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date: 15 December 2019

(p. 395) Subject Index

(p. 395) Subject Index

A
accumulation
collecting and, 34–37
as diagnostic criterion, 46t, 47, 207
in severe domestic squalor, 147–48, 151–55
acquired brain injury, 71–72
acquirers, 214, 223
acquisition. See also excessive acquisition
anxiety sensitivity and, 95
avoidance of, 93–94
behavioral assessment tasks of, 243–44
CAS and, 36, 87, 89, 236t, 240
by children, 332–33, 337
cognitive-behavioral model and, 91–94
criterion of, 356
defined, 33
distress tolerance and, 95
emotional attachment and, 94
in HD, 86–96
human attachments and self-related constructs in, 94–95
impulse control disorders and, 89–90, 113–14
introduction to, 4
motivations for, 213
need for, 206
neural basis of, 96
in phenomenology of hoarding, 20, 22, 25–26, 28, 86
saving and, 86
by stealing, 88–89
treatment response and, 95–96
acquisitiveness, 120–21, 225
Activities of Daily Living-Hoarding (ADL-H), 240–41, 343, 377
adoption studies, 161
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 193
Adult Protective Services (APS), 144
affective circuit, 183
affective disorders, 69–70
algorithm, for pharmacotherapy, 296–97
alternative treatment modalities
biblio-based self-help, 277t278t, 282–84
considerations and implications, 286–87
cost effectiveness, 288
discussion, 286–89
GCBT, 215–16, 274–82, 276t277t
home-based interventions, 287
introduction to, 274–75
methodological limitations, 286
nonclinicians in, 286–87
outcomes of, 288
stepped care, 283, 288–89
web-based, 279t280t, 284–88
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 67, 170–71
amphetamine salts, 296
anal character, 13, 19, 38
ancient coin hoards, 7
animal care checklist, 146
animal cruelty, 140–44
animal hoarding, by humans
animal cruelty and, 140–44
care checklist for, 146
consequences of, 142
descriptive characteristics of, 139–40
diagnostic criteria, 21
epidemiology of, 140–41
future research on, 144–45, 357
as HD subtype, 56, 139, 141, 208
interventions, 142–44
introduction to, 4, 139
judicial system and, 142–43
multiple animal ownership and, 139–41
neurobiology of, 179
object hoarding compared with, 141–42
poor insight in, 318
prevention of, 144–45
protective services and, 320
psychiatric status and, 141
self-based conceptual framework of, 211
self-neglect and, 140, 143
severe domestic squalor in, 152
social services and, 143–44
traumatic life events and, 142
treatment, 142
animals, hoarding in
caching, 188–90, 192–94
defined, 187
food deprivation potentiating, 192, 194–95
food storing, 187–90, 192–97, 224
future research and, 358
GC system and, 192–94
homology, 187–200
hormone systems in, 192–96
human forms of hoarding and, 189–92, 196–99
introduction to, 4, 187–88
larderhoarding, 188–94, 199, 224
models of, 188–89
as nesting instinct, 191, 196
neural mechanisms of, 194–96
proximate mechanisms of, 192–96
as resource-allocation decisions, 222–23
scatterhoarding, 188–94, 199
anosognosia, 249–51, 305
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 181, 183, 198, 228
anterior thalamus, 196
anticipatory anxiety system, 192–93
antipsychotic medication, 65–66, 297
anxiety
in anticipatory anxiety system, 192–93
assessment of, 241–42
comorbidity with, 77–79, 78t, 83, 223–25, 241–42, 335, 344
GAD, 78t, 79, 83, 344
hoarding and, 22–23, 61t, 69, 77–79, 78t, 83, 95, 223–25, 241–42, 335, 344
sensitivity, 22–23, 95, 196
social phobia, 77–79, 78t, 224, 250
treatment, 215
assessment
of ADHD, 242
of anxiety, 241–42
behavioral, 243–44
of children, 237–38, 335–36
of cognitive dysfunction, 344
community-based, 323
of comorbid conditions, 241–43, 344–45
of decision-making difficulties, 242–43
of depression, 241–42
of harm potential, 311–12
of hoarding, 235–44, 236t, 293–94, 343–45
of impairment, 240–41
for individual CBT, 265
in-home, 54–55, 243
instruments, 102, 106
interview-based, 239
of late-life hoarding, 343–45
of living conditions, 153, 240–41
of object attachment, 129–32
of OCD, 235–38, 241
of personality disorders, 242
reduced insight in, 243
research and, 354–55
with self-report measures, 104, 217, 235–43, 236t, 355
tools, for severe domestic squalor, 153
attachment models, 359
attention
of children, 333–35
defined, 102
information processing and, 102–6, 105t
neuropsychology and, 104, 105t
OCD and, 103–6
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
assessment of, 242
in children, 333–35
comorbidity with, 80–83, 103–4, 178, 208, 215, 242, 335
excessive acquisition and, 92–93
treatment, 256
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 56, 70–71
avoidance, 93–94, 334–35
avolition, 65
Axis I disorders, 75–76, 81, 149–50
Axis II disorders, 242
B
behavioral assessment tasks, 243–44
behavioral disinhibition, 178
behavioral plan, 337
beliefs
hoarding-relevant, 213–14
memory and, 106
persistence of, 226
about possessions, 94
self-report measures of, 239–40
benzodiazepines, 192–93
Beowulf, 8
best-estimate diagnosis, 160
Bible, 8–9
biblio-based self-help
as alternative treatment modality, 277t278t, 282–84
BIT workshop, 283
GCBT and, 282
peer-facilitated support groups, 284
The Bibliomaniac (Ferriar), 12
biological factors, in obsessive–compulsive disorders, 209–13
