blob analysis, 510
blog posts, 192, 193t
blood pressure (sphygmomanometry), 213
blood pressure monitoring systems, 213
BlueJ Interactive Development Environment, 237–238
bodies
emotions reflected in, 4
new, for new behavior and new situations, 305
bodily changes
distinguishing “emotional” from nonemotional, 28
emotion-relevant, 23
emotion-specific pattern, 24
bodily expressions
of emotion, 273
producing, 4–5
tracking player’s, 464
bodily feeling theory, problems of, 28–29
bodily harm, triggering fear, 102
bodily orientation, toward objects, 74
bodily reactions, characteristic for fear, 23
bodily sensations, awareness of, 41
bodily signals, overt and covert, 474
body action and posture (BAP) coding system, 277, 282
body-boundary violating stimuli, 49
body expressions
capturing, 152–153, 164–165
features, 160
modeling the subtlety and ambiguity of “in the wild,” 157
recognizing affect from, 151
relationship between, 162
strong indication of level of activation of a person’s emotional state, 160
body focus, 282
body language
shared by men and animals, 283n1
teachers taught how to read affective aspects of students,’ 151
body manipulators, 277
body movements
not occurring in isolation, 162
technologies capturing both fine- and coarse-grained, 3
body muscles, patterns of activation in and emotional states, 163
body parts, amplitude and speed of, 279
body posture
cross-cultural differences, 153
deriving indicators of deception from, 510
detecting, 161
nonfacial nonverbal affective expressions, 487
body type, associations with narrative function, 120
bond component, 539
books, nonsensory, 496
boosting, 137
boredom, 429–430
boredom annotations, 389
boredom dimension, 282
bottom-up approach, 264
bottom-up embodied processes, 73
botulinum toxin (“botox”), injection reducing experience of fear and sadness, 39
BP4D database, multiclass SVM, 139
brain
electrical activity of, 212
in search of emotion modules in, 32–33
brain and body, role in emotion, 47f
brain-based models, of approach related motivation, 49
(p. 571) brain-body interactions
embodied cognition and, 45–47
incorporating into formal models, 39, 45
brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), 559
affective, 217–229
characteristics of, 225
classifiers, 224
community, 222
control, 224, 227
defined, 222
paradigms, 225f
pipeline, 223
system, 223f, 224
brain metabolism, wearable sensor modalities currently not affordable, 218
brain regions, in regards to emotion processing, 39
breaks, ancillary, 451
breastfeeding, of US infants, 543–544
breathing noises, 291
Brin, David, 347n15
British National Corpus, 201n3
Broadmann’s area (BA 25), 41
BROMP protocol, 237, 238, 240
Brooks, Rodney, 112, 113f
“brute force” method, 291
BSP (behavior signal processing), 171
Burgoon, Judee, 7
Burkhardt, Felix, 5, 6
Busso, Carlos, 3
BusyBody system, 409–410, 410f
Bystander Turing test, 455
C
C-3PO, 110, 111f, 123
Cadigan, Pat, 112
Calvo, Rafael A., 6, 7, 8
camera-based proxy sensing, 429
cameras, monitoring heart health and eye gaze, 429
Campbell, John W., 118
Campbell, Nick, 5
Canamero, Lola, 18
cancer prevention website, augmented with a relational agent, 544
Cannon, Walter B., 28, 32, 95, 205
Capek, Karel, 115
cardiac activity, 206–210
cardiorespiratory indicators, emotional stress, 510
cardiovascular disease, mindfulness, optimism, and gratitude reducing, 46
caregivers, 378
caricatures, exaggerating the difference from the mean, 300
cartoon characters, showing strongly exaggerated behavior, 90
Castellano, Ginevra, 4
categorical approach, proposed by Ekman and Friesen, 262
categorical descriptions, vocabularies defined, 402
categorical emotional states, 176
categorical labels, 171
categorical model, 288, 327
categorical schemes, conforming everyday language terms for verbalizing emotional experiences, 360
categorical theories, of basic emotions, 95–96, 100
Cathexis architecture, for emotions in robots, 298
cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors, 375
causal mechanisms, believed to produce reliable indicators of truth or deception, 506–508
Causing Death and Saving Lives (Glover), 342–343
Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), 495–496
CBI model, 60f
C/C++/C#, 351, 352f
central autonomic network (CAN), 45
central nervous system, 218
central physiology, applications monitoring, 4
cepstral description, 248
challenges, not easily surpassed, 420
chameleon effect, 498
change and uncertainty, 552
characterization, of emotions and behavior, 275–278
characters, in a game, 465–466
checkpoint, at a random position in the song, 188
Chedd, Graham, 17
chest cavity expansion, measured by a strap sensor, 213
children, 378
with ASD, 527, 528, 530
development, 516
interacting with an animated agent, 411
playing chess, 161
sounds, classifying, 523
tending to respond positively to robots, 530
choice, 436
choreographers, 276, 278
ChronoViz, used for labeling, 352
cinematographic representation, of multiple cameras, 460
circumplex model of affect, Russell’s, 360, 463
circumplex structure, 97
Clarke, Arthur C., 16
class-based format, 464
classes, of annotated labels of affective states, 465
classical conditioning, 23
classic robots, fascination with pivoting on their mechanical presence, 116
classification
accuracy, 201
algorithms, 228
of emotional signals other than cries, 529
key task in many domains, 406
methods, 250, 253
schemes, 250–251, 255
tasks, 178, 178f
classifiers, used for affective BCI, 224
classroom, taking sensors to, 428
class unbalance, ignoring the problem of, 328
clinical applications, 161
clips
from comedies, 373
depicting death scenes, 373
CLM (constrained local model), 135, 141
CLM-Z, tracking facial features, 353
closed loop, sequential key phases organized in, 461
closed-loop autonomous biofeedback model, 474–475, 474f
closed-loop model, 560
closed-loop strategy, 63
clusters, identifying within the model’s input space, 465
Clynes, Manfred, 13
Clynes, Manfred E., 119
CMU-Pittsburgh AU-coded face expression image database, 101
coarse-grained binary classification, evaluations using, 201t
coarse-grained evaluations, 190, 196, 196t
coarticulation, studied in a controlled environment, 290
cocaine addictions, 373
coders, 324, 373
coding
of affect, 240
clear guidelines for, 409
creative challenges of, 386
coding approaches, 276
coding language, based on different emotion theories, 6
cognition, 419
cognition-emotion debate, 26
cognition feeling theory, 30
cognitions (appraisals), 29
cognitive appraisal
best-known theory of, 98
generation of emotion via, 100
process, 97
theory, 463
cognitive architecture of the agent, 99
cognitive-based therapies, crowdsourcing elements of, 390
cognitive consequent models, 62
cognitive deficits, 103
cognitive disequilibrium, during learning, 424
cognitive dissonance, 555
cognitive effort, 507, 508
cognitive emotion theories, 24, 34n1
cognitive engagement, 440
cognitive feeling theory, 29–30
“cognitively diluted” version, of feeling theory of emotion, 23
(p. 572) cognitive modeling, 463
cognitive models, of writing, 448
cognitive perspective, 86–87
cognitive processes
in the elicitation of emotions, 31
emotions caused by, 24
gamma band oscillations observed in association with a, 222
preceding emotional responses, 63
cognitive psychologists, 42
cognitive reappraisal, applying, 390
cognitive restructuring, applying, 390
cognitive science, 94, 101
cognitive skills, 420
cognitive state changes, avoiding misclassification of, 227
cognitive theories, 99, 101, 463
Cognitive Theory of Emotion, 360
Cognitive Tutor Algebra, 235f, 238
cognitivism, behaviorism replaced by, 21
Cohen’s kappa, 243, 327
Cohn, Jeff, 3
Cohn-Kanade corpus, 144
Cohn-Kanade database, 138, 409
“cold” nonemotional mental states, 22
cold-start problem, 479
collaboration, 494–495
collaborative filtering algorithms, Amazon’s, 389
collaborative virtual environments (CVEs), 495–500, 560
collecting labels, 389–390
collective imagination, affective power part of, 187
collectivistic cultures, 311, 314
combat skills, of opponent NPCs, 460
Commander Data, 118, 119f, 124
committee-based method, 328
Common Lisp, 351
communicated emotion, 75
communication
computer-mediated emotion, 76–79
denying respect as ethically problematic, 340
communication channels, 76, 78
communication effectiveness, 77
communication technologies, 77
communicative affective signals, of human expression, 100
communicative focus, 282
communicative signals, in social interactions, 87
companies, employing virtual agents on web pages, 314
companion agents, surge of work on, 90
companions
affective systems as, 342
robots as, 305
competence, certifying, 341
competitive evaluations, results of, 294
complex communicative systems, advances in modeling of, 529
complex learning, 420, 421
componential perspective, of emotion, 97
componential process model, Scherer’s, 263
componential theorists, appraisal variables defined by, 102
component model
of somatovisceral response organization, 48
view, 61–63
component process model, of Scherer, 227, 360–361
component process theory (CPT), 100, 102
components
of affective responses, 218
of emotion, 97
comprehensive computational model, 283
computation, of affective speech features, 173–175
computational appraisal models, 59, 61, 61f
computational appraisal theory, 59–61
computational approaches, for humor recognition, 197
computational behavioral science, expression transfer in, 141–142
computational framework, of emotion recognition, 177–180
computational humor, previous work in, 196
computational linguistics, 184
computational model, 274
computational modeling
classifying deception and, 508–511
of “context,” 364
of the expression of emotion in virtual characters, 280
computational models
based on appraisal theory, 59
proposed for the synthesis or blending of emotions, 268
recognizing patterns correlating with emotional states, 453
of the roles of affective phenomena in human cognition, 94
computational processes, of emotion generation, 26
computational scientists, producing working artifacts, 60
computational techniques, used in Glosser, 455
computational treatment, of music, 199
computer(s)
lack of embodied specificity, 119
participating in social interactions, 84
computer agents, representing a user’s ethnic group, 317
computer animation, generating moving faces and bodies, 79
computer-assisted creativity, 185
computer-based assessment and feedback systems, 553–554
computer-based entities, inspiring fear of being everywhere, 119
computer-based interventions (CBIs), 553, 554
computer-based training systems (CBTs), 420
computer-enhancement, of communication, 78–79
