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date: 15 October 2019

(p. 707) Index

(p. 707) Index

A
Abbott, A., 201
Abdul Lateef Jameel Poverty Action Lab, 487
Academy of Management (USA), 467
Academy of Management Journal, 302, 475
Achieving Society, The (McClelland), 196
ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), 549
Active Living Research studies, 568
Added value of MMMR, in business research, 475–477
Additive heuristic, 589
Administrative Science Quarterly, 468, 475
Adoption and adaption theories, 61
Advanced mixed analysis, 275–295
approaches for, 285
Bayesian analyses, 290–291
conceptual framework, 278–284
conclusions, 292
correspondence, 285–287
crossover
equal-status, 285, 291–292
qualitative-dominant, 285–287
quantitative-dominant, 285
hierarchical linear modeling, 288–290
micro-interlocutor, 288
overview, 275–278
qualitative comparative, 287–288
social network, 290
Agential causation, 656
Alkin, M. C., 431
American Educational Research Journal, 302
American Psychological Association (APA), 334
American Sociological Association, 188
American Sociological Review, 188
American Soldier, The (Stouffer et al.), 192
Analysis, MMMR boundaries in, xl–xli
Analytical induction, 6
Analytic generalization, 656
Annual Review of Sociology, 188
Another Voice: Feminist Perspectives on Social Life and Social Science (Millman and Kanter), 73
Anthropology, MMMR in. See Education and anthropology, MMMR in
Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 358
APA (American Psychological Association), 334
ArcGIS mapping software, 570
Asch, Solomon, 22
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 549
ATLAS-ti software, 571–573
Attitude measurement, 21–22
Attitudes Toward Science Inventory (ATSI), 77–78, 88
Audience
in mixed methods evaluation, 431
for research papers, 300–301
Australian Agency for International Development Institute, 497
Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management, 467
Australian Research Council, 316
Authenticity criteria, in qualitative research, 246–247
Average effect causation, 640
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, 264
Axes of inquiry, 43, 45–46
Axiological philosophical assumptions, 95–97, 105–106, 241
Axiology in MMMR, xliii
B
Bayesian analyses, 290–291
Bazeley, P., 296
Beauvoir, S. de, 72
Beck Anxiety Inventory, 16
Beck Helplessness Scale, 16
Behavioral change theories, 61
Bell, E., 469
Bennett, J., 197
Bespoke quality criteria, in validity design, 248–249
Best practices, 624–636
complexity of, 625–626
confirming, 631–632
future directions, 634–635
limits of in health prevention research, 450–451
mixed methods moving to, 632–634
NIH report on, 628–631
overview, 624–625
research and, 626–628
Best Practices for Mixed Methods Research in the Health Sciences (National Institutes of Health), xxxix, 447, 628–631
Bias, 246–247
Big data, xliv, 552, 558
Biomedical social research, 192–193
Black and minority women students’ science classroom experiences, 79–80
Blau, P., 226
Boehm, J. E., 144
Boston College, 59
Both/and thinking, 140
Boundaries in MMMR inquiry
change dimensions, xlviii–l
crossing disciplinary borders, xxxvii–xxxviii
in data collection, analysis, and interpretation, xl–xli
“de-disciplining” in, xxxiv–xxxv
difference, social justice, and axiology, xliii
epistemic tensions, xxxv–xxxvii
navigating definitional, xxxviii–xl
politics of knowledge, xli–xlii
reflexivity, xliii
research tensions, xlv–xlvi
scientific development of, 59–60
technological, xliii–xlv
thematic insights, xlvi–xlviii
Bowling Alone (Putnam), 196
Bracketing, as reason for multimethods, 25–28
Brannen, J., 257
Breastfeeding in groups trial, 417
Brewer, J., 185–186, 360, 616, 691
Bridge assumptions, insufficient, 596–598
British Academy of Management, 467
British Strong Programme, 200
Bryman, A., 468–469
Bunge, M., 599
Business research, MMMR in, 466–485
added value of MMMR, 475–477
on entrepreneurship, 478–479
future directions, 482–483
on human resources management, 481–482
on marketing, 479
on operations management, 480–481
on organizational behavior, 480
on organizational psychology, 481
overview, 466–467
pioneers in, 467–470
prevalence studies in, 471–473
since 2004, 473–475
on strategy, 478
Business Research Methods (Bryman and Bell), 469
C
(p. 708) Cambridge University (UK), 58, 265
Cameron, R. A., 466
Campbell Collaboration, 168
Canada’s National Research Council, 316
CAQDAS in MMMR. See GIS and CAQDAS in MMMR
Cartwright, N., 646, 648
Case studies
black and minority women students’ science classroom experiences, 79–80
breastfeeding in groups, 417
cash transfer impacts, 492–493
community trial design, 421
cystic fibrosis treatment adherence, 411
depression discussion with doctors, 15–17
draw-and-tell conversations with children about fear, 17–18
explanation building in, 655
gender inequality in the workplace, 14–15
gender socialization in Latino families, 82–84
girls’ attitudes toward science, 77–78
healthy eating promotion interventions in children, 422–423
household survey, 493–495
intervention acceptability and feasibility, 412
narrative approach for smoking cessation, 419
Pool Cool skin cancer prevention intervention, 414
rape culture, 12–13
sexual aggression scale validation, 80–82
Thai teenager sexual education and behavior, 84–87
uncovering subjugated knowledge, 13–14
Cash transfer impacts, survey and ethnographic methodologies for, 492–493
Cataldo Lung Cancer Stigma Scale, 217
Catalytic authenticity, 247
Causality, generalizability, and MMR future, 652–664
bridging qualitative and quantitative understandings, 653–655
in field of history, 657–658
future MMR contributions, 658–661
new meaning for, 655–657
overview, 652–653
Causal pluralism, 637, 640–643
Causal spaces, 640, 643–647. See also Feminism, causation, and MMR
CBPR (community-based participatory research), 62, 64–65, 458–459
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales, 16
Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University, 187
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 153
Change dimensions, xlviii–l
Cheek, J., 624
Chicago School of Sociology, xxxvii
Children
conversations about fear with, 17–18
healthy eating interventions for, 422–423
Chimpanzees of Gomge: Patterns of Behavior, The (Goodall), 231
Chmiel, M., 223
Choenni, S., 548
Cloud computing, 554
CLTS (community-led total sanitation), 684