biopsychosocial models, 208–9
bipolar disorders, comorbid, 79–80
birds, 189, 194
BIT workshop. See Buried in Treasures
Bleak House (Dickens), 10–11
body mass index (BMI), 225
books, hoarding, 12
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, 171–72, 196
Brief Family Consultation (BFC), 313
Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), 249, 252, 256, 355
Buried in Treasures (BIT) workshop, 283
C
caching, 188–90, 192–94
candidate gene studies, 167–68, 172t
caregivers
historical information from, 344
inclusion/training of, 337
case-based family studies, 161–62, 162t, 167
case-control family studies, 162–63, 162t, 168
case formulation, for individual CBT, 265
catecholamine system, 192–93
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), 170–72, 215
categorical approach, 160
categorization
behavioral assessment tasks of, 243–44
deficits in, 214
improving, 265
information processing in, 112–13
laboratory-based tests of, 113
character flaws, clinical features distinguished from, 308
The Characters (Theophrastus), 7
child protection system, 142
children, hoarding by
acquiring in, 332–33, 337
assessment of, 237–38, 335–36
attention and, 333–35
avoidance in, 334–35
CBT for, 336–38
clinical characteristics of, 331–33
clutter of, 332
comorbidity in, 335
compulsive hoarding, 331–38
development and, 331, 334–37
distress in, 334–35
emotional attachment in, 334
family and, 332–33, 336
hoarding behaviors, 331–38
information processing and, 333–35
insight of, 255–56, 333
introduction to, 5, 331
models of, 333–35
OCD and, 331–36, 338
personification of objects in, 334
pharmacotherapy for, 338
treatment for, 336–38
Children’s Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (C-FOCI), 336
Children’s Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (CHOCI), 336
Children’s Saving Inventory (CSI), 238, 335
Children’s Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), 238, 335
China, 7
A Christmas Carol (Dickens), 10
Clark’s nutcracker, 189
clean-out efforts, 345
clinical intervention, in individual CBT, 260
clinicians, insight and, 249
clomipramine, 338
clozapine, 66
clutter
assistance in clearing, 308–9
of children, 332
defined, 47
nesting instinct and, 191
as norm, 250
in phenomenology of hoarding, 20, 22–23, 26–29, 86
as symptom, 46t, 47
Clutter Image Rating (CIR), 51, 53, 55, 236t, 238–39, 263, 375–76
in community-based assessment, 323
for late-life hoarding assessment, 343
code enforcement, 319, 325
cognitive-behavioral model
acquisition and, 91–94
emotional attachment in, 122–24, 134–35
first, 15
(p. 397) individual CBT and, 261, 262f
information processing in, 100
introduction to, 4
as psychological model, 206, 210, 215–16
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 95–96. See also individual CBT
for children, 336–38
future research on, 271–72, 359–60
group, 215–16, 274–82, 276t277t
for HD, 247–49
introduction to, 5
for late-life hoarding, 345–46
motivation and, 247–49, 265
neurobiology and, 181, 183–84
pharmacotherapy compared with, 297
Y-BOCS and, 262–64, 268
cognitive circuit, 183
cognitive deficits
in late-life hoarding, 348
in psychological models, 214–15
cognitive dysfunction, assessment of, 344
cognitive factors, in psychological models, 213–15
cognitive model, 213
cognitive rehabilitation, 116, 347
cognitive restructuring, 183
cognitive symptoms, comorbid, 242–43
collecting
accumulation and, 34–37
defined, 34–37
as extension of self, 36, 40
hoarding and, 10, 12–14, 33–40, 48–49, 50t, 86–87
object attachment and, 120–21
OCD and, 38
ownership and, 33–40
problems caused by, 38–39
respectability of, 33–38, 40, 48–49
romantic attitude toward, 35
rule-governed behavior of, 35
Collyer brothers, 13–14
communication training, 310–11
community-based assessment, 323
Community Clutter and Hoarding Toolkit, 323
community consequences, 23–24
community interventions
challenges for, 325–27
coordinated service, 320–25
future research on, 360
goals and strategies of, 322–25
harm reduction, 345
hoarding task forces for, 321–22
by human service agencies, 316–27
informal partnerships and networks in, 320–21
interdisciplinary methods in, 316, 320, 326
introduction to, 316–17
mental health professionals in, 321, 325–26
public and private partnerships in, 321
resources, 326
comorbidity
anxiety disorders, 77–79, 78t, 83, 223–25, 241–42, 335, 344
assessment of, 241–43, 344–45
Axis I disorders, 75–76, 81
bipolar disorders, 79–80
in childhood hoarding, 335
cognitive symptoms, 242–43
compulsive buying, 207
compulsive hoarding, 293
depressive disorders, 70, 79, 209, 241–42, 344
gender and, 81–82
in HD, 75–83
impulse control disorders, 80, 113–14, 208
introduction to, 4
mood disorders, 78t, 79
nonclinical populations and, 82
OCD, 76–77, 77f, 208, 213, 241, 344
personality disorders, 81
severe domestic squalor, 149–50
treatment influenced by, 82–83
competency, to provide care, 145
compulsive acquisition scale (CAS), 36, 87, 89, 236t, 240, 379
compulsive buying, 36, 88–91, 96
comorbidity with, 207
hoarding compared with, 224
negative emotion and, 209, 224
compulsive buying scale (CBS), 36
compulsive hoarding
assessment of, 293–94
by children, 331–38
