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date: 15 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. There is no single agreed-upon description of emotions or related terms in the emotion research literature. A generally useful emotion markup language should, therefore, provide a rich set of descriptive mechanisms. EmotionML has been developed at the World Wide Web Consortium by members of the affective computing community with very diverse backgrounds. It provides representations of affective states that aim to satisfy the needs of the majority of emotion researchers and application developers alike. Emotions can be represented in terms of categories, dimensions, appraisals, and action tendencies, with a single <emotion> element containing one or more of such descriptors. As it is not possible to standardize a closed set of emotion terms nor desirable to leave the choice of labels completely undefined, EmotionML provides an “emotion vocabulary” mechanism to flexibly select descriptors. This chapter describes selected aspects of EmotionML 1.0 and the procedure and thinking behind its development.

Keywords: emotion, annotation, representation, markup, multimodality

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