Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 15 December 2019

Index

Index

(p. 575) Academic pipeline, 299–300, 310f, 311
Achievement
adaptive resources, 486
adolescents, 56, 60, 61
adulthood, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75
alienated achievement, 137
characteristics, definitions, 18, 56, 61, 68, 133, 200, 201, 250, 270, 476, 477, 492
classification, 100–102, 100t, 117
cultural differences, 478
developmental changes meta analyses, 60, 61, 108
dynamic systems theory, 139
ethnic/racial identity, 20, 261
gendered narrative identity, 45
identity maturation, 477–78
identity trajectories, 142
integrative identity model, 104
internalizing symptoms, 549
lifespan identity development, 82, 87
normative identity style, 441
psychometric studies, 138
well-being, 481
“Acting White” phenomenon, 273, 276, 288
Adair, V., 73–74
Adams, G. R., 211, 357, 450, 543, 551
Addis, D. R., 152, 155
Adelson, J., 141–42
Adler, A., 2
Adler, J. M., 361, 365
Adolescence/emerging adulthood
age range definitions, 61
autobiographical reasoning, 150–51, 155–56, 160, 162, 167, 170, 184–85
biculturalism, 59–60
causal/thematic coherence, 62
as center of identity formation, 567–68
courtship, dating, marriage, sexuality, 55–58
cultural influences, 54–60, 63
cultural neuroscience, 427–28, 431
cultural stereotypes, 273–81, 287–91
developing vs. developed countries, 57–59, 63
developmental intervention science, 338–40, 342–43, 346–50
developmental trajectories, 109–10
divorce, 464–65
elaborative reminiscing, 43, 44–45t, 46–49, 47t
emotional reminiscing, 43, 44–45t, 46–49, 47t
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 549–50
false-self behaviors, 395
gendered narrative identity, 43–48, 44–47t (see also gendered narrative identity)
gendered personal narratives emergence, 41–43
globalization in identity development, 58–60, 293, 566
hybrid identity, 59–60, 293–94
identity crisis, 17–18, 53–54, 56, 58, 61–62, 100–101, 100t, 116–17, 301, 339, 393, 476, 480
identity development universality, 53–54, 56–58
identity domains, 56–57, 62–63
identity status (see identity status model)
identity vs. identity confusion, 100
ideological diversity, 55–58
individuation, 292–93
intergenerational narratives, 45–49, 46–47t
internal state language, 43, 46–47, 46t
life story emergence, 41
moratorium, 17–18, 56, 60, 61
multiple worlds, 8
narrative method, 62–63
parenting authority vs. autonomy, 8, 438, 440–50
personality development, 492, 494–97, 499, 501
phylogenetic history, 54–56
political conflict, 370–81
positioning in narratives, 171
self-concept, 40, 48–49, 59
self-esteem, 41–43, 56–57, 60
social conventions, 439–41
storm and stress period, 18
validation of identity claims, 233
values, assimilation of, 59, 569
Adulthood
accommodative challenge, 73, 74
achievement, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75
autobiographical memory, 72
cohort effect, 74
cultural effects, 67, 77
diffuse-avoidant processing style, 69
diffusion, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75
disequilibration, 68
ego identity, 3–4, 14–15, 17, 66, 82, 100, 510, 566
epigenetic principle, 67, 75–78
Erikson, 66–68, 70–72
fidelity, 66
foreclosure, 68, 69–72, 74, 75
generativity vs. stagnation, 67, 68, 76
identity accommodation, 69
identity assimilation, 69
identity development generally, 67, 70–72, 77–78
identity processing model, 69
identity regression, 68
identity roles, 65
identity vs. role confusion, 3, 66–68, 72, 75–77
informational processing style, 69
integrity vs. despair, 67, 68, 76–77
intimacy vs. isolation, 67, 68, 75–76
Marcia's theories, 67, 68, 70–71
McAdams' theories, 69–70
meta-analyses, 71, 74
moratorium, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75
moratorium-achievement moratorium-achievement (MAMA cycles), 68, 129
narrative identity model, 69–70, 72 (see also narrative identity model)
normative-avoidant processing style, 69
progressive identity status, 71–74, 77–78
revision, maintenance processes, 73–74
social-cognitive theories, 69
stability, 73–74
Affonso, D., 76
African Americans
black cultural learning styles model, 257
black culture, 255–57
black identity as stage model, 258–59
black self-sabotage, 256
(p. 576) cultural stereotypes, 272–78, 281, 288, 292
culture as ethnicity, 253, 257, 290
developmental intervention science, 339–40, 347, 349
parenting, 444, 447, 450
racial/ethnic identity development, 20, 26n1
school, schooling, 299–302, 304–6
Agency
autobiographical reasoning, 162, 177, 204, 544–45
lifespan identity development, 89, 145n2
narrative identity model, 361, 364
parenting, 437, 440, 444, 483
personality development, 493
political conflict, 374–76, 440
risk, resilience, 473, 483, 485
Ager, J., 273
Akerlof, G. A., 530
Albrecht, R. E., 344
Allen, J. P., 486
Allen, V. L., 99
Allport, G. W., 16, 140
Al-Owidha, A., 108
Althusser, L., 215
Amato, P. R., 457
Ambady, N., 257
Antaki, C., 216
Anthis, K. S., 73
Appiah, K. A., 24
Applications section, 563–64
Archer, S. L., 199, 502, 503
Arco, R., 308
Arditti, J. A., 459
Aristotle, 202
Arnett, J. J., 6, 82–83, 87, 92, 338, 494, 535, 566, 568
Asian Americans
cultural stereotypes, 273–74
culture as ethnicity, 253, 257
lifespan identity development, 89
school, schooling, 299, 300, 302
Asquith, P., 443
Assimilation, 59, 69, 300, 304, 569
Autobiographical reasoning. see also meaning-making
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 150–51, 155–56, 160, 162, 167, 170, 184–85
agency, 162, 177, 204, 544–45
autobiographical arguments, 150, 155–59
big stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
biographical ruptures, 150, 155–56, 159–60
body-as-if loop, 172–76, 189
body-right-now map, 172–76, 189
body-there-and-then map, 172–76, 189
coherence, unity, 151, 156–60, 171–72, 177, 204
concepts, definitions, 149–50, 167–68, 183, 184, 189–90
context of narration, 174, 177–78, 185, 188
coping mechanisms, 159–62, 170
culture, gender issues, 176–77
developmental status, 157
diachronics, 183, 184, 187
discontinuity, 153–54, 159–60, 162, 171, 177, 185
ego resiliency, 161, 476
embodied narration, 172–76, 189
environmental stability, 153–55, 157, 168–70
episodics, 183, 184
essentialism, 156, 159, 198, 202–3, 306
events causing personality change, 157
exemplification, 157
formative influences, 157, 168–69
goals for narration, 175
identity resolution, 168–69, 171, 186–87
I/me distinction, 187, 204, 570–71
life narratives, 7–8, 150, 154, 157–61
lifespan identity development, 90–91, 190
life story schema, 149, 154–59, 162, 166, 167, 183–86, 476–77, 545
life transitions, 159–60
memory, 152–55, 170, 172–76, 184
narrative identity, 167–69, 184–89, 476
narrativist arguments, 156, 159
over-general memory, 175
personality, explanations of actions by, 157, 160
personality development, 493
physiological states, 175–76
positioning in narratives, 171–72
redemption sequence, 91, 161, 358–59
relational positioning, 170–72, 188–89
rumination, 103, 104, 118, 135, 161, 395, 501, 543
self-construction, 162
self-continuity, 150–62, 167, 184–89
situated identity performances, 154
small stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
social relations, 153–55, 157, 168–70
subjective outlook changes, 158, 160
synchronics, 187
tacit themes, 169–70, 188
victimization themes, 170, 177
well-being, 159–62, 185
Autonomy
autonomy vs. authority in parenting, 8, 438, 440–50
gendered narrative identity, 45
identity development as process, 124
racial/ethnic identity development, 20
Azmitia, M., 7, 281, 289, 477, 552, 554
Bakhtin, M. M., 212
Balistreri, E., 102
Ball, L., 485
Bamberg, M., 22, 154, 171, 184, 186, 215, 242
Banks. M. V., 161
Barber, B. K., 372, 376
Barber, B. L., 485
Barillas-Chón, D. W., 307, 309
Barkhuus, L., 513
Bar-Tal, D., 371–73
Bauer, J. J., 498, 545
Baum, N., 461
Baumeister, R. F., 510
Beaumont, S. L., 75–76
Beck, U., 534
Bell, N. J., 205
Belonging, group affiliation
difference and sameness, 16
identity status, 139
political conflict, 371–73
racial/ethnic identity development, 20
school, schooling, 300, 302–6
social networking sites, 511, 515, 516, 518
Bennion, L. D., 543
Benson, J. E., 465
Bergin, D. A., 305
Berman, S. L., 450
Bernal, M. E., 260
Berntsen, D., 162
Berry, J., 261–62
Berzonsky, M. D., 19, 69, 76, 119, 122, 135, 143, 393, 440
Beyers, W., 110, 549
Big stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