comorbidity with, 293
course of, 293
in Dead Souls, 10
defined, 45
diagnosis, 293
epidemiology, 293
future research directions, 353
intensive multimodal treatment of, 297–98
OCD and, 60, 292–97
onset of, 293
pharmacotherapy for, 291–98
phenomenology of, 293
in psychological models, 207
syndrome, 291–92
conspicuous consumption, 12
consumer psychology, 121
consumption
conspicuous, 12
emotions influencing, 223–25
contingency management plan, 337
coordinated service intervention, 320–25
coping style, 306
corticosterone, 194
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 193
cortisol, 224
covariation, 114, 115t
culture, hoarding and, 25–27
curating, 34–37
D
DA system. See dopamine system
Dead Souls (Gogol), 10
decision making
coaches helping, 308
emotions influencing, 223–25
improving, 265
ODT and, 222–23, 225
resource-allocation, 222–23
theory, 182–83
traditional tasks, 225–27
training, 337
decision-making difficulties, 22, 91–92
assessment of, 242–43
economics and, 222, 227–29
executive functioning and, 109, 112
indecision, 109, 173, 178, 215
information processing and, 101, 178
laboratory-based tests of, 109–12, 110t111t
neural evidence for, 227–29
neuroimaging research on, 112, 227–28
OCD and, 109, 112
decluttering, assistance in, 308–9
defensiveness, 249, 252–54, 305–6
delusional disorder, 141
delusions, in schizophrenia, 64–65
dementia
hoarding and, 66–68, 151
severe domestic squalor and, 67, 151
demographic features, of hoarding, 21–22
depression
assessment of, 241–42
comorbidity with, 70, 79, 209, 241–42, 344
treatment, 215
descriptive language, 356
design, research, 353–54
developmental factors, in obsessive–compulsive disorders, 209–13
diagnosis
best-estimate, 160
of compulsive hoarding, 293
criteria, 4, 21, 45–48, 46t, 51–54, 59, 63, 86, 207–8, 355
differential, 59
future research and, 356–57
of HD, 3, 43–56, 46t, 52t, 86, 207–8
interviews for, 53–55
of late-life hoarding, 343–45
(p. 398) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
Field Trials, 51–54, 72
differential diagnosis, 59
Dimensional Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), 236–37
Diogenes syndrome, 67, 147–48, 150–51, 153
disability
accommodation, 319
defined, 102
learning, 70–71
SDS for, 344
discarding
behavioral assessment tasks of, 243–44
individual CBT and, 265–66
discarding, difficulty with
as diagnostic criterion, 45–46, 46t, 207
endowment effect influencing, 225–26
in phenomenology, 19–20, 22, 24, 26–28, 86
distress
of children, 334–35
hoarding causing, 46t, 47, 50t, 61t, 207, 334–35
tolerance, 95
The Divine Comedy (Dante), 9
domestic squalor, 148. See also severe domestic squalor
dopamine (DA) system, 195
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), 180
dragons, 7–8
E
Eastern gray squirrel, 188
economics
decision-making difficulties and, 222, 227–29
discounting in, 226–27
emotions influencing, 222–25
endowment effect in, 225–26
excessive acquisition and, 223
future research and, 358–59
of HD, 4, 221–29
introduction to, 4, 221–22
ODT and, 222–23, 225
resource-allocation decisions, 222–23
risk, intertemporal choice and, 226–27
traditional tasks, 225–27
education, in hoarding features, 22
effect sizes, 123
Effexor XR. See venlafaxine
Egypt, 7–8
emotional attachment. See also object attachment
acquisition and, 94
of children, 334
in cognitive-behavioral model, 122–24, 134–35
consumer psychology and, 121
defined, 124
developmental research and, 121
evidence, critical review of, 120–36, 124f, 125t130t
in hoarding, 94, 120–36, 124f, 125t130t, 334
introduction to, 120–21
qualitative studies evidencing, 124, 129t
quantitative studies evidencing, 124, 125t128t
traumatic life events and, 132–34
emotional reactivity, 22–23
emotions
acquisitiveness promoted by, 225
consumption influenced by, 223–25
economics influenced by, 222–25
larderhoarding and, 224
negative, 122–23, 136, 209, 224–25
positive, 122–23, 136
role of, 115
endophenotypes, 172–73
endowment effect, 225–26
enforcement agencies, 318
environment
harm potential of, 311
role of, 161
Environmental Cleanliness and Clutter Scale (ECCS), 153–54, 241
epidemiology. See also genetic epidemiological approaches
of animal hoarding, 140–41
of compulsive hoarding, 293
of severe domestic squalor, 148–50
epinephrine, 193
prevention
etiology
factors, 115t, 208–9, 209f
in future research, 357–59
introduction to, 4
Eugénie Grandet (Balzac), 10
evidence-based practice, 260
excessive acquisition
ADHD and, 92–93
behavioral disinhibition and, 178
consequences of, 207
economics and, 223
frequency of, 87–88
memory deficits and, 92
self-report measures of, 236t, 240
specifier, 49–50, 87–88
excessive attachment, 22–23
exclusion criteria, 123
executive functioning
decision-making deficits and, 109, 112
defined, 102
information processing and, 102, 109–12, 110t111t, 114
insight and, 305–6
in neurobiology, 178, 182
in phenomenology, 178
severe domestic squalor and, 150
exposure and response prevention (ERP), 261, 263–64, 336, 346–47
F
The Faerie Queen (Spenser), 9
Fair Housing Act, 319
family
children and, 332–33, 336
consequences for, 23–24, 304
dyads, 310
history, 212, 344
models, of HD, 159–73
resentment of, 304, 306
warmth in, 212
family interventions
