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date: 25 May 2022

Abstract and Keywords

The chapter presents the basic concepts underlying “traditional/classical” statistics (i.e., the univariate t-test,ANOVA,ANCOVA, Pearson’s r, Spearman rho, phi, and multiple regression; the multivariate Hotelling’s T2, MANOVA, MANCOVA, descriptive discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation analysis), laying these concepts out within an historical context, and emphasizing the interrelatedness of these methods as part of a single general linear model (GLM). Similarities and differences in analyzing data with univariate as opposed to multivariate methods are detailed. Some specific practice guidelines for a GLM interpretation rubric are offered.

Keywords: statistical significance, null hypothesis tests, p-values, test statistics, sampling error, effect sizes, standardized differences, corrected effect sizes, practical significance, effect size benchmarks

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