Cluster class analysis, 46
Cochrane Collaboration, 168, 179, 488
Coding, theoretical, 599
Collaborative way of being, in SRM, 340
Collins, K. M. T., 240
Columbia University, 197
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, 103
Community-based participatory research (CBPR), 62, 64–65, 458–459
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS), 684
Community of Science subscription services, 316
Community trial design, 421
Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (Mahoney and Rueschemeyer), 195
Compartmentalizing components, 219
Complementarity
for elaboration and enhancement, 194
in evaluation, 611
as integration framework, 260
of MMMR in prevention research, 451
as practical use of MMMR, 588–589
Complementary purposes, multimethods to address, 25–26
Completeness, MMMR in prevention research and, 452
Complex interventions, 408–409. See also Literature reviews
Complexity theory, 421, 591–592
Compliance with human and animal research guidelines, 145, 150–151
Compliance with random assignment, 35
Component-specific methods, 28–29
Conceptual causal pluralism, 640–643, 646
Conceptual framework in mixed methods evaluation, 430
Confirmation, as practical use of MMMR, 588
Conformity studies, 22
Congruence method, in political science, 658
Consilience concept, 617, 622
Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), 421
Constructivist paradigm and values branch of evaluation, 434–436
Construct validity, 394
Consumption behavior, 190
Content analysis, 537–539
Contradiction, as integration framework, 260
Convergent design, 62–63, 65–66
Convergent quality criteria, in validity design, 248
Copenhagen Wheel project, 551, 555
Core component of studies, 211
Correspondence analysis approaches, 285–287
Corroboration, 25, 260
“Covering law model” of scientific research, 595
Cram, F., 91, 677
Crasnow, S., 637, 690
Creswell, J. W., 57, 467–468
Critical realist approach, 61
Critical theory, 3
Crossover advanced mixed analysis
equal-status, 285, 291–292
qualitative-dominant, 285–287
quantitative-dominant, 285
Cystic fibrosis treatment adherence, 411
D
Data analysis, 257–274
conclusions, 270–271
context of inquiry, 259–260
context of justification, 260
ethics of, 153–155
issues to consider, 257–259
longitudinal study of working families and food, 263–270
concepts and meaning in, 268–270
linking data in, 264–267
overview, 263–264
similar units of analysis in, 267–268
in mixed methods evaluation, 431
in randomized experiments, 33–34
study examples, 261–263
technologies for, 568
Data collection
ethics of, 153–155
mixed methods more than, 427–428
MMMR boundaries in, xl–xli
technology-enabled, 542–543
technology in, xliv, 567–568
(p. 709) Data-driven inductive approach, 116
Data In Nutrients Out (DINO) software, 265
Data triangulation, 448
Debriefing approach, 252
Decolonization, 92–93, 101
Decolonizing Methodologies (Smith), xli
“De-disciplining,” xxxiv–xxxv, xxxvii
Deductive and inductive approaches, integration of, 170–171
Default mixed methods syndrome, 429–431
Defiant individualism, 197
DeGroff, A., 144
Denver Income Maintenance Experiment, 194
Depression discussion with doctors, 15–17
Descriptive validity, in qualitative research, 246
Designing MMMR, 185–205. See also Qualitatively driven mixed method designs
arenas for
biomedical social research, 192–193
character types, 196–197
contextual effects, 191–192
disaster research, 197–199
evaluation research, 193–194
historical causation, 194–195
rational action, 190–191
trends, 195–196
words and deeds, 189–190
linking to questions, 65–66
meaning of, 186–187
mixing of, 654–655
narrative in, 201–202
overview, 185–186
prepared contingency, 187
purpose aligned with, 539–542
qualitative and quantitative methods in, 695
questions about, 186
rhetoric in, 199–201
scientific developments in, 62–64
theory building and testing in social sciences, 600–603
typologies of mixing, 187–189
writing description of, 304–305
Design-related validity, in quantitative research, 245–246
DeVault, M., 644
Development, 486–499
case studies on, 492–495
conclusions, 497
defining mixed methods in, 489–492
emergence of, 486–489
policy process engagement, 496
as reason for multimethods, 26
in the 2000s, 489
unintended impacts on social groups, 495
Development Impact Evaluation initiative, World Bank, 487
Dewey, J., 359
Deweyan pragmatism, 436–437
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 376
Dialectical approaches, xxxvi
Dialectical pluralism
in evaluation, 441–443
in high quality research, 251–252
as MMR philosophy, 61
Difference and intersectionality in MMMR, 110–127
conceptual and research typologies, 112–114
conclusions, 123–125
crossing disciplines, 119
on education and racialized students, 120–123
in HIV research, 120
methodological tensions, 119–120
overview, 110–112
qualitative research and, 114–117
quantitative research and, 117–119
Difference boundaries in MMMR, xliii
Diffusion of innovations theory (Rogers), 450
Digital approaches, virtual approaches versus, 523
DINO (Data In Nutrients Out) software, 265
Disaster research, 197–199
Disaster Research Center, 197
Disciplinary borders, crossing, xxxvii–xxxviii, 119
Disciplinary insights, 132–133
Discourse analysis approach, 376
Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behavior (Potter and Wetherell), 375
Displays, in reporting, 309–310
Dissonance and value in research with marginalized groups. See Marginalized groups
Doctors, depression discussion with, 15–17
Drabble, S. J., 406
Draw-and-tell conversations with children about fear, 17–18
Dynamics of Bureaucracy, The (Blau), 226
E
Eat Right! Be Fit! nutrition programs, 608–613
EBP (evidence-based practice), 671
Ecocultural theories, 610
Economic transactions, revealed preferences in, 190–191
Education, racialized students and, 120–123
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis (journal), 360
Educational Researcher (journal), 467
Education and anthropology, MMMR in, 357–374
approaches to research design in, 362–365
conclusions, 370–371
educational policy challenges, 368–370
overview, 357–358
research evolution in, 358–361
study examples, 365–368
Educative authenticity, 247
Effectiveness reviews, 168–169
Eichler, M., 73
Elaboration
as integration framework, 260
as reason for multimethods, 25, 28–29
Email interviews, 528
Emancipatory paradigm, 94
Emerging technologies. See Mobile technologies in MMMR