BFC, 313
distressed relationships and, 306–7
future research on, 360
harm reduction, 307–13
insight and, 303–6
motivational interviewing and, 309–10, 337
stigmatization and, 304–6
family studies
case-based, 161–62, 162t, 167
case-control, 162–63, 162t, 168
in genetic epidemiological approaches, 161–63, 162t
multiplex pedigree, 163–65
segregation analyses, 163–65
fetishism, 35, 39
Field Trials, DSM, 51–54, 72
“Filthy with Things” (Boyle), 39–40
financial costs, 23, 221
Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FOCI), 51, 237
fluoxetine, 338
fluvoxamine, 296, 338
food
deprivation, 192, 194–95
storing, 187–90, 192–97, 224
fox squirrel, 188
freezers, 189
frontal brain region, 180–81, 183, 194, 197, 199, 305
frontal lobe dysfunction, 150–51, 154
frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 68
Frost Indecisiveness Scale (FIS), 242–43
functional consequences, 342
functional status, 343–44
future research. See research, future directions for
G
GCBT. See group CBT
GC system. See glucocorticoid system
gender, 21, 37–38, 102
comorbidity and, 81–82
severe domestic squalor and, 149
stress and, 225
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 78t, 79, 83, 344
genetics
endophenotypes in, 172–73
future directions, 173
HD and, 159–73, 162t, 166t, 172t
introduction to, 4, 159–60
phenotype and, 160–61
in psychological models, 212, 216–17
Tourette syndrome and, 161, 165
genetic approaches
candidate gene studies, 167–68, 172t
genomewide, 167–70, 172t, 173
GWAS, 167, 169–70, 172t, 173
to HD, 160, 167–72, 172t
linkage analyses, 167–69, 172t
summary of, 172, 172t
genetic disorders, 71
genetic epidemiological approaches
adoption studies, 161
family studies, 161–63, 162t
goal of, 161
to HD, 160–67
multiplex pedigree studies, 163–65
segregation analyses, 163–65
sibling studies, 161, 165–67, 166t
summary of, 167
twin studies, 161, 165–67, 166t, 169–70, 212
genomewide approaches, 167–70, 172t, 173
genomewide association studies (GWAS), 167, 169–70, 172t, 173
geriatric patients, 341–43, 345, 347
glucocorticoid (GC) system, 192–94, 224
glutamate modulators, 296
greed, 8–9
Greek mythology, 7
group CBT (GCBT), 215–16, 274–82, 276t277t
H
hallucinations, in schizophrenia, 64–65
hamsters, 189, 192–96
harm reduction (HR)
character flaws distinguished from clinical features in, 308
communication training in, 310–11
community-based, 345
components, 307
defined, 307
family-focused, 307–13
harm potential assessed in, 311–12
helping distinguished from hindering in, 309
implementation of, 313
limitations accepted in, 309–10
management of, 313
motivational interviewing in, 309–10
plan, 312–13
pressure and incentives in, 311
psychoeducation in, 308
resistance distinguished from limitations in, 308–9
team, 312
willingness to engage in, 307–13
health, 23
hazards, 341, 343
measurement of, 343–44
public, 316, 319
heritability, 163
hippocampus, 189, 193–95
historical information, from family and caregivers, 344
history
family, 212, 344
hoarding in, 4, 6–15, 19–20
hoarding. See also animal hoarding, by humans; animals, hoarding in; children, hoarding by; cognitive-behavioral model; compulsive hoarding; hoarding disorder; late-life hoarding; phenomenology, of hoarding; psychological models; research, future directions for; treatment
affective disorders and, 69–70
anxiety and, 22–23, 61t, 69, 77–79, 78t, 83, 95, 223–25, 241–42, 335, 344
assessment of, 235–44, 236t, 293–94, 343–45
beliefs relevant to, 213–14
BMI and, 225
books, 12
collecting and, 10, 12–14, 33–40, 48–49, 50t, 86–87
complicated problem of, 317–19
compulsive buying compared with, 224
consequences of, 23–24, 142, 207, 221, 304, 342–43
course of, 27, 150, 293, 341–42
culture and, 25–27
defined, 6, 15, 19–20, 24, 28, 36, 60, 75, 187, 206–8, 291
dementia and, 66–68, 151
distress caused by, 46t, 47, 50t, 61t, 207, 334–35
emotional attachment in, 94, 120–36, 124f, 125t130t, 334
etiological factors, 115t, 208–9, 209f
features, 19–23, 29
in history, 4, 6–15, 19–20
human forms, animal forms and, 189–92, 196–99
impairment caused by, 46t, 47, 50t, 102, 207, 240–41
introduction to, 3–5
mechanisms of, 194–99
medical conditions and, 46t, 47–48
mood factors in, 209
in mythology, 7
neurodegenerative disorders and, 66–69
nonorganic, 179–82
obligate, 188–89
OCD’s relationship with, 15, 21, 25–28, 36, 43–45, 48, 55–56, 59–64, 62t63t, 66, 69–71, 80, 83, 88–93, 102–3, 177
OCPD and, 13, 15, 19–20, 27, 36, 44–45, 59–60, 64, 81, 102, 210, 216, 354–55
organic, 179–80
in other disorders, 59–72, 61t63t
poor insight in, 24, 178, 243, 247–56, 303–8, 318, 333, 355–56
prevalence of, 24–25, 148–49, 207–8, 341
regulatory role of, in HD, 196–97
as symptom, 59, 63, 63t, 72
task forces, 321–22
on TV, 3, 14–15
types, 255–56
Hoarding Action Response Team (HART), 321, 325
Hoarding Assessment Scale (HAS), 238
hoarding disorder (HD). See also comorbidity
acquisition in, 86–96
animal hoarding subtype of, 56, 139, 141, 208
anosognosia in, 249–51, 305
birth of, 43–45
CBT for, 247–49
collecting and, 48–49, 50t
comorbidity in, 75–83
defensiveness in, 249, 252–54, 305–6
(p. 400) defined, 100
diagnosis of, 3, 43–56, 46t, 52t, 86, 207–8
economics of, 4, 221–29