Bilard, J., 417
Binational Front of Indigenous Organizations, 308
Blagov, P. S., 359
Blair-Loy, M., 329
Blais, J. J., 509
Block, J., 99, 121, 569
Bluck, S., 7, 156, 361
Bodily states mapping, 172–74, 189
Body-as-if loop, 172–76, 189
Body image. see also puberty
body mass index, 412–13
careers, 408, 416–17
components, 406–7
depression, 411
(p. 577) early maturation, 389–90, 392–99, 393f, 412
eating disturbances, 409, 415–16
ethnicity/race, 413–14
explorations, commitments, 407–8
femininity, 407
gender roles, 407, 410–11, 416–17
identity formation, 407–8, 416–17
media, 415–16
objectification, 408, 416, 417
objectification theory, 409–10
parental attitudes, behaviors, 414–15, 417
peer pressure, 415, 417
psychosocial theory, 407
pubertal timing, 8, 17, 390–92, 396, 397, 400, 401, 411–12
puberty, 397–98
self-concept, 407
self-discrepancy theory, 408–9
self-esteem, 407, 411, 416
self-silencing, 394–95, 400–401, 417
sexualization, 410–11, 416
sexual orientation, 414
social comparison theory, 408
social groups, 413, 417
sociocultural theory, 409
steroids, 411
thin ideal, 409, 410
tripartite model, 409
well-being, 409
Body-right-now map, 172–76, 189
Bonalume, L., 359, 360
Bond, M., 280
Borderline personality, 142
Bosacki, S. L., 443
Bosma, H. A., 103, 121, 122, 126
Bosman, K., 129
Bosnian youth, 375–77, 381
Bourdieu, P., 291, 300, 302
Bourne, E., 19
boyd, d. m., 509, 512, 517, 519
Bradbury, T. N., 457
Bradley, C. L., 76
Branje, S. J. T., 107, 109, 543
Breen, A. V., 160
Brewer, M. B., 292
Bridging Multiple Worlds Alliance, 310–13, 310f
Briones, E., 553
Brittian, A. S., 547
Bronfenbrenner, U., 279, 536
Bronte-Tinkew, J., 462
Brooks, D., 280
Brown, B., 514
Brubaker, J. R., 157, 544
Bruner, J. S., 35, 569
Burciaga, R., 302–3
Burkitt, I., 13
Burrow, A. L., 542
Campbell, C. G., 124
Cantor, N., 492
Carter, P. L., 276, 305, 313
Carter, R., 395
Cartmel, F., 534
Caspi, A., 491–92, 494, 495f
Catalano, R. F., 339
Chandler, M. J., 150, 156, 287, 485, 564
Chang, L., 59
Chavez-Korell, S., 260
Chen, Y., 160
Cheon, B. K., 429
Chiao, J. Y., 8, 427
Childhood and Society (Erikson), 53, 54, 81
Chinese-Americans, 275, 276–78
Chodorow, N., 82
Christiansen, S. L., 76
Clausen, J., 322
Cohler, B. J., 21, 22
Coleman, B. R., 262
Coleman, M. N., 253
Colombia, 377–80
Colwell, R. K., 547
Commitment
body image, 407–8
concepts, definitions, 552
development of, 120
identity development as process, 116–20
identity status, 98, 133–38
identity status model, 100, 100t, 102, 103, 117, 200, 201, 250, 270, 476
integrative identity model (Luyckx), 103, 104, 118, 119, 126
personality development, 492–97, 495f, 499
reconsideration of, 104–6, 109, 118, 120, 143, 476, 543, 545
Community Cultural Wealth framework, 302
Conceptual self (tacit themes of narratives), 153
Connerly, Ward, 255
Consolidation of identity, 550, 551
Context
closed contexts, 74
cultural stereotypes, 279–80, 290–91
dynamic systems theory, 125
identity development as process, 120
identity status, 135, 138–40
I/me distinction, 197, 204
integrative identity model (Schachter), 238–40
lifespan identity development, 87
microinteractional, 211
of narration, 174, 177–78, 185, 188
open contexts, 74
personality development, 493, 504
puberty, 393–94, 397–99
risk, resilience, 473, 478–79, 482
work identity, 322–26
Contextual amplification hypothesis, 398–99
Conway, M. A., 91, 153
Cooks, H. C., 305
Cookston, J., 8
Cooley, C. H., 13
Cooper, C. R., 210–11
Cooper, K., 8
Copeland, B., 255
Coping strategies
autobiographical reasoning, 159–62, 170
cultural stereotypes, 272–79
divorce, 455
identity development as process, 119–20
political conflict, 373–75, 378–80, 382–84
puberty, 394–95, 397, 401
risk, resilience, 484–85
school, schooling, 302–6, 310–12
Costa, P. T., 491
Cota, M. K., 260
Côté, J. E., 3, 9, 19, 211, 230, 241, 478, 483, 530, 531, 535, 543, 552
Cox, K., 494
Crocetti, E., 6, 104, 107, 108, 110, 133–37, 139, 143, 543, 545, 547, 550, 551
Cross, W. E., Jr., 20, 258, 259–60, 289, 553
Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS), 259, 262–63
Crouter, A. C., 394
Cultural neuroscience
adolescence to adulthood transition, 427–28, 431
affiliation, 428–30
aging, 425, 431–32
amygdala, 428, 430, 431
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 429–31
brain regions, 425–26, 426f, 429, 430
culture–gene coevolutionary theory, 424
developmental biocultural co-constructivism, 425
developmental neuroscience, 427–28
empathy, 428–30
event-related potentials (ERP), 433
family values, 433
fMRI studies, 425, 432, 433
functional near-infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS), 432
fusiform gyrus, 430–31
identity development, 424–25, 427–28
individualism-collectivism, 424, 427
interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6r), 432–33
(p. 578) medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 426–30, 426f
medial temporal lobe (MTL), 429–31
mental state inference, 430
middle frontal gyrus, 428
MPPC, 428
neuroimaging studies, 425–28, 426f
neuroplasticity, 425, 428, 431
orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC), 431
posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), 426, 426f, 427, 429, 430
race and ethnicity, 429, 431
self-construal theory, 424
self-processing, 425–27, 426f
self-reflection, 427–28
serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), 424
social cognition, 425–27, 426f
social cue perception, 430–31, 433
superior temporal gyrus, 431
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 428, 430
temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 428–30
ventral premotor region, 428
ventral striatum, 433
Cultural stereotypes
“acting White” phenomenon, 273, 276, 288
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 273–81, 287–91
African Americans, 272–78, 281, 288, 292
Asian Americans, 273–74
avoidance, 272–73, 276–78
Chinese-Americans, 275, 276–78
class identities, 291
context, 279–80, 290–91
coping strategies, 272–79
cultural artifacts, 272
gender differences, 273–74
gender identification, 271–74
group identification, 271
hybrid identity, 59–60, 293–94
identity status model, 270
immigrants, 273, 275, 276, 290, 292
intersectionality, 274–76, 280–81, 289, 291–94, 553–54
Latinos, 273–74, 290, 292
mixed-race identity, 293–94
model minority myth, 278
narratives, 276, 278, 287, 288, 293
optimal distinctiveness theory, 292–93
Pacific Islanders, 275, 277, 290
personal identity, 270, 279, 280, 287–88, 566
phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (P-VEST), 272
privilege, 288, 291
psychosocial theory, 270, 272, 287–88
self-concept, 271–72, 276–77, 292
social capital theory, 291, 300, 302–3
social expectations, 274–75, 281
social identity, 270–72, 279, 280, 287–89
stereotypes in identity formation, 273–79
whites, 273–76, 278–79, 290
Culture as ethnicity
acculturation model, 261–62
African Americans, 253, 257, 290
anti-intellectualism, 256, 288
Asian Americans, 253, 257
authenticity, 255–56, 287
black cultural learning styles model, 257
black culture, 255–57
black identity as stage model, 258–59
black self-sabotage, 256
concepts, definitions, 251–54, 252t, 262
consistency, validation of measures, 262–63
Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS), 259, 262–63
discrimination/stigma, 251, 253, 288–92
ethnic identity, 254–55, 290
ethnic identity model (Phinney), 261
ethnic identity models, 260–62
ethnic identity profiles, 261–62, 288, 293–94
ethnicity, 252–54, 252t
group identity, 255–56
identity status model, 261
immigrants, 253
Latinos, 253, 290
lifespan identity development, 85, 289
master narratives, 63, 91, 288, 358, 363, 366, 503, 567
multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI), 20, 258
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), 254, 261
Native Americans, 253, 290
nigrescence theory, 258–60, 290
personal/ego identity, 250
psychosocial theory, 250–51
racial/ethnic groups, 252–54, 252t
racial identity, 254–55
Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS), 259
racial identity models, 257–60
racial identity profiles, 259–60, 288, 293–94
racial socialization, 253, 260–61, 290
rejection sensitivity, 260
role-identity theory, 15
self-determination, 255–56
separatism, 256, 288
social identity, 250–51
stereotype threat, 257
structural symbolic interactionism, 15–16
victimology, 256, 288
world views, 249