Emic and etic approaches, 576–579, 581
Entrepreneurship, MMMR on, 478–479
Environmental Systems Research Institute, 570
Epistemic relativism, 640
Epistemic tensions, xxxv–xxxvii
Epistemology
challenges in, 380–381
for feminism, causation, and MMR, 638–639
in mixed methods evaluation, 430
philosophical assumptions in, 98–100, 105–106, 241, 257
in science, 694
Equal-status crossover advanced mixed analysis, 285, 291–292
Erikson, K., 198
Ethics, 144–163
conclusions, 157–159
of data collection and analysis, 153–155
in human research, 145–147
of informed consent in online research, xliv
of mixed methods sampling and selection, 149–151
overview, 144–145
perspectives in, 695
professional organization guidelines and standards, 163
of representation and reporting, 155–157
of research purpose and design, 147–149
of research relationships, 151–153
Ethnography, on Internet technologies, 504–511
Ethology study, as integrated MMR example, 230–236
European Academy of Management, 467
(p. 710) European Commission on Research and Innovation, 316
Evaluation, 426–446. See also Obesity prevention program evaluation
constructivist paradigm and values branch of, 434–436
criteria for, 68
default mixed methods syndrome and, 429–431
definitions, 427–429
dialectical pluralism in, 441–443
future issues in, 443
institutional review board (IRB) exemption of, 148
MMMR design for, 193–194
multiple philosophical and theoretical lenses in, 431–432
overview, 426–427
post-positivist paradigm and methods branch of, 433–434
pragmatic paradigm and use branch of, 436–438
in social justice, 683–684
transformative paradigm and social justice branch of, 438–441
Evaluation Roots (Alkin), 431–432
Everything in Its Path: Destruction of Community in the Buffalo Creek Flood (Erikson), 198
Evidence-based practice (EBP), 671
Evidence synthesis, moving to, 422–423
Evidential pluralism, 640, 646
Expanding perspective way of being, in SRM, 339
Expansion
in evaluation, 194
as integration framework, 260
MMMR in prevention research and, 451
as reason for multimethods, 25–26
Experimental intervention design, 65
Experiments and quasi-experiments, MMMR in, 21–41
caveats in use of, 29–30
combining methods for ancillaries to, 34–36
models for, 24–29
in quasi-experiments, 36–39
randomized, 30–34
social psychology examples, 21–24
Explanation building, in case studies, 655
Explanatory sequential design, 62–63, 65
Exploratory sequential design, 62–65
Ex post facto explanations, 595–596
Extension, in interdisciplinarity, 135
F
Fairness, as authenticity criterion, 247
Family formation, preferences for, 50–51
Fear, conversations with children about, 17–18
Feminism, causation, and MMR, 637–651
causal spaces, 643–647
conceptual causal pluralism, 641–643
concerns of, 647
conclusions, 649
goals for, 647–649
key terms, 640
methodology and epistemology, 638–639
ontological causal pluralism, 640–641
overview, 637–638
Feminism and Methodology (Harding), 74
Feminist approaches to MMMR, 72–90
case studies
black and minority women students’ science classroom experiences, 79–80
gender socialization in Latino families, 82–84
girls’ attitudes toward science, 77–78
sexual aggression scale validation, 80–82
Thai teenager sexual education and behavior, 84–87
conclusions, 87–88
introduction, 72–73
knowledge building, feminist standpoint perspectives on, 74–75
male bias in research process, 73–74
to mixed methods praxis, 75–76
perspective, 3
in rhetoric, 200
Feminist empiricists, 73–74
Feminist intersectionality research, 119
Feminist standpoint theory, 3
Feminist theory, 454
Fetters, M. D., 314
Fielding, J. L., 561
Fielding, N. G., 561
Field Methods, 58, 364
Field of history, 657–658
Fine, G., 191
Fisher, P., 665
Five Hundred Criminal Careers (Glueck and Glueck), 262
Flexibility, xliviiii
Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, 434
Foucauldian discourse analysis, 252, 376
Freese, J., 192
Frels, R. K., 333
Freshwater, D., 665
From Causes to Events: Notes on Narrative Positivism (Abbott), 201
Frost, N. A., 3, 375
Funding for MMMR, 314–332
evaluating opportunities for, 316–319
future directions, 331
good fit between projects and, 319–320
overview, 314–315
review process, 330–331
sources of, 315–316
submission strategies, 320–330
budget preparation and logistics, 325–326
draft project summary, 322–325
mistakes in proposals, 329–330
narrative finalizing, 326–329
obtaining feedback, 329
proposal finalizing, 329
solicit assistance from relevant parties, 321–322
team assembling, 320–321
timeline and materials requirements, 321
G
Gang character, summary, 197
GAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office), 34
Gender and social protection study, 497
Gender inequality in the workplace, 14–15
Gender Innovation Lab, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management, World Bank, 434
Gender schema theory, 454
Gender socialization in Latino families, 82–84
Generalization. See also Causality, generalizability, and MMR future
from data analysis, 275–276
in post-positivism, 395
probing, 36
in theory building and testing in social sciences, 598–600
Genetics, social behavior related to, 192–193
Geology study, as integrated MMR example, 228–230
Geonarrative approach, 526–527
Gestalt switches, 690
Girls’ attitudes toward science, 77–78
GIS and CAQDAS in MMMR, 561–584
applications for, 571–575
data analysis technologies, 568
data collection technologies, 567–568
future directions, 581–582
linking data in space and place, 575–581
mainstream and open source mapping software, 568–571
spatial turn in social science, 561–567
information presentation, 565–567
(p. 711) research question incorporating, 562–565
technological change, innovation, and social transformation, 567
Glaser, B., 598–599
Globalization, 562
Global Science Forum, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 591
Glocalization, 562
Glover-Kudon, R. M., 144
Glueck, S. and E., 262
“Go-along” interviews, 567
Goodall, J., 231
Google Earth and Google Maps, 570, 573, 580
Google Glass, 551
Grace, D., 110
Graffiti Vandalism Strategy (New Zealand), 682
Granovetter, M., 191
Greene, J., 688–689, 691
Greene, J. C., 606
Griffin, A. J., 72
Grounded theory, 252, 598
Group assignment, in quantitative research, 397
Group-based participatory MMR, 401–402
Guba, E. Y., 652–653, 669
Guidelines for practice, in methodology, 242
H
Hahoda, M., 231
Hall, J. N., 357
Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research (Tashakkori and Teddlie), 60, 467, 470
Hankivsky, O., 110
Harding, S., 74
Harvard University, 57, 59
HCI (human-computer interaction), 550–551
HD (hypothetico-deductive) approach, 596–597, 600
Health Equity Assessment Tool (HEAT), 680, 684–685
Health impact assessment (HIA), 682, 685
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 153
Health prevention research, MMMR for, 447–465
challenges, 447–449
learning from, 461
limits of best practices for, 450–451
with migrants
challenges of, 451–452
HIV prevention project questions, 458
HIV risk study with, 452–457
overview, 449–450
practice models for, 457–459
using, 459–461
Health Psychology (journal), 378
Health sciences
best practices of mixed methods in, 68
disparities research in, 119
MMMR use in, 58, 61
patient navigation strategy evaluation, 153
traditional MMR in, 381–382
transformative-emancipatory mixed method research in, 671–672
Healthy eating promotion interventions in children, 422–423
Heinrich, B., 231
Hempel, C. G., 595–596
Hesse-Biber, S., xxxiii, 3, 72, 643
Heuristic of addition, 589
Hierarchical linear modeling, 192, 288–290
High-quality research interpretations, 244–249
Hine, C. M., 503
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), 153
Historical causation, in MMMR, 194–195
History, field of, 657–658
Hitchcock, J. H., 275
HIV research, 120, 452–457
Household survey, triangulating qualitative and participatory methods with, 493–495
Human-computer interaction (HCI), 550–551
Humanistic approach, to mentoring next generation in MMMR, 337–338
Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge University, 265
Human research, ethics in, 145–147
Human resources management, MMMR on, 481–482
Human rights theory, 454
Hunter, A., 185–186, 200, 360, 616, 691
Hyman, H., 192
HyperRESEARCH package, 571
Hypothesis generation, 31–32
“Hypothetico-deductive” (HD) approach, 596–597, 600
I
IBM’s Smarter Planet, 554
Identification of Acquaintance Rape Attitudes Scale, 12
Idiographic knowledge, 395
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 195
India Gram Panchayat Community Development Reform Program, 436
Indigenous ecological knowledge, 102–103
Indigenous Evaluation Framework, 103
Indigenous frameworks for MMMR. See Transformative and indigenous frameworks for MMMR
Indigenous Wellness Research Institute, University of Washington, 103
Inductive and deductive approaches, integration of, 170–171
Inferential consistency, 250
Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal, 473
Informed consent, xliv
Initiation
in evaluation, 194, 611
as integration framework, 260
as reason for multimethods, 25–27
Inner city urban life, MMMR on, xxxviii
Innovations for Poverty Action, 487
Inquiry, context of, 259–260
Inquiry logics, in methodology, 242
Institute for the Social Sciences, Harvard University, 57
Institute of Medicine, National Academies, 449–450
Institutional review boards (IRBs), 145, 148
Integration, 223–239
barriers to, xl
beyond bridging, 659–661
deconstructing, 673–674
ethology study example, 230–236
frameworks for, 260
geology study example, 228–230
of inductive and deductive approaches, 170–171
in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary MMMR, 135–136
in intervention evaluation, 418–419
justifying process and conclusions by, 242–244
lessons learned, 236–237
meaning of, 227–228
“mixed methods study” definition, 224–225
overview, 223–224
qualitative and quantitative methods, 226–227
reporting challenges and, 297
in research with marginalized groups, 666–668
of results, 305–306
of tandem qualitative and quantitative data analysis, 66–67
theoretical framework for, 309
in transformative and indigenous frameworks for MMMR, 91–93
(p. 712) Integrity, research, 145, 149
Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation model, 458–459
Interdependence theory, 454
Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary MMMR, 128–143
both/and thinking, 140
communication in, 131–132
conclusions, 141
definitions, 128–130
disciplinary insights in, 132–133
formulating research questions, 131
as innovation, 590–591
integration in, 135–136
interdisciplinary research process, 137
mapping complex questions, 133–135
overarching philosophy, 140–141
overview, 128
research results, 136–137
strengths and weaknesses of different methods, 137–140
synergy, 140
team building in, 130–131
“Interdisciplinary opportunism,” xxxiv
Interdisciplinary tensions, in writing, 298–299
Intermediate outcomes, 173–174
Internal design of mixed method projects, 208, 218
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, 487
International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 58, 467, 475
International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 302
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 195
Internet of Things concept, 552–554, 558
Internet technologies, MMMR and, 503–521. See also Online MMMR
conclusions, 518
ethnography on, 504–511
introduction, 503–504
large-scale and small-scale approaches, 511–516
methodological paradigms in, 504–506
triangulation challenges, 516–518
Interpretation, MMMR boundaries in, xl–xli
Interpretive approach, 3
Interpretive phenomenological analysis, 252
Interpretive string, between theory and observation, 596
Interpretive validity, in qualitative research, 246
Interrupted time-series (ITS) design, in quasi-experiments, 37–38
Interventions, 406–425
acceptability and feasibility of, 412
challenges of moving from randomized controlled trials, 418–422
evidence synthesis, moving to, 422–423
future directions, 423
language for developing methodology, 417–418
overview, 406–407
process-outcome framework for, 412–414
reasons for, 407–409
in social justice, 681–683
temporal framework for, 409–412
trial framework aspects, 414–417
Interviews
email, 528
mobile, 567
online observations with, 531–534
online surveys with, 534–537
walking, 525, 567
Invasion of privacy, 145
Investigator triangulation, 448
IRBs (institutional review boards), 145, 148
Irvine-Minnesota Inventory, 568
ITS (interrupted time-series) design, in quasi-experiments, 37–38
J
Jacobs, J., 188
James, W., 359
James S. McDonnell Foundation, 591
Jankowski, M., 197
Jason, L. A., 393
Java Open Street Map editor, 570
Jellyfish design of mixed method projects, 218
Johnson, R. B., 688
Jones, N. A., 486
Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 58, 60, 66–67, 156, 224, 302, 305, 427, 466, 473, 591–592, 631–632