emotional attachment in, 94, 120–36, 124f, 125t130t, 334
excessive acquisition and, 49–50, 87–88, 90–91, 96
family models of, 159–73
forms of, 190–91
genetics and, 159–73, 162t, 166t, 172t
HD-D for, 51, 52t
hoarding’s regulatory role in, 196–97
information processing in, 100–116, 105t, 107t, 110t111t
learning disabilities and, 70–71
motivation and, 178, 247–56
as nesting instinct, 191, 196
neurobiology of, 177–84
newness of, 353
OVI in, 249, 251–52, 305
phenotype, 160–61
psychological models, 206–7, 209f, 213, 215–16
severe domestic squalor and, 67, 147–55
SIHD for, 55, 63, 239
specifiers, 49–51, 87–88
symptoms, 20–21, 59, 63, 63t, 72, 343
traumatic life events and, 69, 79
Hoarding Disorder Dimensional Scale (HD-D), 51, 52t
Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium (HARC), 361
Hoarding Outreach Partnership Effort (HOPE), 324
Hoarding Rating Scale (HRS), 343, 371
Hoarding Rating Scale—Interview (HRS-I), 236t, 239, 294
Hoarding Scale (HS), 237
hoarding task forces, 321–22
hoards, historical, 6–7
home-based interventions, 287
Home Environment Index, 153, 241, 343, 380–81
HOMES Multidisciplinary Hoarding Risk Assessment, 323, 343
homework, 347–48
hormones
hoarding by animals and, 192–96
stress, 224
housing agencies, 319
human attachments, in acquisition, 94–95
human service agencies
community intervention by, 316–27
complicated problem facing, 317–19
housing, 319
protective services, 142, 144, 319–20, 325
public health, 316, 319
skills needed by, 316
hunter-gatherers, hoards of, 6–7
Huntington’s disease (HtD), 69
hypersentimentality, 124
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 193
I
imaging research. See neuroimaging studies
impairment
assessment of, 240–41
defined, 102
hoarding causing, 46t, 47, 50t, 102, 207, 240–41
neuropsychological, 150–51
impulse control disorders (ICDs), 68, 71–72
acquisition and, 89–90, 113–14
comorbidity with, 80, 113–14, 208
impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors (ICB), 68
impulsivity, 113–14, 178
incentives, in HR, 311
inclusion criteria, 123, 124f
income, in hoarding features, 22
indecision, 109, 173, 178, 215
individual CBT
assessment and case formulation, 265
case studies and series, 263–64, 268–69
clinical intervention, 260
cognitive-behavioral model and, 261, 262f
concerns about, 271–72, 274
controlled trial, 270–71
described, 264–66
discarding and, 265–66
ERP methods, 261, 263–64
evidence-based practice, 260
future directions, 271–72
introduction to, 260–61
measures of, 261–63
motivational enhancement in, 265
nonacquisition practice, 265
OCD and, 260–64, 266t, 271
outcomes, 261–64, 266–71, 266t267t
pilot trials, 269–70
relapse prevention, 266
skills training, 265
individual web-based treatment, 285–86
informal partnerships and networks, 320–21
information hoards, 8
information processing
attention and, 102–6, 105t
categorization, 112–13
by children, 333–35
in cognitive-behavioral model, 100
decision-making difficulties and, 101, 178
deficit, identifying, 114–15, 115t
executive functioning and, 102, 109–12, 110t111t, 114
future directions of, 114–15
general considerations for examining, 101–3
in HD, 100–116, 105t, 107t, 110t111t
impulsivity and, 113–14
introduction to, 100–101
memory and, 102, 106–9, 107t
neuropsychology and, 101–16
in psychological models, 214–15
in-home interview, 54–55, 243
insight
in animal hoarding, 318
anosognosia, 249–51, 305
of children, 255–56, 333
clinicians’ perceptions and, 249
coping style and, 306
defensiveness, 249, 252–54, 305–6
defined, 249, 305
executive functioning and, 305–6
family interventions and, 303–6
future directions, 256, 355–56
introduction to, 247
motivation and, 247–56
OCD and, 249, 255–56
poor, in hoarding, 24, 178, 243, 247–56, 303–8, 318, 333, 355–56
research and, 355–56
schizophrenia and, 249–50, 305–6
specifier, 50–51
treatment compliance and, 248–49
insula, 181, 183, 228
intensive multimodal treatment, 297–98
interdisciplinary methods, in community interventions, 316, 320, 326
intermediates, 214
International Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Foundation (IOCDF), 361
interpersonal difficulties, 132, 304, 306–7
intertemporal choice, risk and, 226–27
interventions. See also community interventions; family interventions
animal hoarding, 142–44
clinical, in individual CBT, 260
home-based, 287
introduction to, 5
(p. 401) on object attachment, 134–35
technology-based, 287–88
interviews
assessment based on, 239
for diagnosis, 53–55
HRS-I, 236t, 239, 294
in-home, 54–55, 243
motivational, 253–54, 309–10, 337
SIHD, 55, 63, 239
intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 165–67
involuntary clients, 318
involuntary possession loss, 121
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), 109, 112, 182, 226
Iron Age hoards, 7
J
Japan, 25
jewelry, 189–90
jird, 192
judicial system
animal hoarding and, 142–43
complications of, 318
K
Kidnapped (Stevenson), 11
kleptomania, 88–89
L
laboratory-based tests
of attention, 104, 105t
of categorization, 113
of decision making, 109–12, 110t111t
of impulsivity, 114
of memory, 106–8, 107t
larderhoarding
in animals, 188–94, 199, 224
emotions and, 224
larders, 189
late-life hoarding
assessment of, 343–45
CBT for, 345–46