Culture–gene coevolutionary theory, 424
Cumulative continuity model, 491–92, 494
Dabova, M., 360
Daddis, C., 447
Damasio, A., 172, 173, 189
Daniels, E. A., 8, 416
Darley, J. M., 257
Davies, B., 154
Deaux, K., 34, 292
Debate format, 6, 563
DeGarmo, D. S., 462
Dellas Identity Status Inventory-Occupation (DISI-O), 102, 106
Demorest, A., 360–61
Denissen, J. A. J., 483
De Roover, K., 128
Descartes, R., 13
Developmental intervention science
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 338–40, 342–43, 346–50
African-Americans, 339–40, 347, 349
cognitive intervention strategies, 345
developmental processes, 342–43
developmental regulation, 342
developmental transitions, 343
ethnic identity exploration, 339–40
identity formation, 337–38, 349
identity interventions, 339–40, 349–50
identity styles, 340
Latinos, 347, 349
life goals, 345, 346, 349–50
Native Americans, 340
personal expressiveness, 344
person-in-context principle, 338, 340
positive identity, 337
positive identity development, 337, 340–45, 349–50
positive youth development, 337–39
positive youth development programs, 339–40, 345–49
prevention, 340
principles, applications, 338–39, 342–43
progressive change, 340–43
(p. 579) self-actualization, 344
self-construction, 340, 343–45, 344f, 347
self-discovery, 340, 344, 344f, 345, 347, 350
self-regulation, 342
self-structure change, 342–43
self-transformative model, 343–45, 344f, 350
De Waal, F., 280
De Witte, H., 542
DeYoung, C. G., 500, 569
Dialogistic theories, 204–5
Diaries, 127, 143
Difference and sameness
belonging, group affiliation, 16
identity as tool, 11–12
role-identity theory, 15
self as social construct, 13–14
self-concept, 4, 12
self in social interaction, 14, 85
social identity theory, 4, 15, 16–17, 566
stigma theory, 14–15
structural symbolic interactionism, 15–16
symbolic interactionism, 14
terminology, 12
Diffusion
adolescents, 56–57, 60, 61
adulthood, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75
characteristics, definitions, 18, 56–57, 61, 68, 117, 134, 200, 201, 250, 270, 476, 477, 492
classification, 100–102, 100t
developmental changes meta analyses, 60, 61
dynamic systems theory, 139
ethnic identity, 261
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 549–50
identity development as process, 117
identity maturation, 477–78
identity trajectories, 142–43, 145n4
integrative identity model, 104
internalizing symptoms, 549
lifespan identity development, 82, 87
modern concepts of, 540, 545
psychometric studies, 138
racial/ethnic identity development, 20
systonic pole of identity diffusion, 116–17
DiLorenzo, M. L., 262
Dilthey, W., 13, 151, 189
Dimensions of Identity Development Scale (DIDS), 104, 547, 555n1
Discontinuity
autobiographical reasoning, 153–54, 159–60, 162, 171, 177, 185
lifespan identity development, 85
Discrimination, 14–15, 251, 253, 288–92, 302–10
Discursive positioning, 212, 214–15, 222–25, 230–34
Divorce
adjustment, 457, 462–65
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 464–65
attachments, 455, 458–59, 464
behavioral patterns, 457
child custody, 460
cohabitation, 455
conflict, 459, 466
coping strategies, 455
custodial parent, 460–62
disillusionment, 457–58, 461
early childhood impacts, 464
ethnic identity, 455
family structure, 466
identity coherence, 455
identity profiles, 465
interactionism, 456
intimacy effects, 455, 458–59, 462–65
moratorium, 458
non-custodial parent, 461–62
nontraditional parenting roles, 462
overburdened child syndrome, 464
parenting (see parenting)
parenting identity, 455, 459–62
privacy, 463
psychosocial theory, 456
repartnering, remarriage, 462–63
role salience, centrality, 456, 460, 462
selection effect, 457
self-concept, 455–56, 464
separate togetherness, 463
trust issues, 3, 462–63
Domino, G., 76, 77
Donenberg, G., 550
Du Bois, W. E. B., 26n1, 85
Dumas, T. M., 497
Dunlop, W. L., 550
DuPont, S., 254
Duriez, B., 542
Dynamic systems theory
applications, 124
context, 125
developmental time scale, 122–23
feedback loops, 123–24
iterativity, 123, 123f
principles, 122–24, 123f, 126
real-time interactions, 123, 123f
top-down processes, 123
Ebbinghaus, H., 152
Eccles, J. S., 447–48, 481, 485
Edwards, D., 215
Ego identity, 3–4, 14–15, 17, 66, 82, 100, 510, 566
Ego Identity Process Questionnaire, 102, 546, 548
Eichas, K., 7, 340, 347, 564
Elder, G. R., 465
Ellemers, N., 326
Ellison, N. B., 509
Embodied narration, 172–76, 189
Emerging adulthood theory, 6, 53–54. see also adolescence/emerging adulthood
The Emerging Identity Project, 41, 43, 45
Erikson, J. M., 67, 73, 76, 77
Espinosa, C., 254
Essentialism, 156, 159, 198, 202–3, 306
Ethnic identity. see racial/ethnic identity
Eudaimonic identity theory, 197, 202–3, 242, 541–42, 551
European Americans, 299, 444
European Union, 324, 332–33
Eurostat, 324, 332–33
Existentialism, 198, 204–5
Exploration
body image, 407–8
in breadth, 103, 104, 118, 126
identity development as process, 116–19
identity status, 133–35, 137–38
identity status model, 100, 100t, 102, 103, 117, 200–201, 250, 270, 476
in-depth, 103, 104, 118, 126
integrative identity model (Schachter), 234, 239–40
openness to experience, 99, 101, 105–6, 491, 500–501
personality development, 492–96, 495f, 499, 500
ruminative, 103, 104, 118, 135, 161, 395, 501, 543, 545
school, schooling, 302
vocational, 322, 324
(p. 580) Exploratory-accommodative approach, 498–99
Extended Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status (EOM-EIS), 102, 106, 108
Fadjukoff, P., 72
Family relationships
collaborative vs. individually centered families, 42–43
cultural neuroscience, 433
divorce, 466
family narrative interaction, 42
identity status model, 548–49
interaction styles, 210–11
parenting, 440, 548
reminiscing, 36–37, 42–43
risk, resilience, 481–83
trust issues, 3, 462–63
work identity, 329
Ferguson, G. M., 410
Ferrari, J. R., 143
Ferrer-Wreder, L, 339, 347
Ferro, A., 154
Fhagen-Smith, P. E., 259–60
Figueredo, A. J., 77
Fika model, 6, 563
Fischer, M. M. J., 263
Five-factor theory, 491, 494
Fivush, R., 6, 35, 36, 82, 83, 90, 159, 217
Flum, H., 6, 117
Fordham, S., 290, 304, 305
Foreclosure
adaptive resources, 486
adolescents, 56, 60, 61
adulthood, 68, 69–72, 74, 75
characteristics, definitions, 18, 56, 61, 68, 117, 133, 200, 201, 250, 270, 476, 477, 492
classification, 100–102, 100t
context, 478–79
developmental, 117
developmental changes meta analyses, 60, 61, 108–9
dynamic systems theory, 139
ethnic identity, 261
firm foreclosures, 117
identity development as process, 117
identity maturation, 477–78
identity trajectories, 142
integrative identity model, 104
internalizing symptoms, 549
lifespan identity development, 82, 87
normative identity style, 441
psychometric studies, 138
racial/ethnic identity development, 20
three-factor model, 106, 107, 107t, 125
well-being, 481
Foucault, M., 24
Fournier, M. A., 160
Franklin, Benjamin, 91–92
Fraser, E., 103
Freeman, M., 7, 190
Freire, P., 345, 346
French, S. E., 262
Freud, S., 54, 198
Friedan, E., 327
Frisby, C. L., 251, 255
Frisén, A., 102, 134, 144, 407–8, 417, 548
Fuligni, A. J., 447–48
Furlong, A., 534
Fursternberg, F. F., Jr., 461
Gandhi, Mohandes, 3, 53, 89–90, 92
Garbarino, J., 372, 379–80
García-Coll, C., 279
Garfinkel, H., 213
Garmezy, N., 472
Garofalo, R., 550
Gee, J. P., 240
Gendered narrative identity. see also narrative identity
adolescence (see adolescence)
autobiographical voice, 35, 40, 48–49
autonomy, achievement themes, 45
body image, 407, 410–11, 416–17
collaborative vs. individually centered families, 42–43
elaborative reminiscing, 38–42, 39t, 48
emotional reminiscing, 38–42, 39t, 48
family narrative interaction, 42
family reminiscing, 36–37, 42–43
feminist theory, 36–37, 48
gender conceptualization, 34
gender differences, 36–43, 39t
gendered identity, family reminiscing in, 42–43
gendered personal narratives emergence, 41
gender roles, 34, 37
intergenerational narratives, 41–42, 45–49, 46–47t
landscape of consciousness, 35, 37–38
language, 35
literacy, 35
parent-preschool reminiscing, gender differences in, 38–40, 39t
parent reminiscing style generally, 37–38, 48
power relationships, 36–37
preadolescence, family reminiscing in, 42–43
role in identity development generally, 33–34
role of narrative, 35–36
self-concept emergence, parental reminiscing style in, 40–41, 48–49
self-continuity, 34
social, affiliation themes, 45