Justification, context of, 260
K
Kahneman, D., 191
Kanter, R. M., 73
Karp, David, 3
Kasarda, J., 622
Kelle, U., 594
Klinenberg, E., 198–199
Knowledge, politics of, xli–xlii
Knowledge building, feminist perspectives on, 74–75
Kuhn, T. S., xli, 94, 618
L
LaFrance, J., 103
Language
for developing methodology, 417–418
for interdisciplinary MMMR, 131–132
science of, 60
Lapiere, R., 190
Lapointe, Jeanne, 73
Latent class analysis (LCA), 46, 49–50
Latino families, gender socialization in, 82–84
Law of Peoples, The (Rawls), 702–703
Lazarfeld, P., 231
LCA (latent class analysis), 46, 49–50
Leeds University (UK), 58
Leeman, J., 167
Leventhal’s Illness Representations, 174
Lever, J., 621
Lewis, C. D., 616
Lichty, L., 587
Lincoln, Y., 652–653, 669
Linguistic narrative structural analysis, 17–18
Literature reviews, 167–184
challenges in, 176–180
for complex interventions
evidence base for, 171–176
science and practice of, 168–171
conclusions, 180
introduction, 167–168
mediation and moderation, 694
in qualitatively driven mixed method designs, 209
Longitudinal study of working families and food
concepts and meaning in, 268–270
linking data in, 264–267
overview, 263–264
similar units of analysis in, 267–268
Lunt, P., 231
Lyell, C., 229
Lynd, R. and H. M., 231
M
Mahomey, J., 195
Male bias in research process, 73–74
Malinowsky, B., 364
Mapping complex questions, 133–135
Mapping software
applications for, 571–575
mainstream and open source, 568–571
Marginalized groups, 665–676
commitment to, 45
conclusions, 674
deconstructing integration, 673–674
integration, 666–668
social justice promotion, 665–666
transformative-emancipatory perspectives, 668–672
Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community (Hahoda, Lazarfeld, and Zeisel), 231–232, 237
Mark, M. M., 21
Marketing, MMMR on, 479
(p. 713) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, 12
MAXQDA software, 67, 571
Maxwell, J., 223
McClelland, D., 196
Mead, G. H., 359
Mead, M., 363
Measurement
perspectives oriented to, xxxv
qualitative and quantitative, 694
techniques of, 280–284
validity of, 246
Mechanical causation, 656
Mediation, piggybacked on random experiments, 35–36
Medical Outcomes Study, 16
Medical Research Council, 490
Mekinak Consulting, 103
Mentoring next generation in MMMR, 333–353
background, 334
call for, 334–337
conclusion, 348
development and synergistic research, 344–348
humanistic approach, 337–338
implications for, 348–351
overview, 333–334
synergistic, 338–341
valuing synergistic research process, 341–344
Mertens, D. M., 91, 426
Merton, R., 192, 197, 619–620
Metacommunication, 396
Metaphor, in writing, 310
Meta-synthesis of exemplars
online or technology-enabled data collection, 542–543
purpose and design alignment, 539–542
research approach determination, 543
Methodology
for feminism, causation, and MMR, 637–639
in Internet technologies, 504–506
in philosophical assumptions, 100–102, 105–106
for validity, 241–244
Methods branch of evaluation, 433–434
Micro-interlocutor advanced mixed analysis approaches, 288
Middletown: A Study of American Culture (Lynd and Lynd), 231–232
Migrants, health prevention research with
challenges of, 451–452
HIV prevention project questions, 458
HIV risk study with, 452–457
Migration theory, 454
Milgram, S., 233–234
Mill, J. S., 596
Millennium Cohort Study, 264
Millman, M., 73
Mills, C. Wright, 196
Mind of the Raven (Heinrich), 231
Mingers, J., 470
Mini-Mental State Examination scales, 16
Mish-mash design of mixed method projects, 218
Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Orientation (UDO) Scale, 398
Mixed methods, scientific developments in, 57–71
expanding field of, 58–59
overview, 57–58
recommendations, 68–69
scientific developments in
basic and advance designs, 62–64
defined boundaries, 59–60
evaluative criteria, 68
language science, 60
legitimacy and acceptance, 60–61
linking designs to questions, 65–66
philosophical and theoretical foundations, 61–62
representation, 66–67
validity threats, 64–65
writing structures, 67–68
Mixed Methods International Research Association, 59–60
Mixed Methods Reader, The (Plano Clark and Creswell), 468
“Mixed model” research, MMR versus, 60
Mixing positions, 47–52
nomothetic uses of qualitative data analysis, 50–51
qualitative data analysis, 47–48
quantitative data analysis, 49–50
reflexivity in qualitative data uses, 51–52
MMMR, practical and innovative uses of, 587–593
future direction, 592
overview, 587–588
promise of, 589–592
utility of, 588–589
Mobile technologies in MMMR, 548–560
emerging technologies, 549–554
future directions, 558–559
overview, 548–549
social research impact, 554–558
Mode 1 knowledge production, 666, 668
Moderation studies, 36
Modernization paradigm, development in, 486
Mode 2 knowledge production, 666–667, 672
Molina-Azorin, J. F., 466
Morse, J. M., 187–188, 206
Motivating mixed research perspective, 42–56
conclusions, 52–54
mixing positions, 47–52
nomothetic uses of qualitative data analysis, 50–51
qualitative data analysis, 47–48
quantitative data analysis, 49–50
reflexivity in qualitative data uses, 51–52
social inquiry, 42–47
philosophical positions, 43–45
practical positions, 45–47
Mulder, I., 548
Multidisciplinary, definition of, 130
Multimethod and mixed methods research, merger of, 606–615
conclusions, 614
history of, 607–608
obesity prevention program evaluation
description and priorities, 608
mixed approach to, 610–614
multiple approach to, 609–610
overview, 606–607
Multimethod and mixed science, inclusive and defensible, 688–706
benefits of, 691
contemporary description, 688–691
enterprise of, 701–702
ideas surrounding “both,” 694–695
key quotes, 696–700
keywords and frequencies, 692–693
realistic utopia for social/behavioral science, 702–705
reflections on, 700–701
Multimethodology: Theory and Practice of Combining Management Science Methodologies (Mingers), 470
Multimethod Research: A Synthesis of Styles (Brewer and Hunter), 186, 360
Multimethod research conundrums, 616–623
assumptions in, 622–623
consilience concept, 622
historical development, 617
methodology, 621–622
multimethods and social science as science, 617–619
overview, 616–617
theory as, 619–621
Multiple-dimension process approach to mixed design, 226
Multiple validities, 701
Multiplicative approaches in intersectionality research, 111
N
Narratives
analysis, 16