consequences of, 342–43
course of, 341–42
diagnosis of, 343–45
future research on, 348–49
health hazards of, 341, 343
historical information and, 344
introduction to, 5
neurocognitive deficits in, 348
in older adults, 149, 341–49
onset of, 341–42
practical problems in, 348
prevalence, 341
treatment, 345–48
learning disabilities, 70–71
legal competency, 145
Lewy bodies, 68
Library of Alexandria, 8
A Life of Grime, 14
limitations
acceptance of, 309–10
methodological, 286
resistance distinguished from, 308–9
linkage analyses, 167–69, 172t
Living Conditions Rating Scale, 153
living situation, 21–22, 149, 153, 240–41
L/L genotype. See met/met genotype
logarithm of the odds (LOD), 168–69
London Field Trial, 53–54, 72
M
major depressive disorder (MDD), 344
maladaptive cognitions, 178–79
mania, 70
marital status, 21–22
MassHousing, 361
materialism, 95
medial frontal cortex (MFC), 188, 194, 199
medical conditions, hoarding and, 46t, 47–48
medical consequences, 342
medications. See pharmacotherapy; specific medications
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), 321
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), 321
memory
beliefs associated with, 106
deficits, 92, 106–9, 107t, 178, 182, 214–15
defined, 102
hormone systems and, 193
information processing and, 102, 106–9, 107t
laboratory-based tests of, 106–8, 107t
neuropsychology and, 106–8, 107t
OCD and, 106, 108
perception of, 108
mental health
problems, severe domestic squalor associated with, 149–50
professionals, 144, 321, 325–26
The Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare), 9
Merriam’s kangaroo rats, 188–89
mesolimbocortical system, 188, 194–95, 225, 227–29
Mesopotamia, 7
methodology
challenges of, 353–56
limitations of, 286
met/met (L/L) genotype, 170
mice, 192–93, 195
Mickey Mouse Addict, 38
minocycline, 296
miser, 9–11
modes of existence, 13
money, discounting of, 227
monkeys, 195
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), 344
mood
disorders, 78t, 79
factors, 209
Mormons, 189
motivation
for acquisition, 213
CBT and, 247–49, 265
defined, 254
enhanced, 265
future research directions, 256, 355–56
HD and, 178, 247–56
insight and, 247–56
interpersonal context influencing, 306–7
introduction to, 247
poor, 178, 254–56, 303
saving as, 120, 213
treatment compliance and, 248–49
motivational interviewing (MI), 253–54, 309–10, 337
mug study paradigm, 226
multiple animal ownership, 139–41
multiplex pedigree studies, 163–65
mummies, 7
mythology, hoarding in, 7
N
naltrexone, 193
negative emotion, 122–23, 136, 209, 224–25
neocortex, 194
nesting instinct, 191, 196
networks, informal, 320–21
neural evidence, for decision-making difficulties, 227–29
neural mechanisms
of hoarding in animals, 194–96
of hoarding in humans, 197–99
neurobiology
of animal hoarding, 179
CBT and, 181, 183–84
executive functioning in, 178, 182
future research directions, 182–83
of HD, 177–84
introduction to, 4, 177–78
nonorganic hoarding in, 179–82
organic hoarding in, 179–80
phenomenology and, 178–79
neurocognitive deficits, in late-life hoarding, 348
neurodegenerative disorders, 66–69
(p. 402) neuroimaging studies
decision-making difficulties and, 112, 227–28
of nonorganic hoarding, 180–81
OCD and, 197–99
of organic hoarding, 179–80
neuropsychological impairment, severe domestic squalor and, 150–51
neuropsychological models, 357–58
neuropsychological tests, 355
neuropsychology
attention and, 104, 105t
context in, 115
information processing and, 101–16
memory and, 106–8, 107t
of nonorganic hoarding, 181–82
nonacquisition practice, 265
nonclinical populations, comorbidity and, 82
nonclinicians, in alternative treatment modalities, 286–87
nonhuman animals. See animal hoarding; animals, hoarding in
nonorganic hoarding
in neurobiology, 179–82
neuroimaging studies of, 180–81
nonspuriousness, 114, 115t
norepinephrine, 193
normative social information, 250
NTRK3, 170–72
nucleus accumbens (NAcc), 195, 198–99, 227–29
O
objects
hoarding, animal hoarding compared with, 141–42
perceived value of, 213
personification of, 334
object–affect fusion (OAF), 120, 134–36, 211
object attachment
acquisitiveness and, 120–21
assessment of, 129–32
characteristics of, 132–34
by children, 334
clinical implications of, 135–36
collecting and, 120–21
in control groups, 132
defined, 124
evidence for, 130–31
in hoarding, 120–36, 124f, 125t130t
intervention on, 134–35
introduction to, 4
OAF in, 120, 134–36, 211
OCD and, 129, 131–33
Object Attachment Questionnaire, 133
Object Decision Task (ODT), 222–23, 225
obligate hoarders, 188–89
obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)
assessment, 235–38, 241
attention and, 103–6
biological factors in, 209–13
in children, 331–36, 338
collecting and, 38
comorbidity with, 76–77, 77f, 208, 213, 241, 344
compulsive hoarding, 60, 292–97
decision-making deficits and, 109, 112
defensiveness and, 252–53
developmental factors in, 209–13
genetics in, 159–67, 169–73
hoarding’s relationship with, 15, 21, 25–28, 36, 43–45, 48, 55–56, 59–64, 62t63t, 66, 69–71, 80, 83, 88–93, 102–3, 177
individual CBT and, 260–64, 266t, 271
insight and, 249, 255–56
memory and, 106, 108
neuroimaging and, 197–99
nonorganic hoarding and, 180–81