sociocultural theory, 35–36, 49
voice and silence, 36–37
Gender identity analysis, 218–21, 223, 239
Gender intensification hypothesis, 393–94, 400
Gergen, K. J., 24, 141, 154, 184, 205, 213
Gerson, K., 329–30
Ghavami, N., 274, 280–81
Ghisletta, P., 359
Gibson, M. A., 308
Gillen, M., 8
Glenberg, A. M., 176
Globalization in identity development, 58–60, 293, 566
Goffman, E., 14–15, 154, 529
Gonzalez, E., 8
Goodnow, J. J., 291
Goossens, L., 110, 118, 121, 496, 500–501, 543, 549
Grabe, S., 413
Grant, L., 273
Gray, M. L., 514
Green, K. E., 108
Greene, S. M., 463
Greenhoot, A. F., 502
Grotevant, H. D., 19, 210–11, 495f, 502, 541
Growing Up Today Study, 411
Gutmann, A., 24
Habermas, T., 7, 156, 183–87, 189, 361, 567, 571
Hadassah, 242–43
Hagit, 243
Hale, W. W., III, 109, 550
Hale-Benson, J., 257
Hall, G. S., 18
Hammack, P. L., 9, 63, 91, 141, 288, 358, 363, 366, 372, 373, 384, 567
Hannah, M. T., 77
Harada, T., 8, 427
Harbus, A., 13
Hare, J., 303
Harré, R., 154, 215
Hart, B. I., 395
Harter, S., 61, 84–85, 395
Haslam, S. A., 326
Hauser, S. T., 486
Heer, J., 517
Helms, J. E., 20–21, 252t, 253, 259
Helson, R., 72, 73, 74
Hendrickson, R., 77
Hermans, H. J. M., 205
Herrick, A., 550
Hewitt, J. P., 529
(p. 581) Heyman, R. E., 356
Hidalgo, N. D., 308
Hill, J. P., 393
Hill, P. L., 542
Hispanics. see Latina/Latino
Hoare, C. H., 67
Hogan, B., 512
Hohmann-Marriott, B., 457
Hollway, W., 215
Hopper, J., 458
Horney, K., 202
Hoyt, T., 554
Hume, D., 13
Hybrid identity, 59–60, 293–94
Hyde, J. S., 413
Ideal Worker Norm, 328–30
Identities in Talk (Antaki/Widdicombe), 216
Identity: Youth and Crisis (Erikson), 53, 199, 272, 287
Identity capital model, 542
Identity consolidation, 550, 551
Identity crisis, 17–18, 53–54, 56, 58, 61–62, 100–101, 100t, 116–17, 301, 339, 393, 476, 480
Identity development as process. see also dynamic systems theory; integrative identity model; three-factor model
accommodation, 121–22, 121f
adulthood, 69
analysis limitations, 129
analysis techniques, 127–29, 128f
autonomy, 124
class analyses, 125
commitments, 116–20
context, 120
coping strategies, 119–20
cycles, 121–22, 121f
data collection, 125–27
developmental foreclosures, 117
developmental processes, 117
development of commitments, 120
diaries, 127, 143
diffusion, 117
dynamic systems, 119
ergodicity, 124
exploration, 116–19
firm foreclosures, 117
foreclosures, 117
identification, 116
identity crisis, 17–18, 53–54, 56, 58, 61–62, 100–101, 100t, 116–17, 301, 339, 393, 476, 480
identity interviews, 125–27, 137
interactional process (see interactional process)
intraindividual variability, 124, 127–29
introjection, 116
mechanisms, 121–22, 121f, 569
microlevel processes, 120
quantitative dynamic modeling, 129
reconsideration of commitment, 104–6, 109, 118, 120, 143, 476, 543
shifts, sequences, 117–18, 120–21
standard deviations, 127–28, 128f
State Space Grid (SSG), 128
storytelling, 127
systonic pole of identity diffusion, 116–17
time series analyses, 124–28, 128f
trajectories, 122
trajectory analysis, 125–26
trajectory changes, 128
withdrawal, 121–22, 121f
Identity development generally
concepts, definitions, 540–41, 552, 567–69
content of identity, 4–5, 120, 569–71
correlates, 548–50
critical analyses vs. theories, 528–29
culture, conceptualization of, 7
development vs. socialization, 529
ego identity, 3–4, 14–15, 17, 66, 82, 100, 510, 566
epistemological divide, 531
extensions argument, 8–9
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 549–50
healthy identity functions, 551
identity consolidation, 550, 551
identity maintenance, 529
identity synthesis, 4
individual/subjective focus, 534–35, 534t
interdisciplinary approach to, 530–31, 536
internalizing symptoms, 549
internal vs. external, 7
model integration, 550–52
non-normative, 534–35, 534t
normative, 534–35, 534t
personal identity, 3–4, 15
personality functioning, 8–9
perspectives, 531–35, 534t
post modernism, 530–31
process and content, 4
psychosexual theory, 54
psychosocial stages, 17–18, 116, 133, 136, 150–51
pubertal timing in, 8, 17, 390–92, 396, 397, 400, 401, 411–12
risk and resilience, 8
social identity theory, 4, 15, 16–17, 566
social/interactional focus, 534, 534t
stages, 529
tensions in perspectives, 565–67
trust in caregiver as basis of, 3, 462–63
Identity interviews, 125–27, 137
Identity measures generally
applications, 545–46
domain specificity, 546–47
identity interviews, 125–27, 137
participant classification, 547–48
quantitative dynamic modeling, 129
self-report questionnaires, 102–3, 134, 136–37, 140, 143–44, 145n2
standard deviations, 127–28, 128f
State Space Grid (SSG), 128
Identity politics, 23–24, 372
Identity process models, 103
Identity Status Interview, 60, 61, 68, 101–3, 125, 134, 137, 477, 546
Identity status model
achievement (see achievement)
alienated achievement, 137
antecedent conditions, 60
applications, 70–71
belonging, group affiliation, 139
classification, 99–100, 102, 134, 136–37, 142, 145n2
commitment, 98, 100, 100t, 102, 103, 117, 133–38, 200, 201, 250, 270, 476
concepts, definitions, 133, 136, 137
concurrent personality variables, 60
congruency, 111
consequent conditions, 60
context, 135, 138–40
critiques of, 19, 60–61, 543–44
described, 3–5, 18–19
developing vs. developed countries, 57–59, 63
developmental assumptions testing, 108–9
developmental trajectories, 109–10
diffusion (see diffusion)
dual-cycle process, 18–19, 103, 105, 118–19, 122
ego identity, 3–4, 14–15, 17, 66, 82, 100, 510, 566
epigenetic theory, 100
ethnic identity, 261
evolutive identity, 137
exploration, 100, 100t, 102, 103, 117, 133–35, 137–38, 200–201, 250, 270, 476
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 549–50
family relationships, 548–49
fidelity, 139
foreclosure (see foreclosure)
globalization in identity development, 58–60, 293, 566
(p. 582) group-centered model, 136–38
identity confusion, 132, 133, 138, 142
identity crisis, 17–18, 53–54, 56, 58, 61–62, 100–101, 100t, 116–17, 301, 339, 393, 476, 480
identity formation, 134–38, 144, 145n1
identity interviews, 125–27, 137
identity process models, 103
identity resolution, 138
identity style, 19
identity vs. identity confusion, 100, 132
I/me distinction, 197, 200–201
individuality, 135, 138–40
integrative identity model (see integrative identity model)
internalizing symptoms, 549
intraindividual changes, 139
lifespan identity development, 82–84, 88, 92
lifespan theory, 6, 61–62
longitudinal studies, 108–10, 138, 140–41
meta-analyses, 60–61, 108–9, 142
methodology, 98–101
modernization of, 539–40
moratorium (see moratorium)
narrative inquiry, 137, 139–41
personality development, 490, 492–96, 495f
personal vs. master narrative, 63, 91, 288, 358, 363, 366, 503, 567
person-centered approach applications, 100, 104, 107–8, 110
person-centered approach characteristics, 98–99, 134
phylogenetic history, 54–56
process models, 134–35
process vs. persons, 6, 19
psychometric studies, 137–38
self-report questionnaires, 102–3, 134, 136–37, 140, 143–44, 145n2
three-factor model (see three-factor model)
thrill of dissonance diffusions, 137
trajectories, 137–39, 141–42
validation testing, 137
variable-centered approach applications, 100, 104, 107–8, 110, 137
variable-centered approach characteristics, 98–99, 134
well-being, 549
Identity Style Measure, 76
Identity styles model
coping strategies, 119–20
developmental intervention science, 340
diffuse/avoidant style, 201, 541
identity formation processes, 202
I/me distinction, 197, 201–2
information-oriented style, 119, 201, 541
model integration, 551
modern concepts of, 541
normative oriented, 119, 201–2, 541
outcomes, 541
principles, 119, 201–2
social environment in, 202
Identity vs. role confusion, 3, 66–68, 72, 75–77, 87
I/me distinction
aptitudes, 203
ascription, 197–98, 206
authenticity, 203
autobiographical reasoning, 187, 204, 570–71
choice, 206
concepts, definitions, 197–99
content/process correlations, 206
dialogistic theories, 204–5
difference and sameness, 14
essentialism, 156, 159, 198, 202–3, 306
eudaimonic identity theory, 197, 202–3, 242, 541–42, 551
existentialism, 198, 204–5
identification, 206
identity concepts, definitions, 195–96
identity status model, 197, 200–201
identity style paradigm, 197, 201–2
internal, external, interactional processes, 195–97
lifespan identity development, 82, 84–85, 88–90, 92
mind–body dualism, 198