analysis of, 252
core method of, 218
in designing MMMR, 201–202
geonarrative approach, 526–527
as smoking cessation approach, 419
writing, 310
(p. 714) National Academies, 449–450
National Child Development Study, 261
National Democratic Institute, 438
National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), 263–270
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 168
National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, 397–398
National Institutes of Health (NIH), xxxix, 68, 322, 590–591, 628–631
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, University of North Carolina, 193
National Opinion Research Center, 197
National Study of Youth and Religion, 49–50
Native youth enrichment program, 103–104
NDNS (National Diet and Nutrition Survey), 263–270
Nested/embedded mixed methods designs, 9–10
Newman, C., 333
Newman, I., 333
New Public Management (NPM) reforms, 368
NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Group, 450
Nomothetic uses of qualitative data analysis, 50–51
Northwestern University, 187, 192, 197
Notes and Queries on Anthropology, 363
NVivo software, 571
O
Obedience to Authority (Milgram), 233
Obesity prevention program evaluation
description and priorities, 608
mixed approach to, 610–614
multiple approach to, 609–610
Objectivism, 640
Object of inquiry, 640
Observations
forms of, 528–531
interpretive string between theory and, 596
interviews mixed with, 531–534
online surveys mixed with, 534–537
theory building and testing related to, 595
O’Cathain, A., 406
O’Connell, R., 257
Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health, xxxix, 447, 590–591, 628
Olsen, P., 103
Olson, B. D., 393
Online MMMR, 522–547. See also Internet technologies, MMMR and
conclusions, 543–545
content analysis in, 537–539
definitions, 524
interviews and observations with, 531–537
introduction, 522–524
meta-synthesis of exemplars
online or technology-enabled data collection, 542–543
purpose and design alignment, 539–542
research approach determination, 543
mix-and-match exemplars, 524–525
observation forms in, 528–531
On the Treatment of Sexes in Research (Eichler and Lapointe), 73
Ontological authenticity, 247
Ontological causal pluralism, 640–641
Ontological philosophical assumptions, 97–98, 105–106, 257
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., 275
Open-mindedness, xlivi–xlvii
Open Street Map tools, 570
Operations management, MMMR on, 480–481
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 591
Organization, in interdisciplinarity, 135
Organizational behavior, MMMR on, 480
Organizational psychology, MMMR on, 481
Organization Science, 469–470
Outliers, 8
Outline of Cultural Materials, 363
Overlapping consensus, 702
Overseas Development Institute, 497
Oxford Houses, as PMMR example, 396–397
Oxford House World Convention, 398, 401
P
Palestinian National Cash Transfer Programme (PNCTP), 493–495
Participatory action research (PAR), 114, 395
Participatory MMR, 393–405
description of, 395–396
future directions, 402–403
group assignment, quantitative research using, 397
group-based, 401–402
overview, 393–394
Oxford House example, 396–397
quantitative and qualitative methods in, 394–395
tolerance as research topic, 397–401
Patient navigation strategy, 153
Pattern-matching approach, 658
Pearce, L. D., 42
Peer reviews, 158
Penalty and privilege, simultaneous experience of, 111
Pereznieto, P., 486
Person-centered manner, quantitative data analysis in, 49–50
Person triangulation, 448
Philosophical assumptions, in methodology, 241
Philosophical positions social inquiry, 43–45
Philosophical tensions, in writing, 297–298
Photovoice technique, 103
Physician Evaluation of the Patient at the Index Visit, 16
Physicians, depression discussion with, 15–17
Pierce, C. S., 359
Plano-Clark, V., 468
Pluralism, 591
Pluralistic qualitative approaches, 376, 387
PNCTP (Palestanian National Cash Transfer Programme), 493
Political Liberalism (Rawls), 702
Politics of knowledge, xli–xlii
Pool Cool skin cancer prevention intervention, 414
Popper, K., 597
Postmodern perspective, 3
Post-positivist critical multiplism, 24
Post-positivist paradigm, 245, 433–434
Posttest only nonequivalent groups design, in quasi-experiments, 37
Pothole Patrol project, 555
Potter, J., 375
Poverty Reduction and Economic Management, World Bank, 434
Power, gender and, theory of, 454
Practical positions of social inquiry, 45–47
Practitioner-based research agendas, xxxv
Pragmatic approaches, xxxv–xxxvi
Pragmatic paradigm and use branch of evaluation, 436–438
Pragmatism
causality and generalizability in, 653
as central philosophy, 61
in psychology, 383–385
rise of, 667–668
in systems thinking and complexity, 591
PRECEDE model, 61
Preferences, revealed, theory of, 190
Preissle, J., 144, 357
Prepared contingency, 187
Presler-Marshall, E., 486
Pretest-posttest nonequivalent groups design, in quasi-experiments, 37–38
Pretest-posttest one-group design, in quasi-experiments, 37
Prevalence studies in business research, 471–473
Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People (Institute of Medicine, National Academies), 449
(p. 715) Primary research reports, 176–177
Prince, S. H., 197
Principles of Geology (Lyell), 229
PRISMA guidelines, 179
Privilege and penalty, simultaneous experience of, 111
Probability sampling, 148–149
Problem-solving way of being, in SRM, 338–339
Process analysis, 655
Process-outcome framework, 412–414
Process theory, 227
Process tracing, in political science, 655
Processual causation, 640, 643
Professional organization ethical guidelines, 163
Program evaluation design, threats to validity of, 65
Progresa-Oportunidades cash transfer program (Mexico), 487–488
Progressive focusing, 310
Proposals. See Funding for MMMR
Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism, The (Weber), 196
Psychology, MMMR in, 375–392
combining methods within and across paradigms, 376–377
development of, 382–386
future directions for, 386–387
importance of method in, 377–379
mixing paradigms in, 379–382
researcher in, 388–389
“turn to language” in, 375–376
Publications, limitations of, 301–302
Purposeful way of being, in SRM, 339–340
Purposive selection, 148
Putnam, R., 196
Q
Qatar National Research Fund, 316
QDA Miner software, 571, 573–575
Q Methodology, 385–386
Q2 Poverty Appraisal Conference, 489
Qualitative analyses
common, 278–279
comparative, 287–288, 655
in mixing positions, 47–48
