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date: 14 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. Collaboration is an integral part of human interaction and human-computer interaction. Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) unite multiple users from remote locations in a common virtual space. CVEs utilizing immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) create sensory and socially rich experiences, allowing users to express affect via verbal and nonverbal behaviors. Embodiment is important in expressing emotion, and people interact in CVEs through avatars, or digital representations of their identities. The users’ behaviors are tracked to inform computer system responses and provide insight into the users’ current state. CVEs can enhance collaboration by creating a sense of presence in the virtual world, and the technology can alter social behaviors (e.g., eye gaze) to differ in the virtual world from how they are enacted in the physical world. Although IVET has many benefits, it raises important ethical concerns. As affective computing technology develops, CVEs will become more commonplace, changing organizations, institutions, and industries.

Keywords: virtual reality, collaboration, collaborative virtual environments, embodiment, presence, nonverbal behaviors

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