object attachment and, 129, 131–33
OVI and, 252
personality factors in, 209–13
pharmacotherapy for, 294–95
phenomenology and, 61, 61t
in psychological models, 210–13
self-awareness of, 208
self-report measures, 235–37
Tourette syndrome and, 161, 165
treatment, 193, 216, 247, 260–64, 266t, 271, 294–95
Y-BOCS and, 236, 249, 251, 255–56, 262–64, 268, 354–55
Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI), 236–37
Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV), 336
Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), 236–37, 263
obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
hoarding and, 13, 15, 19–20, 27, 36, 44–45, 59–60, 64, 81, 102, 210, 216, 354–55
as personality disorder, 81
obsessive–compulsive symptom (OCS), 64, 66, 68
obstinacy, 13, 19
OCI-Revised (OCI-R), 236–37
Of The Use of Riches, An Epistle To the Right Honourable Allen Lord Bathurst (Pope), 10
older adults
late-life hoarding by, 149, 341–49
severe domestic squalor and, 149
opiates, 193
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 180, 183, 197–99, 226–28
orderliness, 13, 19
organic hoarding, 179–80
overvalued ideation (OVI), 249, 251–52, 305
ownership
collecting and, 33–40
defined, 34
multiple animal, 139–41
P
pantry, 189
Parkinson’s disease (PD), 68
paroxetine, 294–96
parsimony, 13, 19
partnerships
informal, 320–21
public and private, 321
passion, 34–35, 38
peer-facilitated support groups, 284
peer-supported web-based treatment, 284–85
perfectionism, 22, 210
personal consequences, 23–24
personality disorders, 81, 242
personality factors, in obsessive–compulsive disorders, 209–13
personification, of objects, 334
pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), 70–71
pharmacotherapy
algorithm, 296–97
CBT compared with, 297
for children, 338
for compulsive hoarding, 291–98
future research on, 298, 360
introduction to, 5
OCD and, 294–95
response, 294–95
studies, 295–96
phenomenology, of hoarding
acquisition in, 20, 22, 25–26, 28, 86
clutter in, 20, 22–23, 26–29, 86
compulsive hoarding, 293
consequences of hoarding, 23–24
course, 27
culture and, 25–27
difficulty discarding in, 19–20, 22, 24, 26–28, 86
executive functioning in, 178
future research and, 356–57
historical review of, 19–20
hoarding features, 19–23, 29
importance of, 4
(p. 403) neurobiology and, 178–79
OCD and, 61, 61t
onset, 26–27
overview of, 28–29
prevalence, 24–25
traumatic and stressful life events in, 27–28
phenotype, 160–61
physical factors, in harm potential, 311–12
physical safety, 317
Plyushkin syndrome, 10
positive emotion, 122–23, 136
possessing, 33–34
possessions
beliefs about, 94
involuntary loss of, 121
as safety signals, 122, 124, 133–34
postfasting hyperphagia, 192
postrationalist models, 210
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 28–29, 69, 79, 344
A Pot of Gold (Plautus), 7–8
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), 71
pressure, in HR, 311
prevalence, of hoarding, 24–25, 148–49, 207–8, 341
The Principles of Psychology (James), 12
private partnerships, 321
product retention tendency, 131–32
property use officials, 319
protective services
animal, 320
APS, 144
child, 142
human service agencies, 142, 144, 319–20, 325
psychiatric status, animal hoarding and, 141
psychoeducation, 308
psychological factors, in harm potential, 312
psychological models
biological factors in, 209–13
cognitive-behavioral, 206, 210, 215–16
cognitive factors in, 213–15
compulsive hoarding in, 207
developmental factors in, 209–13
etiological factors in, 208–9, 209f
future directions, 215–17
genetics in, 212, 216–17
HD in, 206–7, 209f, 213, 215–16
hoarding defined in, 206–8
information processing in, 214–15
introduction to, 4
mood factors in, 209
OCD and, 210–13
personality factors in, 209–13
traumatic life events in, 212–13
treatment and, 215–16
psychopharmacotherapy, 291
public health, 316, 319
public partnerships, 321
Q
qualitative approach, 160
qualitative studies, on emotional attachment, 124, 129t
quantitative approach, 160
quantitative studies, on emotional attachment, 124, 125t128t
questionnaire-based methods, 217
R
relapse prevention, 266
Renaissance literature and drama, 9
research, future directions for
animal hoarding and, 144–45, 357
assessment and, 354–55
on community interventions, 360
compulsive hoarding, 353
design, 353–54
diagnosis and, 356–57
economics and, 358–59
etiology in, 357–59
on family interventions, 360
genetics, 173
hoarding in animals and, 358
of information processing, 114–15
insight and, 256, 355–56
introduction to, 5
late-life hoarding, 348–49
methodological challenges of, 353–56
motivation, 256, 355–56
neurobiology, 182–83
neuropsychological tests in, 355
pharmacotherapy, 298, 360
phenomenology and, 356–57
psychological models, 215–17
resources, 360–61
sampling, 354
on self-help, 359–60
theoretical models in, 357–59
on treatment, 359–60
resistance, limitations distinguished from, 308–9
resource-allocation decisions, 222–23
riluzole, 296
risk, 226–27
risperidone, 296, 338
romantic attitude, toward collecting, 35
root cellars, 189
rule-governed behavior, 35
S
sadness, 224–25
safety, 316–17
safety signals, 122, 124, 133–34
sampling, 354
saving
acquisition and, 86