nomothetic uses of, 50–51
in participatory MMR, 394–395
reflexivity in, 51–52
thematic, 18
Qualitative data, convergent design to collect, 62–63
Qualitative-dominant crossover mixed analysis, 285–287
Qualitative Inquiry (journal), 378
Qualitatively driven approach to MMMR, 3–20
case studies, 11–18
depression discussion with doctors, 15–17
draw-and-tell conversations with children about fear, 17–18
gender inequality in the workplace, 14–15
rape culture, 12–13
uncovering subjugated knowledge, 13–14
description of, 5–6
design of, 9–11
future directions, 18–19
qualitatively driven inquiry, 4–5
reasons for, 6
selecting, 6–9
websites on, 19
Qualitatively driven mixed method designs, 206–222
aim identification, 208–209
armchair walkthrough, 210–213
deviations and other pitfalls, 217–220
diagramming, 215–217
future directions, 220–221
literature review, 209
overview, 206–208
question refining, 209–210
reflexivity and proposal diagram in research, 214–215
study diagramming, 213–214
theoretical perspective, 209
Qualitative Psychology (journal), 378
Qualitative research
bridge assumptions generated by, 601
difference and intersectionality in MMMR and, 114–117
idiographic knowledge from, 395
quantitative understanding bridge to, 653–655, 659
representation in, 246
with trials at different stages, 409–414
Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management, 475
Qualitative Research in Psychology (journal), 378
Quality-of-life theories, 61
Quality of research, report writing affected by, 300
Quality & Quantity Journal, 302
Quantitative analyses
in effectiveness reviews, 168
measurement techniques in, 280–284
in mixing positions, 49–50
in participatory MMR, 394–395
Quantitative data, convergent design to collect, 62–63
Quantitative-dominant crossover mixed analysis, 285
Quantitative research
design-related validity in, 245–246
difference and intersectionality in MMMR and, 117–119
group assignment used in, 397
measurement validity in, 246
qualitatively driven approaches versus, 4–5
qualitative research bridge to, 653–655, 659
statistical phenomena comprehension in, 602
Quantity and Quality in Social Research (Bryman), 468–469
R
Racialized students, education and, 120–123
Ragin, C., 194, 655
Randomized experiments. See also Interventions
assessing compliance with, 35
for data analysis, 33–34
for hypothesis generation, 31–32
for interpretation and reporting, 34
mediation piggybacked on, 35–36
moderation study added to, 36
overview, 30–31
for variable conceptualization, 32–33
Rape culture, case study on, 12–13
Rashomon effect, 308
Rawls, J., 702–703
Reactions to Crime Project, Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University, 187
Realistic utopia for social/behavioral science, 702–705
Redefinition, in interdisciplinarity, 135
Reflexivity
as axis of inquiry, 46
importance of, xlix
as practice challenge, xliii
in qualitative data uses, 51–52
in qualitatively driven mixed method designs, 214–215
in qualitative research validity, 247
in research relationships, 151–152
Reiss, J., 646
Reliability, of qualitative findings, 7
Remijn, L., 548
Renaissance mindset in SRM, 341
Reporting, ethics of, 155–157
Representation
alternate modes of, 308
ethics of, 155–157
in qualitative research, 246
scientific developments in, 66–67
Rescue Geography project, 526
Research agendas, xxxv
Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Creswell), 467
Research purpose and design, ethics of, 147–149
Research quality framework examples, 249–251
Research relationships, ethics of, 151–153
Research tensions in MMMR, xlv–xlvi
(p. 716) Respectful, culturally, 95–96, 104
Revealed preferences, theory of, 190
Rhetoric, in designing MMMR, 199–201
Rhetoric of Research Conference, Northwestern University, 197
Rhetoric of Social Research, The (Hunter), 200
Rigor, standards of, 245, 250
Robbers Cave experiments (Sherif, et al.), 22–23
Rodriguez, D., 3
Rogers, E. M., 450
Rogers, S. E., 223
Rohan, E. A., 144
Roth, L. M., 14, 648
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Canada), 102
Rueschemeyer, D., 195
S
SAGE Publishing, Inc., 60
Salmons, J. E., 522
Sampling
ethics of, 149–151
in mixed methods evaluation, 431
qualitative and quantitative methods for, 695
Samuelson, Paul, 190
Sandelowski, M., 167, 200
Save the Children, 434
School of Public Health, Harvard University, 57
Schwandt, T. A., 587
Science
black and minority women students’ classroom experiences in, 79–80
girls’ attitudes toward, 77–78
Science, 189, 192
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), 103
Scientific developments in mixed methods
basic and advance designs, 62–64
defined boundaries, 59–60
evaluative criteria, 68
language science, 60
legitimacy and acceptance, 60–61
linking designs to questions, 65–66
philosophical and theoretical foundations, 61–62
representation, 66–67
validity threats, 64–65
writing structures, 67–68
Score Ze application, 556–559
Seattle Income Maintenance Experiment, 194
Selling Women Short: Gender and Money on Wall Street (Roth), 14
Sensordrone, 551
Separate quality criteria, in validity design, 248
September 11, 2001 attacks, 197–198
Sequentially mixed methods designs, 10
Serendipity pattern, 620
Sexual aggression scale validation, case study on, 80–82
Sexual education of Thai teenagers case study, 84–87
Sexual Experiences Survey (SES), 80–81, 88
Shaw, R. L., 375
Sherif, M., 22–23
Simmel, G., 191
Situated knowledge, 74
Skin cancer prevention intervention, 414
Small, M., 188–189
Smart City concept, 558
Smart Urban Waste Management application, 554
Smith, D., 72–73, 643
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai, xli
Smoking, stigmatization of. See Qualitatively driven mixed method designs
Smoking cessation, narrative approach for, 419
Snow, C. P., 622
Snowball sampling methods, 149
Social circles, 191
Social cognitive theory, 454
Social exchange theories, 61
Social inquiry, 42–47
philosophical positions, 43–45
practical positions, 45–47
Social justice
evaluating in, 683–684
feminist research aims in, 73
future directions, 684–685
intervening in, 681–683
overview, xliii, 677–679
research with marginalized groups, 665–666
threats to validity of design, 65
transformation orientation of, 61–62
understanding in, 679–681
Social justice branch of evaluation, 438–441
Social Life of a Modern Community, The (Warner and Lunt), 231–232
Social network analysis, 290, 660