narrative identity model, 21, 22, 82, 197, 203–4
parenting, 441–42
post-modern/social constructionist theory, 205–6
potentials, 202–3
psychosocial theory, 197, 199–200
self as object, 198
self-awareness, 207
self-concordance, 203
self-definition, 198, 203, 207
self-discovery, self-realization, 202–3
self-reflection, 204
social context, 197, 204
well-being, 203, 206–7
Individuality, style of, 85, 86, 92
Integrative identity model (Luyckx)
applications, 110
assessment methodology, 103–4
commitment making, 103, 104, 118, 119, 126
dual cycles, 18–19, 103, 105, 118–19, 122
exploration in breadth, 103, 104, 118, 126
exploration in-depth, 103, 104, 118, 126
identification with commitment, 103, 104, 126
limitations, 135
person-centered studies, 104
principles, 103–4, 118, 135, 543–44
ruminative exploration, 103, 104, 118, 135, 161, 395, 501, 543, 545
sequences, 118
validation, 118, 543–44
variable-centered studies, 104, 118
Integrative identity model (Schachter)
accountable identity claims, 230–34, 240–43
antithetical approach, 229–30
ascriptions, 233–34
big vs. small stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
commitment, 234
consistency constraint, 242–43
context, 238–40
discursive identity, 230–34
disjunctive approach, 229–30
ego-identity status theory, 232, 234, 238–40
eudaimonic identity theory, 197, 202–3, 242, 541–42, 551
exploration, 234, 239–40
external discursive site, 234–38, 235f
I/me distinction, 236, 238, 240
interactional discursive site, 234–38, 235f
internal approach, 231
internal discursive site, 234–38, 235f
justification, 229–30
language, 237
lifespan identity formation, 239–40
positioning (see positioning)
principles, 230–32
psychosocial theory, 231–32
role collaboration, 233–34
self-affirmation, 234
self-reflexivity, 232–33
semiotic mediation, 230
shared symbolism, 236
sites of discursive claims, 234–38, 235f
validation of identity claims, 233, 235–37, 240–43
Interactional processes
ascriptions, 213–14, 217
concepts, definitions, 212, 229
crisis of representation, 213
developmental contextual model, 211
discursive positioning, 212, 214–15, 222–25
dualistic metaphysics, 213
(p. 583) epistemic discursive psychology, 215, 217–18
ethnomethodology, 212–14, 222
factors-and-variables approach, 224
family interaction styles, 210–11
identity development as generally, 120–21, 210–12, 221–25
interior phenomena, 223–24
language, 212–13
limitations, 223–25
microgenesis, 212, 224
microinteractional contexts, 211
narrative identity, 211
positioning (see positioning)
relationality, 213
research methodology, 224
social action, 214
social constructionism, 212–13, 221–22
social epistemology, 213
social identity theory, 211
social-structural identity capital model, 211
Intergenerational narratives, 41–42, 45–49, 46–47t
Intergenerational Study, 71–72
Intersectionality
concepts, definitions, 552–55, 555n2
cultural stereotypes, 274–76, 280–81, 289, 291–94, 553–54
ethnic identity, 553–54
storytelling, 554
Inventory of Psychosocial Balance, 76
Israelis, 91, 141, 288, 370–73
Jaccard, J., 395
Jahromi, P., 108
James, J. B., 77
James, W., 11–15, 17, 21–23, 82, 86, 87, 152, 153, 187, 195, 197, 204, 205, 233, 441, 442
Japan, 331
Jensen, L. A., 63
Johnson, M. K., 322
Jones, L., 376
Jordaan, J. P., 322
Josselson, R., 6, 72, 101–2, 110, 125, 138, 140–43, 145n4
Juang, L. P., 446
Kağitçibași, C., 478
Kakihara, F., 447
Kant, I., 13
Kanter, R. M., 329
Kaplan, B., 342
Kasmark, A., 7, 564
Kazdin, A. E., 365
Keijsers, L., 107, 543
Kelley, W. M., 425
Kernberg, O., 142
Kerpelman, J. L., 340, 541
Kiesling, C., 547
Kim, S. Y., 553
King, E. W., 252, 252t
Kinney, D. A., 482
Kitayama, S., 426
Kitzinger, C., 214, 215, 216, 217
Kivnick, H. Q., 67
Klimstra, T. A., 109, 120, 125, 126, 542, 550
Knight, G. P., 260
Köber, C., 7, 183–87, 189, 571
Koepke, S., 483
Kohlberg, L., 54
Kohn, M., 327
Koivisto, P., 486
Kokko, K., 72
Konik, J., 503
Koot, H. M., 550
Koreans, 89
Korobov, N., 126, 127, 171, 228–30, 234, 236, 239, 240, 570
Kostelny, K., 372, 379–80
Kraus, W., 141
Kroger, J., 6, 60, 61, 73–74, 83, 86, 87, 92, 108, 117, 129, 139, 140, 143, 242, 546–47, 567, 569
Kunnen, S., 6, 73, 121, 122, 126, 128, 129, 133, 135, 136, 139–41, 143, 145n2, 569
Kurtines, W., 7
Laclau, E., 215
Ladner, J. A., 280
Lagattuta, K. H., 443, 450
Lam, J., 8
Lamont, M., 327–29
Lapsley, D. K., 447
Lardi Robyn, C., 359
Latina/Latino
cultural stereotypes, 273–74, 290, 292
culture as ethnicity, 253, 290
developmental intervention science, 347, 349
identity confusion, 549–50
lifespan identity development, 85
Lavner, J. A., 457
La Voie, J C., 73
Lawford, H., 497
Leary, M., 5
Lee, S. J., 278
Lee, S-R., 8
Lerner, J. V., 446
Leve, L., 8
Levine, C. G., 19, 230, 241, 530
Lewin, K., 240
Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., 124, 125
Lifespan identity development
achievement, 82, 87
agency, 89, 145n2
autobiographical authors, 81–83, 89–92
autobiographical memory, 82, 89–91
autobiographical reasoning, 90–91, 190
avoidance goals, 89
bicultural identity integration, 85
class, ethnicity effects, 85, 91
cultural effects, 82–83, 89, 91–92
developmental shifts, 89
diffusion, 82, 87
discontinuity, 85
ego identity, 3–4, 14–15, 17, 66, 82, 100, 510, 566
elaboration in reminiscing, 90
emotion in reminiscing, 90
fidelity, 82, 87, 92
foreclosure, 82, 87
gender differences, 85, 90
generalized other, 84
goals, 84, 88, 89
identity concepts, 81–83
identity status, 82–84, 88, 92 (see also identity status model)
identity vs. role confusion, 87
I/me distinction, 82, 84–85, 88–90, 92
integrative identity model (Schachter), 239–40
life story model, 89
master narratives, 63, 91, 288, 358, 363, 366, 503, 567
maturation, 86
moratorium, 82, 87
motivated agents, 81, 83, 86–89, 92
narrative identity, 89–92 (see also narrative identity model)
operational thought, 88
personality change, 86, 87–88, 91
possible selves concept, 88–89
principles, 6, 61–62, 81, 92
redemptive narratives, 91, 161, 358–59
reputations, 84–86, 88
roles, 84–86, 88
self-continuity, 83–86
self-recognition, 84, 89, 91
self-storytelling, 90
social actors, 81–86, 92
social context, 87
story grammar, 90
style of individuality, 85, 86, 92
traits, 84–86
values, 88
Life story schema, 149, 154–59, 162, 166, 167, 183–86, 476–77, 545
Lifton, R. J., 205
Lilgendahl, J. P. (nee Pals), 8, 22, 127, 154, 161, 485, 491–94, 495f, 497, 499, 501, 545, 565
(p. 584) Linde, C., 157
Locke, J., 13, 152, 167
Lodi-Smith, J., 498
Loevinger, J., 75, 494
Lombardo, J. P., 393
Lukacher, N., 183
Luther, Martin, 53, 54, 87, 89–90, 92
Luyckx, K., 5, 103–4, 109, 110, 118, 121, 124–26, 135, 496, 500–501, 542, 543, 545, 547, 549, 552
Lynch, C. I., 257
Lynch, M. E., 393
MacIntyre, A., 151, 183
Mackavey, W. R., 158
MacLeod, J., 280
Madden-Derdich, D. A., 459
Magnusson, D., 99, 398
Major, B., 34
Malley, J., 158
Manago, A., 9, 566
Mandler, J. M., 90
Mansfield, C. D., 160–61, 359
Mansour, E., 157, 544
Marcia, J. E., 2, 17, 18, 56, 60, 61, 67, 68, 70–71, 75, 76, 77, 83, 87, 88, 98, 100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 108, 111, 115–18, 117, 120, 126, 133–34, 140, 143, 200, 201, 250, 270, 287, 288, 348, 356, 357, 465, 476, 492, 500, 543, 544, 546, 567
Marital dissolution. see divorce
Markey, C. N., 407
Marks, S. R., 332
Markus, H., 88–89
Markus, H. R., 426
Marshall, S. K., 551
Martinussen, M., 108, 117, 143, 567
Marwick, A. E., 519
Maslow, A. H., 202
Master narratives, 63, 91, 288, 358, 363, 366, 503, 567
Mathur, V. A., 429
McAdams, D. P., 2, 3, 6, 12, 21, 22, 62, 69–70, 89, 91, 151, 158, 161, 167, 356, 357, 476, 491–94, 495f, 498, 499, 532, 544, 545, 549, 565, 567, 570
McCall, G. J., 15
McCouch, R. J., 377
McCrae, R. R., 491
McKinney, J. P., 446
McLean, K. C., 22, 72, 127, 140, 142, 154, 160–61, 359, 366, 496, 497, 501, 502, 544, 565, 570
McLuhan, M., 508
McWhorter, J., 255, 256, 288
Mead, G. H., 11, 12–18, 22, 23, 84, 228, 231, 236, 237, 529
Meaning-making. see also autobiographical reasoning
narrative identity model, 544–45
personality development, 493, 496–98
political conflict, 375–77, 382–83
puberty, 391
Measham, T., 375, 383
Meca, A., 7
Meeus, W. H. J., 6, 19, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 117, 118, 125, 133–37, 139, 211, 261, 476, 543, 545, 547, 550, 551
Merrill, N. A., 159
Metz, M., 6, 133, 135, 136, 139–41, 143
Mexican Americans, 85
Miller, J., 416
Misra, S., 516
