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date: 12 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. Facial expression communicates emotion, intention, and physical state; it also regulates interpersonal behavior. Automated face analysis (AFA) for the detection, synthesis, and understanding of facial expression is a vital focus of basic research. While open research questions remain, the field has become sufficiently mature to support initial applications in a variety of areas. We review (1) human observer‒based approaches to measurement that inform AFA; (2) advances in face detection and tracking, feature extraction, registration, and supervised learning; and (3) applications in action unit and intensity detection, physical pain, psychological distress and depression, detection of deception, interpersonal coordination, expression transfer, and other applications. We consider “user in the loop” as well as fully automated systems and discuss open questions in basic and applied research.

Keywords: automated face analysis and synthesis, facial action coding system (FACS), continuous measurement, emotion

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