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date: 21 July 2019

Abstract and Keywords

D.M.R. Bentley refers to the “cosmopolitan nationalism” of Charles G.D. Roberts’s “Tantramar Revisited,” a Wordsworthian return poem and “Victorian sea mediation” in “Ovidian elegiac metre” with a Maritime setting. Bentley’s phrase is at first surprising, since Roberts is known for his regional poetry and his animal stories, but his “cosmopolitan nationalism” made Roberts the leader of the Confederation poets, who followed him to the leading international journals. After Ralph Connor’s success at the turn of the century, Canadian writers were less dependent on outsiders, but even Connor appealed to an international audience, and so did such writers as Pauline Johnson, L.M. Montgomery, and Stephen Leacock.

Keywords: Nationalism, cosmopolitanism, Victorian, Confederation poets, Charles G.D. Roberts, Pauline Johnson, L.M. Montgomery, Stephen Leacock, book history

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