Missotten, L., 110
Molenaar, P. C. M., 124
Montgomery, M. J., 7, 547, 553
Moratorium
adolescents, 17–18, 56, 60, 61
adulthood, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75
characteristics, definitions, 18, 56, 61, 68, 117, 133–34, 200, 201, 250, 270, 476, 477, 492, 494–96
classical vs. searching, 106, 107, 107t, 125, 543–44
classification, 100–102, 100t
developmental changes meta analyses, 60, 61
divorce, 458
dynamic systems theory, 139
emerging adulthood, 494–96
ethnic identity, 261
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 549–50
identity maturation, 477–78
identity trajectories, 142, 143
integrative identity model, 104
lifespan identity development, 82, 87
psychometric studies, 138
racial/ethnic identity development, 20
searching, 106, 107, 107t, 125, 543–44
three-factor model, 106–7, 107t, 135
Moratorium-achievement moratorium-achievement (MAMA cycles), 68, 129
Mortimer, J. T., 8, 322
Motivated agents, 81, 83, 86–89, 92
Motti, F., 8
Mouffe, C., 215
Mrazek, A., 8
Multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI), 20, 258
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), 254, 261
Murray, Henry, 2
Mustanski, B., 550
Naoi, N., 432
Narrative identity model
adulthood, 69–70, 72
agency, 361, 364
autobiographical memory, 23, 82, 357–58, 358f
autobiographical reasoning, 167–69, 184–89, 476 (see also autobiographical reasoning)
big stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
conceptual self (tacit themes of narratives), 153
contamination stories, 359, 366
cultural, political situatedness, 23
culture effects, 358
depression studies, 359–60
development as interpretive process, 21
domain-specificity, 547
evidence-based identity therapy, 355–56
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 550
gendered identity in, 43–48, 44–47t (see also gendered narrative identity)
hierarchical model, 357, 358f
identity configuration, 22
I/me distinction, 21, 22, 82, 197, 203–4
interactional processes, 211
internalizing symptoms, 549
language in, 23
lifespan identity development, 89–92
life-story construction, 21–22, 358, 361, 364–66
master narratives, 63, 91, 288, 358, 363, 366, 503, 567
meaning-making, 544–45
narrative coherence, 361
personality development, 490, 492–94, 495f, 496–99, 503
principles, 69–70, 356–59, 358f, 544–45
processes, 5, 355
psychotherapy, 356, 361–66
redemptive narratives, 91, 161, 358–59
scripts, 358, 360–61
self as actor, 22
self as agent, 22
self as author, 22
self as social construct, 23
self-defining memories, 358–60, 362–64
self-reflection, 204
small stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
(p. 585) tacit themes, 169–70, 188
theories generally, 21–23, 532
translational research, 356–57, 364
well-being, 361, 549
Nasir, N., 272, 273, 276
Native Americans, 253, 290, 340
Natsuaki, M., 8
Negro-to-black conversion (nigrescence), 20
Nelson, K., 2, 35
Neuroplasticity, 425, 428, 431
Neuroticism, 86, 491, 492, 496–98, 501, 504, 505
Nguyen, A. M. D., 273
Nichter, M., 417
Nietzsche, F., 183
Nigrescence theory, 258–60, 290
Nord, C. W., 461
Norton, D. L., 202
Nucci, L., 443
Nurius, P., 88–89
Nurmi, J. -E., 486
Obama, Barack, 132, 136, 139, 141, 143, 544
Objectification, 408, 416, 417
Objectification theory, 409–10
Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (OM-EIS), 140–41
Occupational identity. see work identity
Occupy Movement, 291, 332
Ogbu, J. U., 290, 300, 304, 305, 481
Olivardia, R., 410
Olmedo, E., 261
Olsen, J. A., 372
Openness to experience, 99, 101, 105–6, 491, 500–501
Optimal distinctiveness theory, 292–93
Ostrove, J. M., 72, 74
Owens, T. J., 12
Oyserman, D., 273
Pacific Islanders, 275, 277, 290, 302
Packer, M., 212
Paha, C., 156
Palestinians, 24, 91, 141, 370–73
Palkovitz, R., 76
Parenting
adaptive control patterns, 446–47
African-Americans, 444, 447, 450
agency, 437, 440, 444, 483
autonomy vs. authority, 8, 438, 440–50
body image, 414–15, 417
childhood vs. adolescence, 437–40, 442–45
conflict outcomes, 445–48
conventional domain, 439–41
decision-making control, 446–48
domain-specific explanations, 446–47
ethnic identity, 443–44, 447, 450
European-Americans, 444
family relationships, 440, 548
identity development, 437–39
I/me distinction, 441–42
interdependencies, coordinations, 449
maladaptive control patterns, 447–48
moral domain/identity, 439–40, 443
parental control, 449–51
parental overcontrol, 447–48, 483
parental undercontrol, 448, 483
parent–child relationships, 438, 445–49, 548
parent-preschool reminiscing, gender differences in, 38–40, 39t
parent reminiscing style generally, 37–38, 48
peer advice seeking, 448
peer orientation, 448
personal domain, 439, 441–45, 448–50
psychological control, 447
psychological domain, 439
secrecy vs. disclosure, 445
self-concept, 437–39, 441, 444
social-cognitive domain theory, 449
social domain theory, 439, 449
social interactions, 437, 443
styles in risk, resilience, 483
Passeron, C., 302
Pasupathi, M., 7, 22, 127, 153, 154, 157, 183, 186–90, 366, 373, 496, 501, 544, 554, 570
Pennebaker, J. W., 91
Peplau, L. A., 274, 280–81
Perkins, T. S., 292
Personal identity
cultural stereotypes, 270, 279, 280, 287–88, 566
development generally, 3–4, 15
exploration in school, 302
lifespan development, 86, 87–88, 91
personal vs. master narrative, 63, 91, 288, 358, 363, 366, 503, 567
Personality development
accommodation, 493, 498–99
adjustment, 498–99
adjustment trajectory, 494–99, 495f
agency, 493
autobiographical reasoning, 493
coherence, complexity, 493
commitment, 492–97, 495f, 499
communion, 493
context, 493, 504
culture, 503, 504
cumulative continuity model, 491–92, 494
emerging adulthood, 492, 494–97, 499, 501
ethnic identity, 503–4
exploration, 492–96, 495f, 499, 500
exploratory-accommodative approach, 498–99
extroversion vs. introversion, 501–2
five-factor theory, 491, 494
identity concepts, definitions, 490–91
identity configurations, 503–4
identity conflict, 503–5
identity intersections, 502–5
identity processes, 491–94, 495f
identity status approach, 490, 492–96, 495f
maturity, 494–99, 495f
maturity trajectory, 494
meaning-making, 493, 496–98
memory, 497, 501–3
midlife, 494–99, 495f
narrative identity approach, 490, 492–94, 495f, 496–99, 503
neuroticism, 86, 491, 492, 496–98, 501, 504, 505
openness to experience, 99, 101, 105–6, 491, 500–501
personality as characteristic adaptations, 492–93
personality as traits, 491–92
plasticity, 500–502, 569
positive, negative events, 494–99, 495f
redemption, contamination, 493
resolution, 493, 496–99
self-change vs. self-stability, 493, 496
self-transformation, 493–94, 498–99
sentence completion test, 494
social relationships, 496–98, 501–2
traits as moderators, 500–505
transformational processing, 498–99
well-being, 497–98
Peter, J., 513–14, 517
Pfeifer, J. H., 428
Phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (P-VEST), 272
Philippe, F. L., 170
Phillips, K. A., 410
Philogène, G., 263
Phinney, J. S., 20, 252t, 253, 254, 261–62, 553, 570
Piaget, J., 54, 121, 258, 569
Pittinsky, T. L., 257
Plasticity
neuroplasticity, 425, 428, 431
personality development, 500–502, 569
Pleydell-Pearce, C. W., 153
Political conflict
adaptive processes, 373, 379–80
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 370–81
agency, 374–76, 440
Bosnian youth, 375–77, 381
collective identity abandonment, 377–78, 381
Colombia, 377–80
coping strategies, 373–75, 378–80, 382–84
dehumanization, 373
delegitimization, 371, 372
discrimination, 380–81
emotional detachment, 374–75
essentialized identities, 378–82
goals, emotions, and cognitions, 374–75
group identity, 371–73
identity development, 369–70, 373–77, 382–84
immigrants, refugees, 380–82
ingroup bias, 370–73, 382
Israelis, 91, 141, 288, 370–73
meaning-making, 375–77, 382–83
meaning-making capacity disruption, 374–75
multiple identities, 380–81
narratives, 374, 382, 383
Palestinians, 24, 91, 141, 370–73
polarized collective identities, 370–75, 381
powerlessness, 376–77, 381
psychological avoidance, numbing, 373–75, 378–79
psychosocial impacts, 369–70, 377–80
self as agent, 369–70
Serbian youth, 376
societal beliefs, 371–73
therapeutic interventions, 383–84
trauma, 374, 383
victimization, 376–77
violent acts, 376–81
war, 375–81
Pope, H. G., 410
Popovska, A., 360
Positioning
applications, 217–18, 222–23
discursive, 212, 214–15, 222–25, 230–34
