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date: 13 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

For all denominations, the sources of early modern theology were the Bible and the Church Fathers, but with a varying emphasis. Furthermore, medieval theologians and philosophers must be taken into consideration. In Catholic theology, a flexible system of Loci theologici was developed; in Protestant theology, the teaching of verbal inspiration was replaced by the theory of accommodation and historical biblical criticism. While the humanistic position still demanded an introductory manual (Methodus) for the Bible, at the Council of Trent the catechism took its place. The Christian denominations agreed on the primacy of the literal sense of scripture, but differed in their evaluation of it as the only source of revelation. Scriptural comments were supplemented with systematic works: commentaries on Peter Lombard, Aquinas’s Summa theologica, Cursus theologici, and manuals of Protestant theology. They were often developed as disputations, rather than a basic explanation of the doctrine of positive and controversial theology.

Keywords: Bible, Church Fathers, Scholasticism, Philosophy, Manuals, Commentaries, Cursus theologicus, Disputation, Positive and Controversial Theology

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