computer games, 104, 226, 459
computer graphics, 495
computer-mediated communication (CMC), detecting liars, 76
computer mediation, effects on the communicative process, 76
“Computers as Social Actors” paradigm, 364
computer science
entrants into the field of emotion, 54
providing technologies for machine detection and synthesis of relevant phenomena, 84
world of logic largely devoid of emotional requirements, 18
computer software, detecting behavioral signs of emotions, 517
computer-supported communication and collaboration, socially aware approaches aimed at, 86
computer users, models predicting cost of interrupting, 409
computer vision, working on, 13
“computer vision and pattern analysis (CVPR), conference on, 19
computing, emotional expression in robots, 300–301
conceptions, 449
concept maps, 450
concept names, chosen by following the phenomena observed, 398
concept-to-speech systems, 287
conceptual knowledge, 157
conceptual level, of events, 98
conditional dependency, between two interacting partners’ emotion states, 179
confidence, 398
confidentiality, increasing, 554
conflict, detecting, 88
conflicted character, internal inhibition of, 104
conflicted protagonist characters, for computer games, 104
confounding variables, leading to the occurrence of, 228
confused state, reaching, 443
confusion
counterintuitive relationship with learning, 426
indications of, 428
inducing, 427
platform for detecting, 237
(p. 573) promoting interest in studying, 430
value of during learning, 443
Confusion Tutor, 427, 560
connectionist approach, 103
connotation, positive or a negative, 185
conscientiousness, best-predicted, 88
conscious appraisals, becoming automatized, 26
conscious awareness, of a visual stimulus blocked, 375
consciousness, 21, 112
consensus terms, 397–398
consent, obtaining, 325
consequences, of events, 98
consequent models, 62
consistency
interaction patterns increasing with development, 522
of labeling, 324
of ratings, 134
constant frame rate, often chosen, 248
constrained focus, 420
constrained local model (CLM), 135, 141
constructivist position, 229n2
consumer-assisted support, offered online through volunteers, 548
contacting quotient, estimated, 173
contagion, 71, 72–73
content-based features, automatically differentiating between humorous and nonhumorous texts using, 197
content-based retrieval, already becoming popular, 14
content-based retrieval system, building the world’s first, 13
context
difficult to account for, 249
expressions of emotions in, 267–268
important for HMM approaches, 145
meaning of an expression dependent on, 132
notion of, 365
using as an additional modality, 255
in which a model will be used, 243
context-based recognition framework, 249
context-dependence, of mimicry, 71
context-free level of evaluation, 268–269
context-sensitive affect recognition, 247, 249, 253–254
context-sensitive emotion recognition, 179, 179f
context-sensitive frameworks, 178, 179
context sensitivity, 249–250
contextual factors, taking into account, 361
contextual feature representation, 249
game-based HRI scenario, 249–250
contextual features, 560
contextual information, collecting, 451
continuous affect prediction, 246, 247
continuous annotation of affect dimensions, 248
continuous emotion annotation tool, 179
continuous emotion measurements, 518
continuous model, 156
continuous mode of interaction (loop), with a game, 459
continuous nonexpert ratings, having strong face validity, 518
continuous ratings, 518
control systems, with an active feedback loop, 474
conversational agents, 90, 100
conversational behavior, of groups varying dramatically, 443
conversational engagement, 440
conversational gestures, 276–277
conversation analysis, 89
conversations
promoting productive, 443–444
scripted and natural, 142
conversing, manner of, 87
coordinated interpersonal timing, 524
coping potential, 25
coping strategies, 55, 58, 526
coping tendencies, 56
co-presence, 497
copy-synthesis approach, 264
core affect, 40, 43, 62, 97, 551
core affect elemental feeling, 97
core affective correlates, 227
core affective state, 219
core-affective structures, 219
core dimensions, 42
core disgust, 49
core emotion representations, 399
core game content elements, 462
CORPS corpus (CORpus of tagged Political Speeches), 199
corpus-based lexicon, of facial expressions, 264–266
corpus construction protocol, 313
corpus-driven annotation, 187
corpus of songs, with strict alignment between notes and words, 199–200, 200t
cortical electric or magnetic fields, measuring, 218
cortical regions, activation of task-relevant (sensory), 221
cost-asymmetry, discriminating urgent voice messages from nonurgent, 415
cost-effective technology, development of, 500
counselors, successful inhibiting their righting reflex, 554
couples, reading more extensively in museums, 443
coverbal iconic gestures, modeling, 316
cover story, constructing a, 377
Cowie, Roddie, 5, 18
Cowlog, used for labeling, 352
CPT (component process theory), 100, 102
Craig, Bud, 41
Craig’s homeostatic model, for awareness, 46
credibility assessment, rapid, 503
cries, classified, 523
Criterion, essay assessment systems, 455
cross-cultural differences, 153, 313
cross-cultural emotion recognition studies, 312
cross-cultural perception, of emotions, 316–317
cross-modal redundancy, reducing, 249
cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA), 524
cross-validation, 236, 238, 326, 412
crowding out, 387
crowd-powered affective applications, 390–391
crowds
asking to make quantitative estimations, 388
generating massive amounts of information, 389
recruited on demand, response to unique needs, 390
recruiting to support artificial intelligence, 385
successfully managing, 387
crowdsourcing, 6, 326
affective data, 389–390
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) citations for, 384
described, 384, 385
emotional annotation via, 188
forms of, 385
future of, 392
obtaining annotations with labels, 324
overview of, 385–387
tasks, 390
techniques, 384–393
crowd voting, 389
crowdworkers, 389, 392
cry-face expression, 519
crying, classification of, 523
crying-related sadness, 49
cryonic preservation, of the body, 112
Crystal Island, 238, 426–427, 560
cry-vocalizations, automated detection of, 529
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 552
cued concepts, shaping facial interpretations, 71
cues
addition of supplementary, 78
deriving by tracking location of the head and hands, 510
reduction not always a bad thing, 77
tracking a range of factors, 80
cultural and social backgrounds, communicating with humans from different, 5
cultural background of agents, modeling with emotional behaviors, 314
(p. 574) cultural dichotomies, 560
cultural differences, 316, 317
cultural models, linking emotions to, 311–312
cultural norms and values, determining emotions experienced, 309
cultural probes, 367
cultural schema theory, combining appraisal theory with, 315
cultures
automated recognition of emotions across, 312–313
data-driven computational models of, 314–315
defined using five scales, 311
differences in perceiving emotion from whole-body postures, 153
culture-specific agents, creating emotional expressions for, 315
culture-specific appraisal and coping mechanisms, modeling, 310
culture-specific emotional displays, generating, 310
culture-specific virtual characters and robots, emotional responses to, 317–318
curse of dimensionality, 224
cybernetic entities, 118
cybernetic organism, 119–120
cyberpsychology, 547–555, 560
cybertherapy, 103, 548–550, 560
cyborg(s), 118
criticism, 112
humanlike bodies of fictional, 119–120
as a theoretical entity, 111
cyperpunk works, 112
Cython, 351
Cytowic, Richard, 14
D
Damasio, Antonio, 15, 99
dance choreographers, 276, 278
dance sequences, recognizing basic emotions from, 157
Darwin, Charles, 4, 95, 205, 273, 519
data
pool of, 411
recording or reusing, 325
revising, 363
data annotation, 189–190, 350, 352
database(s), 137–138
building an affective, 6
of emotional examples, 287
usage of very large, for nonuniform unit selection, 293
data-based approaches, 290–291
database for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP), 331
database specific biases, multiple sources of, 144
Databrary project, 529
data collection, 247–248, 324–327, 354, 356, 389
data collection tools, 350
data-driven approach, 318
data-driven computational models, of cultural behavior, 314–315
data fusion and processing, 453–454
data labeling and annotation, popular tools for, 353t
data mining, 353, 468
data quality, of webcam videos, 389
data reduction/selection, 136
datasets
of news headlines, 189
in orders of magnitude larger needed to achieve optimal AFA, 144
The Day the Earth Stood Still, 116
deceit detection, useful cues in, 509
deceivers, 507
deception, 339–340
algorithms and technology used to detect and classify, 7
attributing to the performer, 279
classifier, 510
defined, 503
future research, 511–512
needed to keep participants unaware of variable manipulations, 377
people tending to rely on stereotypical and incorrect indicators of, 506
predicted to be more cognitively demanding, 507
theories of, 504–505
violating two kinds of ethical principle, 340
deception detection, 140
current applications of, 511
by humans, 505–506
unobtrusive, 503–512
deception-induced behavioral control, providing indicators of, 510
deception interactions, introducing situational contingencies, 504
deceptive communication, 78, 510
deceptive facial expressions, 269
deceptive message, forms of, 503
deceptive nonverbal behavior, 505
deceptive verbal messages, 504
decision-level fusion algorithm, 424, 424f
decision-making algorithms, 100
decision-making mechanisms, 99
decision to stop, 439
decision tree, for classifying emotion-evoking situations, 57
Declaration of Helsinki, on research classified as medical, 336
decoding, 274
emotions, 80
facial expressions, 269
decreased HRV, 45
deictic gesture, transforming, 281
deictic gestures, 277
De la Torre, Fernando, 3
deliberate deception, 339
delirium, 542
del Rey, Lester, 120
delta activity, 220
dematerialization, tendency toward, 122
Demon Seed, 119
deployment, target rate for, 162
depression
approaches for identifying, 541
associated with decreased HRV, 45
detecting from video of patients’ faces, 553
discriminating between people suffering from and people not suffering from, 161
functions of, 140
glabellar botulinum toxin treatment associated with, 39
indicators of disorder severity, 139
nonpharmacological treatment for, 40
vocal prosody highly related to severity of symptoms, 145
depression-type words, culture sharing similar lexicons for, 153