discursive generally, 214–15, 222–25
gender identity analysis, 218–21, 223, 239
identities analysis, 215–17
membership categories, 216–17
in narratives, 171–72
practices, 216–17
relational, 170–72, 188–89
as second-order phenomena, 216
self-positioned resistance, 218–19, 223
speed-dating, 218–21, 223, 239, 240–41
validation of identity claims, 233, 235–37, 240–43
Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 3, 369, 374, 563–64
Potter, J., 215, 217
Pratt, M. M., 75–76, 140, 142
Pratt, M. W., 496, 497
Prebble, S. C., 152, 155
Project Competence study, 485
Promotive factors, 475, 484, 485
Protective factors, 475, 484, 485
Protestants, 370
Psychopathology internalization, 389–90, 392–401, 393f, 549
Pubertal timing, 8, 17, 390–92, 396, 397, 400, 401, 411–12
Puberty. see also body image
adrenarche, 390–91
adult-like behaviors, 398
adverse outcomes prevention, intervention, 398, 401
animal models, 396–97
anxiety, 389–90, 392, 394–97
biological definition, 390–91
biopsychosocial model, 392–99, 393f
body image, 397–98
cognitive shifts, 394
context, 393–94, 397–99
contextual amplification hypothesis, 398–99
coping strategies, 394–95, 397, 401
cortisol, 396
culture differences, 391, 395–96
depression, 389–90, 392, 394–97, 400
early maturation, 389–90, 392–99, 393f, 412
estrogen, estradiol, 396
false-self behaviors, 395
gender intensification hypothesis, 393–94, 400
gender role identity, 390, 392–96, 393f, 400–401
gonadarche, 390–91
identity crisis, 393
masculinity, 394–96
meaning-making, 391
menarche rites, 391
menstruation, 391
neuroendocrine systems, 390–91, 396–97
neuroimaging studies, 397
pituitary gland, 397
psychopathology internalization, 389–90, 392–401, 393f, 549
pubertal status, 391
pubertal tempo, 392
pubertal timing, 8, 17, 390–92, 396, 397, 400, 401, 411–12
puberty-initiated mediation hypothesis, 397
romantic relationships, 399–401
ruminative response style, 103, 104, 118, 135, 161, 395, 501, 543
self-silencing, 394–95, 400–401, 417
social reinforcement, 395–98, 400
stress regulation, 396–97, 400
testosterone, 397
victimization, 398
Pulkkinen, L., 72
Punamaki, R. L., 372
Puritans, 91–92
Q-sort, 72
Quantitative dynamic modeling, 129
Quijada, P. D., 251
Quintana, S. M., 447
Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., 109
Racial/ethnic identity. see also cultural stereotypes; culture as ethnicity
achievement, 20, 261
African-Americans, 20, 26n1
autonomy, 20
belonging, group affiliation, 20
body image, 413–14
centrality, 20
commitment outcomes, 547
culture as ethnicity, 254–55, 290
diffusion/foreclosure, 20
disintegration, 20
exploration, 339–40
externalizing, health risk behaviors, 549–50
ideology, 20
information processing approaches, 21
intersectionality, 553–54
lifespan development, 85, 289
models generally, 260–62
moratorium, 20
negative identity, 19
Negro-to-black conversion (nigrescence), 20
parenting, 443–44, 447, 450
profiles, 261–62, 288, 293–94
pseudo-independence, 20
racial identity models, 257–60
racial identity profiles, 259–60, 288, 293–94
racial socialization, 253, 260–61, 290
reintegration, 20
salience, 20
theories generally, 19–21
whites, 20–21
(p. 587) Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS), 259
Radmacher, K., 552
RAP Project, 282n1
Real-time interactions, 123, 123f
Recchia, H., 8
Reconsideration of commitment, 104–6, 109, 118, 120, 143, 476, 543, 545
Redemptive narratives, 91, 161, 358–59
Relational being, 24
Reminiscing. see storytelling
Remy, L., 8
Revill, J., 254
Ricciardelli, L. A., 413
Rice, Condoleeza, 255
Ricoeur, P., 149, 151, 158–59, 183, 188, 203
Risk, resilience
adaptation indices, 474–75
adaptive functioning, 475
adaptive history, 479–80
adolescent to adult transition, 484, 485
African-Americans, 481
agency, 473, 483, 485
autobiographical reasoning, 161, 476
concepts, principles, 474–75
context, 473, 478–79, 482
coping strategies, 484–85
dependence–independence, 478
developmental psychopathology, 472, 479
developmental tasks, 474–79
discrimination, 481
dissociation, 482
ethnic identity, 473, 477, 480
factors affecting, 475
family experiences, 481–83
identity as resource, 484–86
identity development, 473–79, 486
identity maturation, 477–78
identity synthesis vs. confusion, 476
immigrant paradox, 481
individualism–collectivism, 478
institutionalization, 482, 485
internal adaptation, 474
life story construction, 476–77
multifinality principle, 475, 480
narrative approach, 473–74, 476–77, 480–81, 484–86
parenting styles, 483
personal goals, 484
positive adaptation, 473, 474, 482–83
positive identity trajectories, outcome, 475–79
Project Competence study, 485
promotive factors, 475, 484, 485
protective factors, 475, 484, 485
research generally, 472–73
resources, 480, 482–86
risks generally, 480–82
school experiences, 482
self-concept, 476
self-continuity, 477, 485
self-esteem, 479–80
self-reflection, 483, 485
social relationships, 482, 485
societal-level variables, 481
status approach, 473–74, 476, 480, 486
zeitgeist, 473
Roberts, B. W., 73, 491–92, 494, 495f
Robins, R. W, 497
Robinson, T., 277, 281
Rogers, C. R., 202
Rogers, O., 7, 282n1, 286, 287, 291–93, 304, 566
Rogers, T. B., 425
Role-identity theory, 15
Rosenberg, M., 319, 320, 324, 331
Rote, W., 8, 565
Rousseau, C., 375, 383
Rubin, D. C., 162
Rubini, M., 550
Rumbaut, R. G., 300
Ruminative exploration, 103, 104, 118, 135, 161, 395, 501, 543, 545
Russians, 89
Rutter, M., 472
Sabik, N. J., 413
Sacks, H., 213, 234
Saini, M., 459
Sales, J. M., 159
Salgado, J., 205
Salmela-Aro, K., 486
Salmon, K., 161
Sam, D. L., 261–62
Sameroff, A. J., 481
Samuels, D., 8
Sanders, K., 254
Sankey, A. M., 140–41
Santos, C. E., 281
Sayer, A., 72, 74
Schachter, E., 7, 22, 143, 228–32, 287, 288, 503–4, 554
Schaefer, B. A., 259–60
Schechtman, M., 167
Schneider, B., 321
School, schooling
academic identities, 300
academic pipeline problem, 299–300, 310f, 311
accommodation without assimilation, 304
acting white, 304–6
affirmation, 302
African Americans, 299–302, 304–6
alienation/belonging, 300, 302–6
ambivalence, 304–5
Asian Americans, 299, 300, 302
aspirational capital, 302, 303, 311
assimilation, 300
Bridging Multiple Worlds model, 310–13, 310f
challenges, 300, 310, 311
Community Cultural Wealth framework, 302
continuity, cultural reproduction, 300
coping strategies, 302–6, 310–12
cultural, linguistic assimilation, 304
discrimination/stigma, 302–10
essentialism, 156, 159, 198, 202–3, 306
Ethnic Identity Scale, 302
European Americans, 299
exploration, 302
familial capital, 302, 303
gender differences, 299, 305, 306, 308
Indigenous Mexican immigrants, 303, 306–10
Latinos, 299, 300, 302–3, 305–11
linguistic capital, 302
mestizos, 307, 308, 311
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM-R), 302
narratives, 302–3
Native Americans, 299–302
navigational capital, 302
oppositional cultural frame of reference, 305
oppositional identities, 300
Pacific Islanders, 302
personal identity exploration, 302
policy, 307–10, 313–14
positive identity shift, 309
psychosocial theory, 301
race-ethnicity, 300, 304–6
resistance/opposition, 305
resistant capital, 302
resolution (commitment), 302
social capital theory, 291, 300, 302–3
social identities, 300–302, 308
tracking, 303
upward mobility resources, 302
Schooler, C., 327
Schouten, A. P., 513–14
Schwammlein, E., 511
Schwartz, S. J., 5, 9, 110, 210, 343–46, 467, 483, 500–501, 535, 541–43, 545, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555
Searching moratorium, 106, 107, 107t, 125, 543–44
Seaton, C. L., 76
Seaton, E. K., 261
(p. 588) Self-concept
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 40, 48–49, 59
autobiographical reasoning, 153
body image, 407
cultural stereotypes, 271–72, 276–77, 292
difference and sameness, 4, 12
divorce, 455–56, 464
emergence, parental reminiscing style in, 40–41, 48–49
parenting, 437–39, 441, 444
risk, resilience, 476
social networking sites, 510, 517
Self-construal theory, 424
Self-continuity
autobiographical reasoning, 150–62, 167, 184–89
cumulative continuity model, 491–92, 494
gendered narrative identity, 34
lifespan identity development, 83–86
risk, resilience, 477, 485
school, schooling, 300
Self-discrepancy theory, 408–9
Self-esteem
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 41–43, 56–57, 60
body image, 407, 411, 416
risk, resilience, 479–80
social networking sites, 517–19
Self-Examination Interview, 77
Self-report questionnaires, 102–3, 134, 136–37, 140, 143–44, 145n2
Self-silencing, 394–95, 400–401, 417
Self-transformation, 493–94, 498–99
Sellers, R. M., 20, 258, 261, 281
Sen, A., 24
Serafini, T., 551
Serbian youth, 376
Serpe, R. T., 236
Seventh Generation Program, 340
Sexualization, 410–11, 416
Shah, N., 272, 273, 276
Shakespeare, W., 84
Sherman, A. M., 416
Shih, M., 257
Shoda, Y., 356
Sica, L. S., 551
Siegel, P., 360–61
Silverman, W. K., 395
Simmons, J. L., 15
Singer, J. A., 7, 357, 359, 360, 366, 564
Sisters of Nia, 339–40
Sjomeling, M., 257
Skorikov, V. B., 320, 321, 325, 550
Slep, A. M., 356
Slone, M., 373
Small stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
Smetana, J. G., 8, 443, 446, 447, 565
Smith, V., 326
Sneed, J. R., 72, 74
Social actors, 81–86, 92
Social-cognitive domain theory, 449
Social comparison theory, 408
Social domain theory, 439, 449
Social identity, relationships. see also family relationships
culture as ethnicity, 250–51
identity styles model, 202
I/me distinction, 197, 204
lifespan identity development, 87
narrative identity model, 23
personality development, 496–98, 501–2
racial socialization, 253, 260–61, 290
risk, resilience, 482, 485
social networking sites, 515
Social identity theory, 4, 15, 16–17, 566
Social networking sites
agency, 508–9
alternative perspectives, 514
autonomy, 510–12, 516–17
bridging social capital, 514–15
concepts, definitions, 509–10
content communities, 509
context collapse, 519
customized sociality, 512–17
displacement hypothesis, 512
extroversion vs. introversion, 518
Facebook, 509, 511–15, 517–19
foreclosure, 510
friendship, 513
identity development, 510, 513–20
impression formation, 517
information overload, 515–16
Internet technologies, 508
multiple identities, 519–20
MySpace, 511, 512, 517, 518
narcissism, 518
networked individualism, 510–12, 519
parental relationship, 515
personhood, belonging, 511, 515, 516, 518
photos, 516–17
popularity as goal, 515
privacy, 518–19
relatedness, 510–12
self-concept, 510, 517
self-esteem, 517–19
self-expression, 508–9, 511, 516–20
self-presentations, 516–18
social comparison, 515
social connectedness, 517
social grooming, 511
social information, 513–15
social support, 513–14
Twitter, 509, 511
virtual worlds, 509
warranting principle, 517
well-being, 513–14
Wikipedia, 509, 511
Soenens, B., 118, 121, 206, 496, 500–501, 543, 549
Sorell, G. T., 547
South Africa, 379, 380
Speed-dating, 218–21, 223, 239, 240–41
Spencer, M. B., 272, 279
Spithorst, H., 127
Standard deviations, 127–28, 128f
Starr, C. R., 410
State Space Grid (SSG), 128
Stattin, H., 398
Staudinger, U., 156
Steele, C., 255
Steele, S., 255
Stephan, Y., 417
Stephen, J., 103
Sternberg, L., 456
Stevenson, D., 321
Stewart, A., 72, 74, 503
Stewart, A. J., 72, 158
Stigmatization, 14–15, 251, 253, 288–92, 302–10
Stokols, D., 516
Stone, J., 257
Stone, L. D., 91
Stone, M. R., 485
Storytelling
big stories, 182–83, 185, 186, 203–4, 238–40
elaboration in reminiscing, 90
elaborative reminiscing, 43, 44–45t, 46–49, 47t
emotional reminiscing, 43, 44–45t, 46–49, 47t
family reminiscing, 36–37, 42–43
gendered identity, family reminiscing in, 42–43
identity development as process, 127
intergenerational narratives, 41–42, 45–49, 46–47t
intersectionality, 554
life story schema, 149, 154–59, 162, 166, 167, 183–86, 476–77, 545
narrative identity model, 22–23
parent-preschool reminiscing, gender differences in, 38–40, 39t
parent reminiscing style generally, 37–38, 48
personal memory telling, 22
preadolescence, family reminiscing in, 42–43
self-concept emergence, parental reminiscing style in, 40–41, 48–49
tacit themes, 169–70, 188
Strauman, T. J., 356
Strawson, G., 183, 184
Strayer, J., 288
Structural symbolic interactionism, 15–16
Stryker, S., 15–16, 236, 319, 320, 324, 326, 328
Style of individuality, 85, 86, 92
Suárez-Orozco, C., 272
Super, D. E., 322
Sutin, A. R., 497
Syed, M., 289, 477, 502, 503–4, 552, 554, 571
Symbolic interactionism, 14
Systonic pole of identity diffusion, 116–17
Tajfel, H., 12, 16, 211, 287, 300–302
Talleyrand, R. M., 253
Tangney, J., 5
Tashiro, J., 513
Tavernier, R., 549
Taylor, C., 24, 183, 203
Taylor, D. M., 554
Telesford, J., 260
Telzer, E. H, 431, 433
Thomas, Clarence, 255
Thompson, C. E., 252t
Thompson, J. M., 395
Thorne, A., 22, 359, 501
Three-factor model
achievement, 106, 107, 107t, 125
applications, 105–6, 110–11
assessment methodology, 105, 125
certainty–uncertainty dynamic, 109
class analyses, 125
classification, 105–6
commitment, 104–7, 107t, 109, 119
consolidators, 110, 125, 500–501
diffusion, 106, 107, 107t, 125
dual-cycle process, 18–19, 103, 105, 118–19, 122, 543–44
early closure, 106, 107, 107t, 125
entropy, 106
exploration in breadth, 103, 110, 496, 500–501
exploration in-depth, 104–6, 109, 110, 118, 476, 500–501
foreclosure, 106, 107, 107t, 125
identity clusters, 106
identity maturation, 109
identity transitions, 109–10
limitations, 135
moratorium, 106–7, 107t, 135
pathmakers, 110, 125
person-centered studies, 105–7, 109–10
principles, 104–5, 118, 135, 543–44
reconsideration of commitment, 104–6, 109, 118, 120, 143, 476, 543, 545
searchers, 110, 125
searching moratorium, 106, 107, 107t, 125, 543–44
validation studies, 105, 118–19
variable-centered studies, 105–7, 110
Thrill of dissonance diffusions, 137
Tieu, T. T., 497
Tiggemann, M., 416
Tilton-Weaver, L., 447
Timmerman, M. E., 129
Tippett, L. J., 152, 155
Tisak, M. S., 443
Tompkins, S., 2
Tower of Babel issue, 530, 536, 552
Tracy, J. L., 550
Trimble, J., 261
Tripartite model, 409
Trust issues, 3, 462–63
Tufekci, Z., 519
Tulving, E., 152, 153, 155
Turner, J., 16, 211
Tynes, B., 514
Udall-Weiner, D., 414
Usborne, E., 554
Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), 105, 106, 126
Validation of identity claims, 233, 235–37, 240–43
Valkenburg, P. M., 513–14, 517
Valsiner, J., 205, 230
VandenBos, G. R., 251, 252, 252t
Van der Gaag, M., 126–27
Van der Linden, M., 359
Van de Schoot, R., 107, 543
Vandiver, B. J., 259–60
Van Doorn, N., 517
Van Geert, P. L. C., 122
Vansteenkiste, M., 549
Vedder, P., 261–62
Ventura, 287
Vignoles, V. L., 5, 552
Vocational exploration, 322, 324
Vondracek, F. W., 320, 321, 325, 550
Von Eye, A., 446
Vygotsky, L., 35, 212, 221, 228, 231, 236, 237, 272
Wagenbach, P., 414
Wainryb, C., 8, 373, 376
Wallerstein, J. S., 464
Wang, Q., 91
Wängqvist, M., 102, 134, 144, 407–8, 417, 548
Ward, J. V., 277, 281
Wassink, M. E. K., 73
Waterman, A. S., 7, 199, 202, 206, 213, 228–30, 232, 241, 357
Waters, M., 275, 278, 292
Way, N., 7, 286, 287, 291–93, 304, 566
Weight issues, 412–15
Weisz, J. R., 340
Well-being
achievement, 481
autobiographical reasoning, 159–62, 185
body image, 409
concepts, definitions, 549
foreclosure, 481
narrative identity model, 361, 549
personality development, 497–98
work identity, 325, 326
Wellman, B., 510, 512
Werner, E. E., 472
Werner, H., 342
Wetherell, M., 531
Whitbourne, S. K., 69, 72, 74, 569
Whiting, B. B., 286
Widdicombe, S., 216
Wiley, R. E., 450
Wilkinson, C., 214, 216, 217
Willoughby, T., 549
Wilson, A., 8
Wittgenstein, L., 212
Wodzicki, K., 511
Wong, C. A., 481
Work identity
adolescence/emerging adulthood, 322–24
apprenticeships, 330
attitudes, 323, 325, 327, 330–31
collectivism, 330–31
contexts, 322–26
cross-cultural variation, 330–32
development, concepts of, 319–22, 325
employment relationships, 322–26
employment-to-population ratio, 331
family devotion schema, 329
gender differences, 327–30
hierarchy of identities, 321, 326
Ideal Worker Norm, 328–30
identity formation, 322–25, 332
identity theory (Stryker), 324–26
occupational inequality, 332
organizational affiliation, identity, 326, 327, 331
precarious employment, 323, 332–33
retirement, institutionalization of, 332
role identities, 320–21, 325, 329
school to work transition, 321, 325
(p. 590) self-evaluations, 321, 327
social class, 326–27
transition to adulthood, 319, 321, 325
universality, 326–31
values, 322, 325–27, 330–31
vocational exploration, 322, 324
well-being, 325, 326
work devotion schema, 329
Worrell, F. C., 251, 259–60, 286, 287, 289–91
Yang, C., 514
YES!, 339–40
Yip, T., 261
Yoder, A., 502
Yosso, T. J., 302
Young, R. A., 140–41
Youth Development Study, 323–25
Zaman, W., 6, 82, 83, 90
Zapata-Gietl, C., 3, 6, 532
Zarrett, N., 77
Zhu, Y., 426
Zucker, A. N., 72
Zurbriggen, E. L., 416