Social psychology examples, of MMMR in experiments, 21–24
Social Science and Medicine, 302
Social Science Research Council, 315
Sociological Imagination, The (Mills), 196
Sociopolitical commitments, in methodology, 242
South Africa’s National Research Foundation, 316
Space triangulation, 448 See also Triangulation
Spatial turn in social science, 561–567
information presentation, 565–567
research question incorporating, 562–565
technological change, innovation, and social transformation, 567
SRM (synergistic research mentoring). See Synergistic research mentoring (SRM)
Stanko, E., 643
Statistical and textual data, combining, 306–308
STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), 103
Stembert, N., 548
Stouffer, S., 192
Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund, 487
Strategy, MMMR on, 478
Strauss, A., 598–599
Structural equation modeling methods, 48
Structural levels, in studies, xliv
Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The (Kuhn), 94, 618, xli
Student attrition theories, 61
Subjectivism, 640
Subjugated knowledge, 10–11, 13–14
Supplemental questions, in studies, 212–213, 219
Synergistic research mentoring (SRM)
collaborative way of being, 340
description of, 337–338
development phases and, 344–348
expanding perspective way of being, 339
problem-solving way of being, 338–339
purposeful way of being, 339–340
Renaissance mindset in, 341
valuing, 341–344
Synergistic research process, 341–348
Synergy, in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary MMMR, 140
System thinking, in MMMR, 591–592
Szostak, R., 128
T
Tables or Tableaux? The Challenges of Writing and Reading Mixed Methods Studies (Sandelowski), 200
Tactical authenticity, 247
Tarsilla, M., 426
Tashakkori, A., 60, 467
Teams
building, 130–131, 152–153
qualitative and quantitative expertise of, 694
research environments based on, xlivii–xlviii
Technological boundaries in MMMR, xliii–xlv. See also Internet technologies, MMMR
Teddlie, C., 60, 467
Temporal framework, 409–412
Thai teenager sexual education and behavior, 84–87
Theoretical sensitivity, 598
Theoretical validity, in qualitative research, 246
Theory building and testing in social sciences, 594–605
(p. 717) empirical observations related to, 595
ex post facto explanations and, 595–596
future directions, 603–604
insufficient bridge assumptions and, 596–598
in mixed methods designs, 600–603
overview, 594–595
transferability and generalization problems and, 598–600
Theory-driven deductive approach, 116
“Theory-ladenness,” 598
Theory of Justice, A (Rawls), 702
Thick description, process inquiry based on, 656
Thomas, W. I., 191
“Tiny publics,” 191
Titus, M., 681
Tolerance as participatory MMR topic, 397–401
Transferability, in theory building and testing in social sciences, 598–600
Transformation, in interdisciplinarity, 135
Transformative and indigenous frameworks for MMMR, 91–109
conclusion, 105–107
critical analysis of, 104–105
indigenous ecological knowledge, 102–103
integration tensions, 91–93
native youth enrichment program, 103–104
philosophical assumptions, 95–102
axiological, 95–97
epistemological, 98–100
methodological, 100–102
ontological, 97–98
research paradigms, 93–95
Transformative-emancipatory perspectives, 668–672
Transformative framework, 45
Transformative paradigm and social justice branch of evaluation, 438–441
Transparency, 158, 305
Trial framework aspects, 414–417
Triangulation
to assess social science measure validity, 77–78
benchmarking, 660
completeness in, 452
confirmation as, 588
for convergence and corroboration, 194
data, 448
ethical issues in, 155
to explore science classroom experiences of black and minority women, 78–79
in Internet technologies, 516–518
investigator, 448
as mixed methods research metaphor, 310
person, 448
qualitative and participatory methods with household survey, 493–495
as reason for multimethods, 25–26, 28–29
space, 448
theory, 448
Tversky, A., 191
U
Ubiquitous computing, 550
UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, 92
UNICEF, 441
United Nations, 434
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 683
Universality-Diversity Orientation (UDO) Scale, 398
University of California-Irvine, 568
University of Illinois at Chicago, 451
University of Minnesota, 568
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 60
University of North Carolina, 193
University of Washington, 103
USCS Attitudes Toward Gender Scale, 83
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 628
Use branch of evaluation, 436–438
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), 34
U.S. National Academies, 590
U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 322
Utopia, realistic, for social/behavioral science, 702–705
V
Validity, 240–256
construct, 394
determining limits to, 36
external, 695
future directions, 253
high-quality research interpretations of, 244–249
internal, 37–38, 695
methodology in MMMR, 241–244
multiple validities concept, 701
overview, 240–241
of qualitative findings, 7
quality criteria applications in MMMR, 251–253
research quality framework examples, 249–251
threats to, 64–65
Value-added, by MMMR, 60–61
Value and dissonance in research with marginalized groups. See Marginalized groups
Values branch of evaluation, 434–436
Variables, 32–35
Variance theory model, 227, 235
Virtual approaches, digital approaches versus, 523
Voils, C. I., 167
Vulnerable populations, ethics of research on, 145
W
Walking interviews, 525, 567
Warner, W. L., 231
Washington Consensus, 487
Weber, M., 196
Weine, S., 447
Weisner, M., 550
Weisner, T., 610
West, R., 620
Wetherell, M., 375
Wikimapia, 570
Wilson, E. O., 622
Wisdom, J. P., 314
Word clouds, 568–569
World Bank, 39, 434, 487
World Health Organization, 84
World Trade Center attacks (September 11, 2001), 197–198
Writing, 296–313
conclusions, 311
framing, 302–303
integration and integrated reporting challenges, 297
organizing papers
alternate versions, reconciling, 308–309
design and methods description, 304–305
displays, 309–310
integrating results, 305–306
metaphor, 310
narration and progressive focusing, 310
overview, 303–304
reporting methods transparency, 305
representation, alternate modes of, 308
statistical and textual data, 306–308
theoretical framework in, 309
overview, 296–297
structures for, 67–68
tension and practical difficulties in, 297–302
Y
Yale University, 363
Yin, R. K., 652
Z
Zeisel, H., 231, 237