in history of hoarding, 12–14
as motivation, 120, 213
need for, 46–47, 46t, 206
sentimental, 124
Saving Cognitions Inventory (SCI), 129, 130t, 132–34, 213, 378
attachment models and, 359
self-report assessment with, 236t, 239–40
Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), 236t, 237–38, 263, 294, 335, 343, 372–73
scatterhoarding, 188–94, 199
Schedule of Compulsions, Obsessions, and Pathological Impulses (SCOPI), 237
schizophrenia, 215
antipsychotic medication and, 65–66
hallucinations and delusions in, 64–65
insight and, 249–50, 305–6
NTRK3 and, 170–71
Scoring Keys, 382–83
search strategy, 123
segregation analyses, 163–65
self-ambivalence, 210–11
self-awareness, 178, 183–84, 208
self-based conceptual framework, of animal hoarding, 211
self-control, 93, 115
self-help. See also biblio-based self-help
future research on, 359–60
web-based, 279t280t, 284–86
self-neglect, 24, 207, 317
animal hoarding and, 140, 143
severe domestic squalor and, 147–51, 153
self-related constructs, 94–95
self-report measures
assessment with, 104, 217, 235–43, 236t, 355
of beliefs, 239–40
of excessive acquisition, 236t, 240
of OCD, 235–37
senile breakdown, 148–50, 153
sentimentality, 122, 124
serotonin, 193
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), 291, 296–97
serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI), 294–98, 338
sertraline, 338
severe domestic squalor
accumulation in, 147–48, 151–55
in animal hoarding, 152
assessment tools for, 153
awareness of, 153
burden of, 150–55
case vignettes, 153–54
(p. 404) categories of, 148
comorbid, 149–50
course of, 150
dementia and, 67, 151
Diogenes syndrome and, 67, 147–48, 150–51, 153
epidemiology of, 148–50
executive functioning and, 150
filth in, 147–48, 152–54
frontal lobe dysfunction and, 150–51, 154
gender ratio of, 149
HD and, 67, 147–55
incidence of, 148–49
introduction to, 147
mental health problems associated with, 149–50
neuropsychological impairment and, 150–51
old age and, 149
prevalence of, 148–49, 207
self-neglect and, 147–51, 153
senile breakdown and, 148–50, 153
terminology, 148
shame, 317–18
Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), 344
Siberian hamster, 189
sibling studies, 161, 165–67, 166t
Silas Marner (Eliot), 11
skills training, in individual CBT, 265
SLC1A1, 171–72
social consequences, 342–43
social factors, in harm potential, 312
social feedback, 250
social network, 197
social phobia, 77–79, 78t, 224, 250
social rejection, 224
social services, 143–44
Spartans, 214, 223
specifiers, HD
Excessive Acquisition, 49–50, 87–88
Insight, 50–51
squirrels, 188
status quo bias, 226
stealing, 88–89
stepped care, 283, 288–89
stigmatization, 304–6, 317
stress, 27, 196
gender and, 225
hormones, 224
PTSD and, 28–29, 69, 79, 344
Structured Interview for Hoarding Disorder (SIHD), 55, 63, 239, 365–70
study quality, 123–24
super-normal controls, 161
support groups, peer-facilitated, 284
syllogomania, 148
symptoms
clutter as, 46t, 47
cognitive, 242–43
HD, 20–21, 59, 63, 63t, 72, 343
hoarding as, 59, 63, 63t, 72
relabeling, 250
Syrian hamster, 189, 195–96
T
task forces, 321–22
technology-based interventions, 287–88
temporal antecedence, 115, 115t
temporal brain region, 180–81, 183
Terror Management Theory, 224
thought–action fusion, 211
To Have or To Be? (Fromm), 13
Tourette syndrome (TS), 161, 165
Transtheoretical Stages of Change Model, 254
traumatic life events, 69, 79, 359
animal hoarding and, 142
emotional attachment and, 132–34
family and, 212
in hoarding mechanisms, 196
in phenomenology of hoarding, 27–28
in psychological models, 212–13
treatment. See also alternative treatment modalities; cognitive-behavioral therapy; interventions; pharmacotherapy
ADHD, 256
animal hoarding, 142
anosognosia, 251
anxiety, 215
barriers, 347–48
for children, 336–38
comorbidity influencing, 82–83
compliance with, 248–49, 347–48
for defensiveness, 253–54
depression, 215
future research on, 359–60
intensive multimodal, 297–98
for late-life hoarding, 345–48
OCD and, 193, 216, 247, 260–64, 266t, 271, 294–95
for OVI, 252
psychological models and, 215–16
response to, 95–96
willingness to engage in, 304–13
TV shows, 3, 14–15
twin studies, 161, 165–67, 166t, 169–70, 212
U
UCLA Hoarding Severity Scale (UHSS), 239, 294, 343, 374
utilitarian qualities, 120
V
validity, of assessment instruments, 102
Vancouver HART, 321, 325
Vancouver Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (VOCI), 237
Veblen, Thorstein, 12
velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), 71
venlafaxine (Effexor XR), 296
ventral striatum, 188, 195, 198
ventral tegmentum (VT), 194–95
ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), 179, 198, 227
verbal recall deficits, 108, 214
visual recall deficits, 108, 214–15
Volpone (Jonson), 9
Völsunga Saga, 8
W
warmth, in family of origin, 212
web-based treatment
as alternative modality, 279t280t, 284–88
individual, 285–86
peer-supported, 284–85
self-help, 279t280t, 284–86
Y
Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)
CBT and, 262–64, 268
Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC), 25, 43, 60, 161, 163–65, 171
Y-BOCS-SC. See Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist