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date: 15 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. Emotional speech synthesis is an important part of the puzzle on the long way to humanlike artificial human-machine interaction. On the way, lots of stations like emotional audio messages or believable characters in gaming will be reached. This chapter deals with the expression of emotions with speech synthesizers or articficial talkers. After some introductory remarks, it starts out by discussing potential applications that can be realized with emotional speech synthesis. Emotion models and how they relate to speech synthesis are a further topic as well as a discussion on the acoustic aspects of the expression of emotion in a speech signal. The main part of this chapter deals with the technical aspects of emotional speech synthesis by introducing the most important speech synthesis techniques like articulatory synthesis, formant synthesis, diphone synthesis, non-uniform unit selection based synthesis, HMM based synthesis and voice transformation techniques while discussing the implications on the simulation of emotional expression that each approach has. The chapter closes with some thoughts on the evaluation of emotional speech synthesis and tries to give an outlook on the possible future.

Keywords: speech synthesis, nonuniform unit-selection, hmm synthesis, voice transformation, diphone synthesis, articulatory synthesis, formant synthesis, evaluation

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