depressive tendency, artificial people displaying, 125
depth cameras, 145
de Rosis, Fiorella, 18
Descarte’s Error, 15
descriptions, using combinations of, 402
description strategy, for an affect-sensitive system, 361
descriptive approaches, to modeling, 529
design approach, versus engineering approach, 364
design-based approaches, in affective computing, 366
designed spaces, 438–439, 441
design principles, for biofeedback-based affective computing, 479
desires, treatment of conflicting in Blade Runner, 120
detection paradigms, integration with other, 238–239
detector building system, additive, 235
detectors, 30
cross-validated at the student level, 237
integrating sensor and interaction data found in analysis of Prime Climb, 239
predicting confusion, 235
developed techniques, 365
development partitions, 326, 327
devices, ascribing persona and social behavior to, 364
diagnostic models, sensing affect from communicative channels, 423
dialogue feature, incorporated from interaction logs, 239
DIARC architecture (distributed integrated affect cognition and reflection), 484, 487
(p. 575) dichotomies, characterizing a culture, 311
Dick, Philip K., 120
Dictionary of Affect in Language (DAL), 509
differential ERPs, 220
difficulty, decreasing or increasing, 226
digital footprints, acting as personal identifiers, 500
digital representation, driven by computer algorithms, 498
digital signal processing, 14
digital speech processing (DSP), 287
digital sweatshop, crowdsourcing work evolving into a, 391
“<dimension>” element, 399
dimensional affect, useful for inducing, 373
dimensional affect recognition, shift toward, 247
dimensional approaches, 134, 262–263, 366
dimensional computational models, 102
dimensional decoding strategy, 367
dimensional information, derived from static posture, 278
dimensionality, reducing, 136
dimensional labels, 171
dimensional measurement, 133–134
dimensional model, 156, 288, 329
dimensional quantized (discrete) classification of affect, 250
dimensional representations, 176, 552
dimensional structure, useful only to characterize core affect, 97
dimensional theories, defining dimensional spaces, 275
dimensional view of emotions, 360
dimensions, of motivation, 449
diphone concatenation, 290
diphone synthesis, birth of, 290
direct advocacy, employing for advantages of change, 554
direct affective words, 186
directed facial action task, 376
direct mapping, from emotional state to movement, 280
disagreement, 87, 88
disbelief, willing suspension of, 373
discrete basic emotions
existence of, 31–32
McDougalls theory of, 29–30
discrete emotions, 48, 96, 275, 560
discrete model, 156
discrete recognition, versus continuous, 250–251
discrete theories, sharing a number of features, 96
disengagement, 439, 442
DISFA databases, 138, 139
disgust, 41, 42, 43, 49
disgust module, 30
Disney characters, brought to life, 299
Disney’s traditional principles, not intended for interactive characters, 300
disordered development, 516
display of emotions, as appropriate or plausible, 270
display rules, 31, 560
bypassing the effects of, 76
different, 75
linked to cultural dichotomies, 311
dissidents, identifying a large crowd of people, 392
dissociation paradigm, backward masking, 375
distractions, during writing, 451
distressing, engaging in deceit theorized to be, 506
diversity-density-related method, 328
D’Mello, Sidney K., 6, 7
DMML Feature Selection, 355t, 356
domain-dependent Bayesian network, recognizing emotional state of the user, 280
dominance, studied in meetings, 88–89
dominance or stance, versus submissiveness, 97
dorsal ACC, activity during classical (Pavlovian) fear conditioning, 41
dorsal insula, 42
dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC), 40
doulas, 543
downplaying the system’s authority, 367
drowsy-driver detection, 143
dual use items, in FP7 list, 343
Duchenne de Boulogne, 519
Duchenne smiling, 49, 518–519, 521f
duping delight, 507
duties, with respect to information about other people’s emotional states, 340
Duvivier, Leticia Lobo, 8
dyadic communication, liars using more words overall, 509
dyadic interaction, 560
drawing social context of emotion, 378
between infants and parents, 516
machine learning approaches to modeling, 521–523
providing only a snapshot sampling of emotion, 379
dynamic classifiers, 250
dynamic features, of emotions creating new models, 305
dynamic patterns, picking up, 80
dynamic textures, 136
E
EARL (emotion annotation and representation language), 326
early emotion expression, applying automated and other measurement to, 518–519
early facial expression, grammar of, 519
eating disorders, as an application of VR, 548
ECG (electrocardiogram), 206–207, 210
ecologically valid affect induction, 227
ecological momentary assessment methods (EMA), 554
ecological validity, 228
clear hierarchy, 379
of dyadic interaction, 378
of emotion displayed in film clips, 373
high level realized, 480
of a measurement technique, 361
“ectopic” heartbeats, confounding some algorithms, 210
EDDIE expressive robotic head, 487
EDE, 355t
EDM Workbench, used for educational data mining, 352
educational context, child’s interest and self-reported frustration in, 161
educational data mining (EDM), 234, 560
educational environments, implementing features of games in, 426
educational games, 4, 420, 426
educational software
interaction-based affect detection in, 233–244
research on interaction-based affect detection in, 234–238
usage differences between different countries, 243
EEGLab, 353
Eemotion space, 488
effort-shape analysis, 276
eigenfaces, 88
EINSTEIN android head, 487
Ekman, Paul, 31, 42, 69, 96
Ekman’s six emotions, quasi-exclusive focus on, 101
Ekman’s theory of basic emotions, 33–34
ELAN software, 176, 352, 353
elderly individuals, reducing feelings of social isolation and depression in, 552
electrical changes, detected on the surface of the skin, 206, 207f
electrical stimulation, of subcortical brain structures in the rat, 42
electric shocks, asking participants to either inhibit or intensify expressive reactions to, 376
electrocardiogram (ECG), 206–207, 210
electrocardiograph QRS complex, 207f
electrodermal activity (EDA), 210, 331
as a biosignal to direct arousal with music, 478
correlating with a subject’s arousal level, 413
(p. 576) electrodermal activity (EDA) (Cont.)as an index of sympathetic nervous system arousal, 525
measured by skin conductance, 524
measurements, 525f, 526
providing information regarding individual differences in children with ASD, 524–526
electrodermal activity (EDR). See galvanic skin response (GSR)
electroencephalogram (EEG), 40, 212
electroencephalography (EEG), 218, 560
averaging of several epochs of, 220
challenging to both apply and interpret, 212
correlates of affect in, 219–222
different frequency bands of associated with changes in the affective state, 222
examples of consumer devices, 229n3
exemplary resources containing data, 331
most practicable regarding affective computing, 218
neither the spatial resolution nor the necessary sensitivity to register core affective neural activity, 227
as a neurophysiological measurement tool, 223
recording from a small number of sensors, 228–229
electroglottogram (EGG), 173
electromagnetic articulography (EMA), 172
electromygrams (EMGs), 212–213
fully wireless, 163–164
informing about the user state, 228
electromyography (EMG), 163–164, 239
electrooculography (EOG), 331
electrophysiological data, processing, 353
elicitation methods, criticisms of lab-based, 377
eliciting event or stimulus, 376
eliciting events, 26
ELIZA program, 103
el Kaliouby, Rana, 19, 20
Elkins, Aaron, 7
EM, dimensional representation of core affect, 62
EMA, 63, 101, 466
email, low social costs associated with, 78
EMA model, 60f
decision-theoretical planning representations in, 61
Gratch and Marsella’s, 59
implementing a hedonic regulation mechanism, 34
EMA tools, automatically detecting critical events, 554
emblems, 276
embodied agents, studied as partners with people, 246
embodied cognition, 2, 39, 47f, 157
embodied conversational agents (ECAs), 261, 560
building a lexicon of multimodal behaviors for, 262
described, 273–274, 526–527
design of, 103
emotional expressions in, 5
facilitating academic learning among children with ASD, 527
generating emotion-related behavior of, 396
generating synthetic emotions, 4
integrating synchrony in, 282
literature reviewed, 280
providing natural verbal and nonverbal backchannel behaviors, 540
using multiple integrated behavioral sensors, 511
embodied or affective effects of emotion, 73
embodiment
in affective robotics, 7
in virtual spaces as crucial, 497
in VR allowing for face-to-face communication, 497
embodiment aspects, of emotional states, 305
emergencies, responses to, 70
emergent emotions, 401
EmFACS, Ekman’s six universal basic expressions of emotions, 101
EMG electrodes, electrodes, 213
EMILE model, 60f
Emily project, 266
EM model, 60f
“Emo&Pain” project, 161
EmoDB database, 289
EMOTE (EMbOdied-perceptive Tutors for Empathy-based learning), 255, 276, 281
emote-aloud method, 236, 241
emotion(s), 560
absolute and unchanging, 365
abstracted in terms of units of information, 365
adaptive utility of, 22
adopting working definition for, 360
affecting behavior, 299
arising from the appraisal of situations, 298
arising in response to different stimuli, 372
aspects of, 360
assigning intensity ratings to, 154
associated with being irrational and unreasonable, 13
associated with specific patterns of appraisal, 55
being omnipresent, 473
as being strategic acts serving to control social interactions, 364
as both cognitive and physiological, 205
broad categorization of, 366
broader array relevant to learning mentioned in discrete theories of emotion, 526
caused or triggered by identifiable entity, 400
causes of, 68–69
characterized by distinct patterns of appraisal, 26
characterizing, 275–276
communicating information about the person expressing them, 71
confirming with the user, 541
consolidating as a consequence of interpersonally distributed processes, 81
constructed from activation relating to more basic building blocks, 42
as a continuous flow, 179
controlling a group of robots, 489
at the core of what makes us moral beings, 335
corpus-based classification of, 192–193, 193t
in the corpus of 100 songs, 188–189, 189t
decoding, 80
definitions of, 15, 39, 274, 360, 475
depending upon social identifications, 75
describing, 23
detecting, 154, 190
discovering real importance for, 13–14
with distinctive universal unique facial expressions, 96
dividing into basic and nonbasic, 422
driving design process of most game genres, 460
as dynamic processes unfolding over time, 361
as dynamic states, 305
effects of, 27–28
effects on subsequent cognition and behavior, 23
as effects rather than causes of emotional behaviors, 23
elements of posture expressing specific, 279t
elicited, 23, 26–27, 379
eliciting, 6
embodied, 305
as an embodied cognition, 45
encoding, 79–80
as essential for interaction, 296
evoking adaptive goals or action tendencies directly, 28
experiential quality of, 22
expressed in an inappropriate situation, 268
expressing through posture and gesture, 273–283
as feelings of pleasure and displeasure, 29
(p. 577) functions of, 27–28
as fundamental processes, 42
generally accepted theory of, 22
having different interpersonal effects, 74
hierarchy classifying 22 different types, 98
how models define, 62
in human interactions, 125
inducing nonintended, 379
influencing motivation partly through the hedonistic route, 28
influencing rational thinking, 359
as inner sanctum of humanity, 336
intentional object of, 25
interacting deeply in the brain with perception, 14
in interpersonal life, 68–81
involving a continuous cycle of appraisal, response, and reappraisal, 64
knowledge-based classification of, 191–192
linking to cultural models, 311–312
machine for measuring, 13
managing in someone else, 538
modeled explicitly, 298
model of, 551
modulating a robot’s planning and control parameters, 489
as multidimensional constructs, 361
nature of, 28–30
neural structures and processes underlying, 24
neurobiological basis of, 2
neurophysiological basis of, 32–33
neuroscientific perspectives of, 38–50
not associated with specific facial expressions, 42
not indispensable for generation of adaptive actions, 28
nuances not reflected in physiological signals, 205
objective measures analyzing the effects of, 269
with objective physical signals, 13
OCC dividing into three broad classes, 57
occurring in human-human communication, 309
one of the main targets for game design, 459
oriented to other people’s emotional orientations, 74
overall adaptive, 27
phenomenal character of, 23
physiological sensing of, 204–214
physiology and, 204–206
playing major roles in perception and in many other aspects of intelligence, 14
presenting themselves to the subject, 24–25
presupposing beliefs and desires, 25
presupposing cognitions of their objects, 25
as “primary” or “basic,” 96
psychological perspectives on, 2, 21–34
recent surge of interest in, 22
recorded using actors/actresses as subjects, 172
reflected verbally, 184
relationship with cognition, 55
remaining ill-defined, 42
representations of, 399
represented by four types of data, 6
represented in terms of categories, 398
representing, 488
representing a way to model different responses, 297–298
resulting from affective state, 489
for a robot, 485–486, 487
role in relationship building and maintenance, 539
roles for, in robotic system, 483
salient exemplars of conscious mental states, 21
sample headlines and manual annotations, 190t
scientific descriptions of, 401
serving distancing or avoidant interpersonal functions, 74
shaped by expression and by reception, 366
sharing the same expression, 96
signaling what matters, 14
similarities with sensations, 23
in social life, 68–71
specificity of, 47–49
starting to look vital for solving difficult engineering problems, 14
strength of elicited via static images, 372
study of, 2
viewed as being about something, 62
vital in forming memory and attention and in rational decision making, 14
for which no facial signals exist, 96
in which stimulus is not necessary, 39
for writing, 450–451
eMotion, 353
“<emotion>” element, 398, 399
emotion adaptation, in robots, 302–305
emotional 20-question project, of the University of Southern California, 404
emotional actions, affecting experienced emotion, 376
emotional adaptation and expression in games, 465–467
emotional agent architectures, 466
emotional architectures for robots, inspiration for, 298
emotional arousal, collecting data related to, 11
emotional behaviors, 376
approaches to creating culture-specific variants, 318
highly variable, 310
inability to describe and achieve consensus on, 368
influenced by other factors, 318
measuring the effects of a virtual character’s, 269
notion of, 286
of Pakistani and Dutch children playing card games together, 317
in a particular social situation, 313
resulting from culture-specific norms and values, 315
emotional brain, 39–42
emotional categories, 187, 188t
emotional circuitry, 44–45
emotional communications
aligning and realigning orientations, 78
as a crucial ingredient in most relationships, 538
modeling, 519–521
emotional components, sequence of, 64
emotional contagion models, 403
emotional cues, 164, 442
emotional dimensions, of arousal and valence, 463
emotional display rules, conflicts resulting from, 318
emotional displays, 270, 312
emotional engagement, 81, 439–440
emotional episodes, 361, 376
emotional exchanges, between people from different cultures, 309
emotional experiences
as conscious evaluations, 34n7
difficulty of formalizing discrete categories, 366
generated simultaneously with expression, 32
having “warmth,” 22
emotional expressions
culture-specific differences in, 309
distinguishing encoding from decoding, 403
modifying existing, 376
obtaining reliable datasets of, 371
in robots, 299–302
of a single subject, 88
emotional expressivity, presenting an asymmetry in, 279
emotional facial expressions
in interaction, 267–270
synthesis from annotated human faces, 264
emotional feedback exchange, between two subjects, 88
emotional feelings, 23, 29, 376
emotional film clips, 560
(p. 578) Emotional Flowers, 367
emotional functioning, in neurologically impaired patients, 379
emotional generation process, core task, 102
emotional hierarchy, number of elements in, 187t
emotional humanity, HAL acquiring, 124
emotional images, 372–373, 560
emotional impact, of parent-, child-, and infant-held personal digital assistants on children’s outcomes, 531
emotional instinctual behaviors, 42
Emotional Intelligence, 17
emotional judgments, extremely subjective and ambiguous, 367
emotional labels, converting into a format allowing for cross-cultural processing, 312
emotional language, not predefined, 160
emotional load, selecting different degrees of, 189
emotionally expressive movement, 280–282
emotionally expressive speech, 172–173
emotional meaning, mediating role of, 73
emotional modeling, adjustments achieved via, 461, 461f
emotional models, 61, 463
emotional music, 560
emotional orientations, 69, 70
emotional patterns, 123–126
emotional reactions
as contextual knowledge, 329
game detecting and interpreting, 461
patterns, 30
without cognitive processes, 99
emotional recognizer, efficient and reliable real-life, 175
emotional responses
as an evolutionary inheritance facilitating survival, 494
measuring, 378
using to model a system’s, to a user, 526
without an effect on conscious emotional experience, 376
emotional responsiveness and range, of Star Wars robots, 123
emotional robots
affective loop of, 297f
placed in authentic situations, 305
emotional signals, modeling of discrete, 529
emotional specificity, studies on, 47–48
emotional speech
compared to neutral speech, 172, 172f
perceptual clues of, 289
emotional speech assets, crowdsourcing, 390
emotional speech data, for four acted emotions, 172
emotional speech production, scientific findings of, 171
emotional speech synthesis, 286–294
architecture of, 287, 287f
emotional state generator, 489
emotional states
affecting perceptions of events and people, 157
allowing for emphasis on particular, 466
arising directly from “untreated” perceptions, 299
characterized in terms of a number of, 250
expressions of different, 466
inducing in people, 274
interpretation of someone else’s, 275
of observers, 157
represented by fuzzy sets, 489
self-assessment of, 176
usually modeled by a categorical system, 288
words directly referring to, 186
emotional stereotypes, in fictional depictions of simpler machines, 123–124
emotional stimulus events, emotional response elicited by, 218
emotional stress
blood pressure found to correlate with, 213
varying between truth tellers and liars, 510
emotional styles, 291
emotional support, providing, 538, 539
emotional synchrony, disruptions and repairs of, 520
emotional transforms, representative of certain emotional categories, 280
emotional variables, being studied in the literature, 448
emotional vectors, 191
emotional video analysis system, 403
emotional virtual characters, 268–270
emotional void, projecting ourselves into, 124
emotional writing, affective computing and, 549
emotion analysis, systems using knowledge-based approaches, 192, 194t
emotion annotation, third-person, 464
emotion annotation and representation language (EARL), 397
emotion annotations, 186, 188
emotion antecedents, 58, 102
emotion as social information (EASI) model, 73
emotion attributes, tracking continuously rated, 179–180
emotion-based agent architectures
interest in building, 94–95
overview, 99–100
why and how to build, 94–104
emotion categories, no agreed set of, 402
emotion categorizations, inherent ambiguity in, 180
emotion classifications
exploiting idiosyncratic information to improve, 160
obtaining, 31
using music as well as lyric representations, 199
emotion coefficient matrices, 488
emotion communications
computer-mediated, 76–79
object orientation of, 80
emotion contagion, 560
emotion coping strategies, teaching to mothers of pediatric cancer patients, 18
emotion corpora, 330–331
emotion cues, clarifying subtle, 80
emotion data collection, 359–368
emotion debate, great, 42–44
emotion-decoding systems, 70
emotion descriptors, 213, 399
emotion detection, 453, 462
emotion detectors, training, 372
emotion dimensions, correlated, 251
emotion disc model, 262
emotion elicitation methods, common, 372
emotion elicitation process, modeling, 33
emotion elicitations, summarizing the effect of, 59
emotion-eliciting event, 401
emotion-eliciting films, database, 373
emotion elicitors
mapping of, 102
two key clusters of possible, 461
emotion experience
continuous measure of, 379
role of hemispheric effects in, 47
emotion-face dissociations, explaining, 32
emotion-focused coping strategies, 63, 101
emotion-focused strategies, 58
“emotion from motion” system, 280
emotion generation, process of, 23, 24
emotion images, eliciting emotional arousal, 46
emotion in bodily expression, encoding and decoding of, 278
emotion incubator group, 395, 397
emotion induction, effectiveness of multimedia mobile phones applied to, 550
emotion labeling, 171, 176, 325–326
emotion labels
for computing, 175–176
predefined, 189
emotion markup language, 395–404
emotion measurement, via continuous ratings, 518
emotion mechanisms, inherited versus learned, 23
(p. 579) EmotionML, 326
emotion markup language, 395
markup language for AC, 6
referring to external entities, 400
relevance for user modeling, 403
requirements for, 397–398
self-contained emotion annotation, 398–399
syntax for, 398–401
vocabularies for, 401–403
EmotionML 1.0 specification, issues for future work, 403
emotion model, choice of the most appropriate, 325
emotion modeling, 288, 462
emotion modules, 30, 31, 33
emotion object, 74, 560
emotion pairs, getting confused, 293
emotion perception, 43, 366
emotion processing, simplified model of, 47, 47f
emotion profile, representation of emotion as, 176
emotion psychology
affective computing and, 33–34
five questions of, 22
Emotion Recognition, in the Wild Challenge and Workshop (EmotiW 2013), 138
emotion regulation, 69, 560
emotion-related issues, variety of, 403
“emotion-related” states, relevant, 401
emotion research, 95
emotions and feelings, Damasio’s theory of, 101
emotion signals, integrated system capable of decoding, 80
emotion signature proper, characterized by emotion-specific responses, 48
emotion speech processing, using, 288
emotion synthesizer, quality of, 288
emotion system
evolutionary core of, 30–32
involving when you make a decision, 19
origins of, 22
emotion theories, 560
central influence on the study of emotionally expressive behavior, 275
tool for confronting imprecision, 54
emotion transmission, divided into sequential processes of encoding and decoding, 79
emotion triggers, 102
emotion vocabulary
introduced in EmotionML, 402
mechanism for referring to, 399
emotion writing studies, manipulating the writing condition, 549
“emotivector,” 488
Emotiv EEG system, 468
Emotive Logger, 353
emotive tendencies, in the design of affective systems, 125
eMoto, 366
EmoTV corpus, exploiting film clips, 330
EmoVoice, 353
empathetic accuracy, by the agent, 541
empathetic language, in psychotherapy, 539
empathic behavior, 303, 304
empathic emotion transfer, 71
empathic intervention, 254
empathic model, based on perspective taking, 303–304
empathic responses, types of, 304
empathy, 70–71, 424, 560
adjectives of, 539
between adolescents, 480
affecting human attitudes toward robots, 303
attempt at, 69
defined, 302
distinguishing from related processes, 71
one of the major determinants of prosocial actions, 303
prerequisite for providing emotional support, 538–539
process of, 303
as a research topic, 303
at the root of moral behavior toward others, 345
seeming to enhance interaction, 268
“empathy-arousing” mechanism, 303
empathy component, crowdworkers taught to apply person-center support, 391
empathy-eliciting agents, efficacy of, 527
empathy profile questionnaires, 157
Empatica bracelet, 468
emphatic responses, to another person’s emotion expression, 71
empirical evidence, for informational effects, 27
empirical foundation, data-driven computational models of cultural behavior, 314
eMuu, 301, 301f
EMYS robot, 300, 301
encoding, 274
emotions, 79–80
individual differences in, 277–278
encoding-decoding cycles, integrating, 80–81
encoding-decoding distinction, making, 274
encoding dictionary, between a contextual feature and visual gestures, 249
encoding nonverbal expressions, obtaining realistic, 274
endogenous input, 225
end-user license agreement, 326–327
energy masking, 375
engaged life, 551
engagement
achieving, 439–440
augmenting, 297
defined, 297
as an important requirement for learning, 425
occurrence of in the context of learning environments, 552
stages of, 439
sustaining, 442–443
tracking during writing activities, 428
engagement/flow, as most frequent state, 423
engagement outcome, indicator of, 439
engineering applications, potential, 171
engineering approach, formalizing affect, 365
engineering stance, continuing to dominate the field, 365
eNTERFACE corpus, targeting, 330
entertaining, games as, 460
entropy, 522, 523, 529
environment
of a game, 461
speech affected by, 176
in virtual reality, 495
for writing, 449
environmental conditions, posing challenges for vision-based systems, 152–153
epinephrine, 205, 206
epistemic function, of emotions, 27
EPSRC EP/L00416X/1 Digital Personhood project, 255
equity, 335
ergodic interactive media, such as games, 463
ERPs (event-related potentials), 219–220
error potentials, detection of, 226
error-related negativity (ERN), 226
ERWIN socially interactive robot head, 487
The ESP Game, 6, 384, 385
e-therapy, 548
ethical filters, applying at publication, 344
ethical issues
addressing, 5–6
in affective computing, 334–346
confronting roboticists, 491–492
of crowdsourcing, 391–392
regarding trust, privacy, and autonomy, 500
ethical principles and concerns, enforcement of, 343–344
ethical themes, for affective computing, 338–343
ethics
considering, for affect data collection, 324–325
formal and informal foundations of, 335–336
ethnographic observation and analysis, 365
(p. 580) EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, Article 8, 337
eudaemonic level, supporting, 552
eudaemonic technologies, 551
EU FP7 LIREC (LIving with Robots and intEractive Companions) project, 253–254
European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies, 344
European Union’s Framework 7 (FP7) program, 343
evaluation
automating, 441–442
of emotional speech, 293
fine- and coarse-grained, 190
of a state of affairs, 25
strategies for, 366
evaluative functions, of affect, 420
evaluator, 560
evaluator-weighted estimator (EWE), 327
event categories, defined in advance in labeled training data, 137
event infrastructure, logging desktop activities, 409
event-related potentials (ERI’s), 560
event-related potentials (ERPs), 219–220
events
emotional reactions to, 75
three-layered emotional processing of, 98
Everquest II, 142
everyday emotion vocabulary, by Cowie, 402
evoked frequency responses, 220
evoked-passive brain-computer interfaces, 226–227
evoked-reactive brain-computer interfaces, 227
evolutionary emotion mechanisms, 23
evolutionary-ethological perspective, social signals in, 86
evolutionary processes, emotion system created by, 30
evolutionary view, of emotions, 95–96
exaggerated expressions, enhancing emotion recognition, 274
exam stress, helping students manage, 550
excitement-quiescence feelings, 29
executive function, 40
exhibits
adaptively presenting information, 441
rarely designed for a single visitor, 439
existential implications, of ontological insecurity, 125
existential strand, deploying artificial people, 121
existing work, workers allowed to build on, 388
exogenous input, 225
expanded focus, 420
expectancy component, 449
expectations, about a person’s identity, 142
expected-error-reduction method, 328
expected gain, quantifying in expected value, 411
expected-model-change-based method, 328
expenditure of labor, redirecting, 123
experience, at a museum, 438
experience-driven PCG framework, 466
experimenter error, allowing room for, 379
experimenter’s behavior, determining, 377
expert domain knowledge, leveraging, 242
“expertise of the mass,” 326
experts, purposely avoiding flow states, 443
expert theoretical perspectives, weighting on construct validity, 242
explicit fusion, of multimodal data, 251
Exploratorium, investigation into engagement, 440
exposure therapy, new medium for, 549
“expressed through” attribute, providing a list of modalities, 399
expression(s)
capturing the whole range of, 277
discriminating between subtle differences in related, 143
higher-intensity, better recognized, 268
low correlations between emotions and corresponding, 80
posing or faking, 132
of social emotions through a virtual human’s face and voice, 89
expression labeling, crowd sourcing, 156
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 273
Expression Personality, 488
expression recognition, motion an important cue to, 136
expressions of emotions
associated with find-grained cognitive (thinking) processes, 101
in context, 267–268
culture-specific, 315–316
more like a sequence of facial actions, 269
need for a formal methodology to study, 282
expression transfer, 134, 140–143
expressive animation systems, 280
expressive behaviors
improvised by actors, 274
recording video of, 379
serving only as social signals, 275
expressive elements, of posture and gesture, 278–280
expressive eyes, need for robots to have, 300
expressive motion, 300
expressive multimodal behavior, generating, 281
expressive selection, combining with expressive realization, 282–283
expressive suppression, 69
expressivity
of gestures recorded for German and Japanese speakers, 314
inconsistencies observed, 367
expressivity parameters, 281, 314
expressivity transforms, transmitted to the expressive motion engine, 281
external coders, performing affect annotation, 248
external events, interacting with predefined BML sequences, 301
extracted features, examples of, 409
extralinguistic features, 198–201
extraversion, best-predicted, 88
extrinsic motivation, 437
extrinsic rewards, learners set up to pursue, 435
extrovert character, 466
eye aperture, narrowing, 136
eyeblinks
monitoring patterns, 143
signaling disengagement from the external stimulus, 507
used as cues for spotting deceit, 509
eye constriction, 519
eye contact, promoting trust, 494
eye gaze, in CVE difficult to effectively measure, 500
EyesWeb, 353
eye tracking, during labeling, 368
F
Façade, 460
face(s)
dynamics of moving, 79
information conveyed by, 131
playing a role in the emotion process, 402
providing a direct “read-out” of emotion, 132
use as communicative device, 72
face detection, AFA beginning with, 135
face expression database, using directed facial action tasks, 137
FaceFX, 354, 356t
FaceTime, 76
face-to-face (FTF) interpersonal communication, 76
face-to-face interaction, 521
face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) procedure, 519
facial action coding system (FACS), 79, 101, 131, 132, 156, 262, 264, 276, 409, 487, 560
facial actions
activated at different moments, 263
in different contexts, 47
(p. 581) distinguishing spontaneous from posed, 362
learning, 145
facial action unit recognition system, example, 135f
facial and multimodal expression, automated analyses of, 139
facial animation, weaknesses of procedural approaches to, 264
facial animation parameters (FAPs), 262
facial attractiveness, automatic estimations of, 88
facial behavior, 269, 510
facial displays, oriented to specific recipients, 69
facial emotional expressiveness, received a lot of attention, 487
facial expression(s), 100
agreed upon standard, 276
automated detection of infant and parent, 529
avoiding interferences from, 278
of cartoon figures, 316
conveying a large number of meanings, 261
correlating with events, 261
creation of a lexicon of virtual characters, 262–267
cross-cultural studies of, 31
dictionary of, 262
ECAs capable of generating a gamut of, 4
of emotion in older children, 529
encoding person identity, 145
humans expressing emotions via, 3
majority of research on nonverbal affect recognition, 151
manipulation of, 376
most extensively studied, 273
muscular activity of, 101
pattern of appraisal variables eliciting, 56
perception along the 3D space PAD, 265
range of, 133
regulating face-to-face interactions, 131
research on, 42
as social messages dependent on motive and context, 364
stimuli, 70
study on the cross-cultural recognition of, 312
systems, 134
taxonomies based on observer-based schemes, 145
theoretical-based lexicon of, 262–263
facial expression-based deception detection, 510
facial expression classifier, developing a, 376
facial expression recognition, 101, 455
Facial Expression Recognition Analysis (FERA) challenge, 386
facial features, tracking a dense set of, 135
facial feedback, reduction not diminishing emotional experience, 29
facial geometry, changing markedly over the course of development, 145
facial landmarks, representing, 136
facial measurement, 518f
facial motion, midlevel representation of, 136
facial movements, stimulus set containing a wide range of possible, 79
facial muscles
effects of electrically stimulating, 132
EMG used on to study facial expression, 212
voluntary contraction of, 38–39
facial performance, passing the Turing test, 266
facial point tracking methods, applying, 510
facial rendering and animation, algorithm to produce, 266
facial stimuli, computer-generated, 79
FACS coders, varying markedly in their expertise, 137
FACS coding, manually annotating facial expressions using, 264
FACSGen, 356t
FACS model, ground truth based on, 156
factual appraisals, postulating additional, as well as partly different, 26
factual belief, appraisals referring to, 25
factual cognition, 25
fail-soft interventions, 429
fake smiles, leaked true expressions of emotion, 510
false-false condition, 427
false positive and false negatives, obtaining, 243
false-true condition, 427
Far Eastern cultures, categorizing facial expressions differently, 75
Fast, Cheap & Out of Control, 113f
Fast-FACS, 144
FAtiMA model, 60f, 63, 356t, 466
agent mind architecture, 315
extending the typical the belief-desire-intention (BDI), 462
open-source computational model, 268
FAU AIBO database, 178
fear
adrenaline hypothesis of, 48
associated with activation in the amygdala, 43
caused by certain thoughts, 24
emotion-specific features of, 48
evaluating body posture for, 152
experiencing, 25
feeling generated, 23
present without a person being consciously aware, 375
robot expressions, 491
F.E.A.R., 460
fear conditioning, 44, 98
feared stimuli, patient intentionally confronted with, 549
fear elicitation, noncognitive, 27
fearful and sad movements, 279
fearful people, speaking louder and at a faster tempo, 507
fear-inducing stimuli, differential responses to, 48
fear module, 30
FearNot! (Fun with Empathic Agents to Achieve Novel Outcomes in Teaching), 462, 526–527
fear processing, unconscious, 375
fear regulation, at the heart of many psychopathologic conditions, 99
fear response, responses characteristic of the, 44
feature engineering, 242, 244
feature extraction, 136, 248–249, 412–414
feature extractors, as classifiers trained separately, 409
feature-level fusion, obtaining, 251
feature representation, 248–249, 250, 255, 560–561
features, 561
feature selection, 175, 242, 249
feedback
generally promoting process-oriented reflection, 450
provided by a set of actuators, 475
providing to writers, 451
on writing, 454
feedback vocalizations, 291, 292
feeling, 42, 119
feeling theory, James opting for radical version of, 23
Feeltrace, 179, 248, 353t
Fellous, Jean-Marc, 18
females, faster in recognizing affect from body posture, 154
feminine cultures, 311
FERA 2011 Facial Expression Recognition Challenge, 138
FERA GEMEP corpus, consisting of emotion portrayals from only 10 actors, 144
Festival, 354, 356t
fiction, intertwined with reality, 111
fictional entities, 110
fictional intelligent machines, 110
fictional media, 124
fictional robots, 111, 126
fictional tradition, tracing, 114
fidelity, 335, 339
field coding, 240
field observations, 240
field observer, 240
field testing, 366
fight-or-flight responses, 48, 205, 299
(p. 582) film clips, eliciting target emotions, 373–374
film robots, beloved, 116–117
films, capturing attention well, 373
Final Fantasy VII, 461
“find, fix verify” algorithm, verify step in Soylent’s, 389
fine-grained evaluations, 190
finger behavior, 163
finger dotting, 163
first-person reports (self-reports), 464
five-factor model, personality described using, 397
FLAME model, 60f, 62
flaming, phenomenon of, 77
FLASH/EMYS, 301f
“flash mob,” of workers, 392
fleeting (micromomentary) expressions, capturing, 76
Fleiss’ kappa, 327
Fletcher, Rich, 20
flow
desirable in learning contexts, 443
theory of, 463, 552
flow states, 442
fluidity, 281
focus modes, defined, 282
Fold-It game, 384, 387
Forbidden Planet, 116
forced smiles, 49
force-feedback joystick, 163
forces, releasing beyond our control, 346
Ford, Harrison, 121
Fore tribesman, Ekman experiments on isolated, 42
formal codes, for affective computing, 336–338
formal learning environments, time spent in, 435
form features, 164
form-from-motion features, 164
form information, instrumental in the recognition of biological motion, 154
form level, describing form of the movement, 277
forms, of feedback, 454
4D (3D * time) AU-coded database, of facial behavior, 138
four-dimensional vocabulary, proposed by Fontaine, 402
four-factor theory, 504–505, 508
four-fun-factor model, of Lazzaro, 463
frame-based classification, 250
frame-level emotion assessment, 253
frame rate, of the audio stream, 251
frameworks, representing movement, 276
Frankenstein (film), 114, 115f, 116f
Frankenstein or The ModernPrometheus, 114
free-choice learning, 437, 444
free riding, potential for, 388
free will, exercising in accordance with intellectual principles, 335
frequency-domain correlates, 220–222
frequency ranges, of conventional broad frequency bands, 220
Frijda, 59
frontal alpha asymmetries, 221
frontomedial theta, 221
frontoparietal brain regions, activation within, 48
frustrated students, features for detecting, 413f
frustration
confusion devolving into, 443
distinguishing it from students’ neutral states, 236
measuring that a product reduces, 12
method to generate, 264
platform for detecting, 237
prompting robots to adjust collaborative task strategy, 101
smiling during natural experiences of, 371
in a text replay, 242f
FTF interaction, with liars, 76
FUBI, 353
fully continuous annotation, choosing, 325
fully continuous emotion assessment, particular challenges of, 253
functionality, aligning respective abilities, 367
functional level, distinguishing between emblems, illustrators, and manipulators gestures, 277
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 33, 39, 43, 218, 561
functional markup language (FML), 300
functional motions, versus expressive motions, 300
functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), 218, 373, 561
functionals, 248
functions, of emotions, 27–28
funding bodies, regarding ethical use of technology as a moving target, 344
fusion, 510–511
fuzzy logic approach, to emotion generation, 489
Fuzzy rules used to synthesize intermediate facial expressions, 353
Fysneck, Hans, 205
G
Gabor filter responses, 88
Gabor wavelets or magnitudes, 136
Gage, Phineas, 46
Galatea 2.2 (novel), 119
Galen of Pergamum, theory of humours, 55
Galton, Francis, 388
galvanic skin response (GSR), 210, 212, 331, 464, 561
game(s)
affective loop in, 461
as being pleasantly frustrating, 443
commercial-standard, incorporating emotion as a core part of gameplay, 460
emotion detection and modeling in, 462–465
emotion elicitation in, 461–462
emotion in, 459–468
general emotions across, 468
offering contextual building blocks, 460
people choosing to play, 459
realization of the affective loop, 461f
game adaptation, player’s relationship to, 465
game agents (and NPCs), 465
game-based learning system, for mathematics, 236
game-based scenario, appraisal module implemented for, 263
game content, 465
adapting and expressing emotion through, 466
described, 461
influencing the emotional state of the player, 461–462
surrounding NPCs, 462
game context, 460, 463, 464
game data mining, 468
game design, as challenging, 385
game-design building blocks, fundamental, 461
game development pipeline, emotion in, 468
Game Experience Questionnaire, affective aspects of, 464
game logic, adapting, 467
game metrics, 463
game narratives, affect-centered, 461
game non-player characters (NPC), 462
gameplay (behavioral) input, 463–464
game rules, 461
game scenario, automatic affect recognition in, 249
games with a purpose (GWAPs), 385, 389
gaming, emotion transfer in, 142
gaming experiences, AC improving, 7
gamma rhythm, 222
GATE model, 102
Gaussian mixture model (GMM), 179
Gaussian tree-augmented naive Bayes classifiers, 137
gaze direction, toward objects, 74
gaze-reactive tutor, evaluating the efficacy of, 425
Gaze Tutor, 425f, 561
Gee, James, 443
gelotophiles, 154
GEMEP corpus, 155, 277
gender
of the users, 269
(p. 583) of the virtual character, 269
gender-based social expectations, 142
gender differences, focused on facial expressions, 154
Gender scale, 311
General Inquirer, 185
general problem solver, Newell and Simon’s, 101
general tools, used in a variety of situations, 349
generic terms, 191, 192
generic tools, used for statistical analysis and classification, 353
GENESE model, 102
Geneva Affective Picture Database (GAPED), 372
Geneva Affect Label Coder, 353
Geneva Emotion Wheel, 464
Geneva Emo Wheel, 353t
Gentle-Boost classifiers, on motion, 137
“Genuine People Personalities,” 123
geometric features, extracting, 136
geometric methods, stimulating dynamic wrinkles, 266
geometry deformation approaches, 267
geriatric patients, interacting daily with a relational exercise coach, 544
German-Japanese CUBE-G project, 314
gestural expressivity, analyses of, 313
gestures, 100
accompanying speech acts, 314
categories of, 276
expressing emotion through specific, 279
mapping emotion to specific, 282
three sequential movement, 277
gesturing cluster, used in experiencing high arousal, 280
GESTYLE, 281–282
Ghost in the Shell (film), 121
Gibson, William, 112
gigwalk,com, 392
glasses-free 3D experience, 496
global acoustic parameters, 176
global context, 423
global metadata, providing, 400
glory, as a crowdsourcing motivation, 387
“gloss,” specific to the student’s composition, 454
glossary, in this book, 8
Glosser project
automated feedback on writing, 454
extension of, 451
extension to, 457
feedback form, 454f
support for collaborative writing activities, 455
Glosser system, 450
GMTK, 355t
goal component, 539
goal-conflicted or even neurotic protagonists, 95
goal-congruent events, 25
goals
achieving, triggering happiness, 102
generation of new, 27
Golden Rule, 335, 339
Goldie, Peter, 335
Gold Standard questions, placing within tasks in MTurk, 386
gold standards, 561
consisting of manual emotion annotations, 187
practically never reliable, 327
provision of, 324
The Golem, 114
Goleman, Dan, 17
golem stories, 114
Goodwin, Matthew, 19, 20
Google Docs, 452, 455
Graesser, Art, 7, 19
granularity, 387
Graphics Processing Unit - GPU, computing wrinkles, 266
Gratch, Johnathan, 3, 18, 19
Gratch Appraisal Models, 57f
Gratiolet, Pierre, 283n1
gratitude, 335
greater tension, generalized activation response, 506
GRETA animated agent, 281, 301
grief, overt expression of, 69
gross affect, posture providing more information about, 278
gross body movements, 495
ground truth, 561
for confusion, 234
considerations for building, 156–157
defined, 327
lack of, 361
methods used to determine, 156
for training a classifier, 363
types of error in, 137
ground truth AU, measurement error in, 138
ground truth data, for affect recognition systems, 248
ground truth definition, of affect, 236
ground-truth labels, as a fundamental component of datasets, 389
ground truth measures of affect, used to build detectors, 239–242
ground truth observations, obtained by the field observers, 238
group-based differences in self-regulation, 529
group-based emotion, evidence for, 74
group emotions, Smith’s theory of, 74
group life, adding further complexities to the modeling of realistic, affective agents, 75
group members, mediated communication between, 78
groups
emotion within and between, 74–75
in a museum, 443
Gtrace, 353t
Guess What! GWAP, 389
guilt, 378
Gunes, Hatice, 4
gustatory distaste, 49
gut, matters in ethics, 344
gyroscopic sensors, 164
H
habituation, 212, 224
Hal
malfunctioning of, 124
showing emotion in the film, 16
Halberstadt, 71
half-recovery time, of the orienting response, 212
Hall effect sensor, 213
Hal’s Legacy, 16
hand, control of one’s own, 224
hand and finger positions, inability to record detailed, 153
handbook, origin of this, 8
Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment, 372
hand-designed features, often not easy to scale, 413
handedness of the performer, 279
hand gesture analysis tool, 354t
Hannakakis, Georgios N., 7
Hanson Robotics, 302, 487
HapFACS, 356t
happiness
activation, 43
associated with greater laryngeal elevation, 172
as an emotion, 49
Haptek, 354, 356t
haptic devices, 496
haptic interaction, 528
Haraway, Donna, 111
“A Hard Day’s Night,” first two lines, 200, 200f
hard level, decision-level fusion at, 251
hardware, challenge concerning wearability and ease of use of aBCIs systems, 228
Harmon-Jones, Eddie, 2
harmony score, 312
Harris, Marilyn, 116f
Hart, Peter, 16
Harvard IV-4 dictionary content-analysis categories, 185
Hatfield, 72
Hayles, N. Katherine, 111
head-mounted display (HMD), 495, 499
head movements, 142
head-nodding behaviors, recognizing, 444
head pose coordination, nonstationarity in, 140
(p. 584) head trackers, 143, 304
head-tracking algorithms, 441
health conditions, automated diagnosis of, 541
health counseling, motivation for relational agents in, 538
health literacy, 538
health promotion interventions, 553
Healy, Jennifer, 4
heartbeat
effects of, 206, 207f
resulting in a light reflectance pattern, 207–208
heart rate
changes mediating computer-human interaction, 206
deceivers increased, 510
and heart-rate variability, 206, 208–209
heart-rate signal, quality of, 210
heart-rate time series, extracting, 208
heart rate variability (HRV), 45, 206, 208–209, 550, 561
Heavy Rain, 460
hedonic technologies, 551
“hedonic theta,” 221
hedonistic desires, 27
hedonistic theories of motivation, 27–28
“Helen O’Loy” (short story), 120
Helfer, Tricia, 121f
helping process, two stages of, 539
hemispheric asymmetry, 40, 47f
Hero of Alexandria, 112
hesitation sounds, considered as words, 291
heterogenous granularity, Wikipedia as a nice illustration of, 387
Heylen, Dirk, 4
HHM approach, of Li and colleagues, 144
hidden Markov models (HMMs), 137, 250, 291
hierarchical tree-based approach, 178
hierarchical tree structure, for multiclass emotion recognition, 178f
high arousal, 97
high-arousal affective states, dissimilar, 464
high-context cultures, 311–312
higher EDA, linked to more internalizing problems in children, 524
higher-level cues, fusing explicitly, 251
higher rates of pay, not necessarily leading to higher-quality work, 386
high-level cues, 86
high-level description, of body expressions, 155
high presence, experiencing, 496
high-risk siblings, 517, 523, 561
“high road” (thalamo-cortico-amygdala), 44
Hippocrates, 204
history, of psychological perspectives of emotion, 21
The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, 123
HMM-based synthesis, reversing the process, 291
Hobbes, Thomas, 335
Hobbit, 142
HOG, 136
holding time, 437, 439, 440, 445n3
holistic coding, conducting effectively, 240
homeostatic afferent input, received from the body, 42
homeostatic emotions, involving distinct sensations, 46
homeostatic model, for awareness, 45
homogeneous representation, 192
honest signals systems, 414, 414f
Horde3D, 356t
Hospital Buddy, 542, 542f
hospital environments, relational agents in, 542–543
hostile intent, inferring from facial expression, 140
“hot” experiences, 22
Howe, Jeff, 385
HRV (heart rate variability), 45, 48, 206, 208–209, 550, 561
HTK, 177, 355t
“hub in the wheel of fear,” 33
Hudlicka, Eva, 3, 18
HUMAINE database, work on, 396
HUMAINE initiative, 18
human(s). See also people
categorizing facial expressions of emotions, 262
concern about experiments, 336
deception detection by, 505–506
interpreting emotions and their expression, 299
passing for, 118
perceiving emotions in robots, 483–484
portraying, 341–342
pre-adapted to perceive faces and facial expressions, 144
human affect, predicting in a continuous dimensional space, 251
human behavior, providing methodologies dealing with nonverbal behavior, 84
human body, enhancing through technological means, 112
human caregiver, relegating the role of, to a robot, 491
Human Centered Design, 364
human-centric modalities, list of, 399
human coders, obtaining labeled data, 409
human communication, as inherently multimodal, 4
human-computer interaction (HCI), 94, 246
affect-sensitive, 217
appraisal theory and, 60
attributes of games, 459
factors influencing occurrence of flow in, 552
interest in the application of BCI approaches, 222
modeling affective phenomena in, 359
in real-life scenarios, 101
recognition of emotions through a variety of sensors, 184
scenarios, 511
sensor data to create tools supporting reflection, 448
virtual humans opening many new domains for, 103
human constraints, research restricted by, 282
human cortex, trying to replicate, 13
human ego, robot functioning as an extension of, 126
human emotion, dimensional description, 250
human emotional expressive modalities, 100
human emotions, basic facts of, 26
human emotion system, “reverse engineering” of, 22
human expressions, mimicking, 302
human facial behavior, manual annotation of, 264
human-form clockwork automata, 112
human-generated and generic questions, 455
human-human communication, 309
human-human interactions, 7
human interactions, emotion flow in, 178
human interviewers, variability introduced by, 511
human judges, obtaining annotations via, 409
human log file annotation methods, 241
human-machine interactions, 110, 261
human-machine interfaces, generation of, 171
human observer-based approaches, to measurement, 132–134
humanoid robots
having very simple faces, 302
smooth and effective communication, 488
human participation, in research, 336–337
human performance, inherently variable, 137
human phylogenetic sets of affectively loaded events, cataloguing, 104n1
human player actions, reacting in a believable and humanlike fashion to, 462
human reactions, subtlety and variety of, 125
(p. 585) human-robot interaction (HRI), 246
affect in, 483–492
affective interactions roles and purposes, 297
conveying the perception to a person of emotion, 484
measures of success in, 489–491
recorded, 490
human speech signal, 170
human supervision, minimizing the amount required, 328
human territoriality, simulation of, 89
human users, projecting their desires onto robots, 126
human vocal expression, complexity of, 286
Hume, David, 335
humor recognition, 196–198, 198t
humours
body comprised of, 204
theory of, 55
“hundred-year emotion war,” resolving, 50
Hussain, Sazzad Md, 6
hybrid approaches, 291
hybrid fusion, 251
hybrid HMM/BLSTM classifiers, 179
hyperplane, distance from, 139
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, 46
I
I, Robot (film), 116, 117
IAPS images, illiciting one discreet emotion, 373
IBM, 289
iCat robot, 161, 298, 299–300, 301f, 302, 303–304, 317, 488–489
iCat robot module, 253
iconic gestures, 277
ICT Virtual Human Toolkit, 354
idealism, persons driven by, 387
Identity scale, 311
ideolectal features, 287, 289
idiosyncratic behavior, 154
IEEE, long history with, 19
IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computing, 19
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 1, 19
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19
IEMOCAP database, 330
if-then rules, on a set of appraisal variables, 59
IKEA web pages, 310
illumination, as a challenge, 144
“the illusion of emotions,” 338
The Illusion of Life, 299
illusion of life, 261, 297
illustrators, 276
image and video pattern modeling, 13
image labels, 384, 385
images
as noninvasive, 372
registered to a canonical size and orientation, 135
imitation, 89
immediate apprehendability, 438, 442
immersive technology, 495
immersive virtual environment technology (IVET), 7, 495, 561
immobilization, as a response to threat, 48
implicit learning, 420
implicit processes, in the brain, 436
in-car system, detecting driver’s stress, 480
incentive structures, for crowdsourcing, 386
in-context level of evaluation, 268, 269–270
incorporation, theoretical model of, 463
increased HRV, 45, 46
indemnity, 337
independent component analysis (ICA), 136, 228
indirect affective words, 186
individual emotions, 87
individual facial actions, combining, 519
individualistic cultures, 311, 314
individuals
goals, 57
having different styles, 277
induced-active brain-computer interfaces, 226
induced confusion, causing more learning at deeper levels of mastery, 428
induced expressions, 371
induced frequency responses, 220
induced-passive brain-computer interfaces, 226
industrial capitalism, position of the worker in, 116
inevitable deception, 339
infant and mother smiling activity, 521f
infant behavior, 522
infant cries, communicative functions of, 523
infant-mother interactions, 519
infant-parent interaction, 517, 561
infant perceptual preferences, set of, 530
infants, compared to adults, 145
infants and parents, observed in FFSF procedure, 520
infant smile initiations, becoming more predictable, 523
infant smiles, 518, 519
infant smiling actions, in multiple contexts, 522f
infant vocal interruptions, 523–524
inference system
assuming the presence of, 99
providing useful insights to the user, 414–415
inferential effects, 73
infinite patience, demonstrating, 554
“inflammatory reflex,” 46
inflection points, of the time-voltage signal, 206
influencing and feedback step, 474–475
“<info>” element, Emotion ML in, 400
informal learning
benefiting from affect-aware technologies, 7
designing and building engaging exhibits, 438–440
emotional and social contexts of, 436–438
enhancing experiences with affect-aware technologies, 435–445
loud and busy environments, 444
opportunities to enhance, 441–444
role that emotions play in, 436
informal science education, desired outcomes of, 437–438, 438t
information
flowing in a cycle, 61
motives for removing potential sources of, 78
informational function, of emotions, 27
Information and Computing Technology (ICT), framework for ethics in, 344
information manipulation theory, 505
information processing approach, to affective computing, 234
information-processing model, of emotion, 365
informed consent items, in FP7 list, 343
infrared (IR) LED, camera equipped with, 407
infrared cameras, 145
infrastructure, building, 86
ingroup and outgroup membership, categorization into, 317
inherited emotion mechanisms, developed in evolution, 23
in-house tools, 356
initial engagement, 442
Innocentive, innovation hub, 386
input management, in crowdsourcing, 387–389
input streams, synchronization of, 325
inspiration, distinguishing different types of architectures according to, 298
“instinctive” bodily reactions, 23
instincts, developed during evolution, 30
instinctual primary processes, studying, 42
institutions of learning, 436
in-stream supervision, 411
instructional feedback, providing, 452
instructional technology, 143
instrumental actions, 164
instrumental methods, for collecting articulatory data, 172
insula, 39, 219
(p. 586) insula cortex, 41–42
intelligence, creating the appearance of, 498
intelligent ability, of technology to respond to emotion, 12
intelligent agent architecture, typical, 99
intelligent care, building, 553
intelligent learning companion, depiction of, 414f
intelligent machines
personalities and emotions associated with, 125
in popular imagination, 110
in science fiction, 114–121
intelligent tutoring systems, 4, 236, 420, 443, 561
Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Artificial Intelligence in Education conferences, 6
intelligent virtual agents (IVAs), design of, 103
intense expressions, of single facial actions, 269
intensity
variation of, 171
intensity-coded AU, 139
intensity models, utilizing a subset of appraisal variables, 62
intentional affect, more important than the reactive affect, 364
intentionality, 24, 367–368
intentions, encoding posture and gesture, 278
intent planning, phase of SAIBA, 300
Inter-ACT corpus, 254
interaction
modeling to detect, 530
windowed cross-correlations and time-varying changes in, 520
interactional approach, to emotion, 366
interaction and development, models simulating, 530
interaction-based methods, emergence of, 234
interactionist approach, 234
interaction log, 561
interaction-only detector, 239
interactive activities, played within fantasy worlds, 460
interactive affective agents, modelers of, 72
interactive influence, changing dynamically over time, 521
interactive intelligent agents, 100
interactive storytelling, 104
interannotator agreement, studies of, 190, 190t
intercoder reliability, verifying, 409
intercultural communication
preparing emotional agents for, 309–318
problems of, 76
interdisciplinary approach, 365–366
interest, sparking, 442
interface fantasies, 121–122
intergroup life, 75
intergroup Schadenfreude, phenomenon of, 75
internal-clock activation component, in moods, 488
“internal” emotional state, 466
internal experiences, not necessarily translating into external, observable cues, 507
internal sensory feedback, from copied movements, 72
International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) database, of affective auditory stimuli, 379
International Affective Picture System (IAPS), 104n1, 372
International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR), 473
Internet-based therapies, shown to be economically sound, 548
interoception, 41–42, 46
interpersonal attunement, 72
interpersonal causes, of emotions, 68–70
interpersonal communication, occuring through “emotionally challenged” media, 3
interpersonal coordination, 140
interpersonal deception theory (IDT), 505, 511
interpersonal effects, of emotion, 70
interpersonal emotional influence, routes of, 73
interpersonal emotional processes, 79–81
interpersonal emotion transfer, 70, 561
interpersonal information, 3, 69
interpersonal interactions, people preferring to use text and email, 76
interpersonal life, emotions in, 68–81
interpersonal orientation, of emotions, 68
interpersonal relations, studying aspects of, 378
interpersonal skills, 552
interpretation, shifting onus onto user, 367
interrater reliability, 234, 327
interruptability, responses to probes about, 410
interspeaker variability, 174
INTERSPEECH 2010 Paralinguistic Challenge’s Affect Sub-Challenge, 330
interventions
based in affective computing, 516
involving use of automation, 553
“in the wild,” monitoring HRV, 210
intimacy, high levels of sometimes facilitated by restriction of available cues, 77
intrapersonal skills, 552
intraspeaker variability, 173
intrinsically motivated activities, free-choice learning leading to, 437
introspection, description of emotions suggested by, 22
introspective psychology, 24
introvert character, 466
intuition, starting point of James’s theory of emotion, 22
invasive measures, 223
inverse filtering, recovering voice source, 173
invisible consultants, providing sensory feedback, 499
Iron Man, 126
iteration, 388
iteration number, 328
iterative conditions, leading to information cascades, 388
iterative feature normalization (IFN), 177
iterative prisoner’s dilemma, 462
ITSPOKE audio dialogue system, 234, 426
IVET, 496, 500
iWrite, 448, 451–452
J
J48 decision tree algorithm, 238
James, William, 4, 22, 95, 205
James-Lange theory of emotion, 205
James’s theory of emotion, 22–24, 28
Janssen, Joris, 7
Japanese popular culture, robotic body in, 122
Japanese researchers, building robots portraying emotions, 310
Java, 237, 351, 352f
jerk-away action, making shocks more painful, 376
Johnston, Ollie, 299
joint use of textual and musical features, 201
joy
experiencing, 25
songs containing, 188
JRip algorithm, 238
judges of deception, 506
Julius, 355t
Jung, Carl, 210
K
K, underestimating quality of models, 243
K* algorithm, 238
Kagan, Jerry, 15
Kakoudaki, Despina, 3
Kant, 335, 345
Kapoor, Ashish, 6
Karloff, Boris, 115f, 116f
KARO, 59–60, 60f
KDE, of one song, 478f
Kemp, Andrew, 2
(p. 587) Kernel Density Estimates (KDEs), 477, 478f, 479
kernel LDA, 136
kernel PCA, 136
keyboard typing behavior, affected by the user’s emotional state, 163
killing machines, 343
Kim, Jangwon, 3
Kinect camera, 3, 153, 440
Kinectimals, kittens in, 462
Kinect SDK, 354t
kinematics, more to the body than, 162–164
kinesics, 278–279, 487
Kismet robot, 301f, 302, 310, 489
Klaus, Scherer, 58
Kleinsmith, Andrea, 3
Kline, Nathan S., 119
knocking, movement qualities associated with specific emotions, 155
knowledge
importance of situated and embodied, 112
problems with, 419
knowledge-based classification, of emotion, 191–192
knowledge-thirsty public, 436
knowledge/understanding goal, 437, 438t
“know thyself” motto, 548, 554
KOBIAN, 317
Kory, Jacqueline, 6
Krippendorff’s alpha, 327
Krygier, Jonathan, 2
Kubrick, Stanley, 16
KUKA Robotics Corporation, 127n3
Kurzweil, Ray, 16, 112
L
Laban movement analysis, 276, 281
labeled data, reusage of existing, 329
labeler agreement, evaluating, 390
labelers, 324, 326, 327–328
labeling, 325–326
in a continuous manner, 366
demanding consistency, 324
design of, 176
eye tracking during, 368
labeling and data annotation, 351–352
labeling model, 156
labeling process, 156
labels
obtaining via human judges, 409
as subjective judgments, 390
Lane, Chad, 7
Lang, Fritz, 115
Lange, Carl, 205
language, affect detection from, 4
language understanding, not vital for vocal emotion recognition, 312
Lanier, Jaron, 495
Laplacian eigenmaps, 136
larynx, emotional variation of, 172
laser doppler vibrometer (LDV) cardiorespiratory measurements, 510
Lasswell dictionary content-analysis categories, 185
late event-related potentials, 220
latency, of the orienting response, 212
latent dimensions, 250
latent-dynamic conditional random fields, 253
latent semantic analysis (LSA), 191
latent semantic indexing (LSI), 191
late positive potential (LPPs), 220
late semantic fusion, 251
laughs, building a repository of, 264
laughter, 291
classification of, 291
depending on two neural pathways, 38
detecting and discriminating between different types of, 161
in full-body stick-figure animations, 154
possible without humor or cognitive thought, 38
reproducing the sounds of, 291
types of, 291
yoga, 38
Laura agent, 90, 540
law of initial values (LIV), 477, 479
Laws of Robotics, Asimov’s, 338
Lazarus, Richard, 55, 58, 63, 64
Lazarus, Richard S., 24, 25
Lazarus’s appraisal theory, 57f, 58, 462
LDV (laser doppler vibrometer), 510
leakage cues, causes of, 504
leakage hypothesis, of deception, 504
leaning posture, judged negatively, 278
Leap Motion, 145, 153
learner engagement, creating and maintaining, 436
learners, reporting negative emotions, 526
learning
activities, 437
affective autotutor helping, 424f
algorithms, 228
contexts, 422
curves, 197, 198f
as an emotional process, 435
environments, 314, 409
experiences, 440
forms of, 420
gains, 424, 424f
management systems, 452