Abstract and Keywords
The development of the Italian administrative system showed some initial weaknesses: Italy was a latecomer, not having a strong administrative tradition; a substantial role of lawyers and legal administrative formalism strongly affected the evolution of the administration; the interaction between administration and politics was not always virtuous. All these factors had an impact on some of the expected outputs: we show as an example the evolution of the length, and quality, of civil justice decisions. Some reactions to these weaknesses-such as the development of "parallel" administrations, less subject to formal constraints-accompanied and sustained the country industrial growth at the beginning of the twentieth century and in the 1950s. But then again the inefficiencies and inadequacy of the responses prevailed. Parallel administrations slowly became similar to the formal public administration; overregulation, partly a reaction to inefficient law enforcement, followed; corruption strongly increased. Reforming the system proved more and more difficult.
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