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date: 09 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

There is hardly any topic in early modern Catholic theology that has been more controversial than the discussions on providence, predestination, and grace. Using the example of Francisco Suárez’s De gratia, the article outlines the main contents of this dogmatic treatise and presents its fundamental concepts and definitions. In a second part, the paper deals with the famous “grace controversy” that resulted from the necessity of reconciling human freedom with the sovereign grace of God in the Augustinian theological framework that had been confirmed by the Council of Trent. It examines the two main solutions developed by the Jesuit Molinists and the Dominican Báñezians, putting them into their theological contexts and pointing to specific problems connected with them. The article concludes with some hints on the innovative potential in early modern reflections on grace that is becoming increasingly recognized, especially by philosophical interpreters.

Keywords: Grace Controversy, Thomism, Molinism, Nature, Grace, Providence, Predestination, Reprobation

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