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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 601) Index

(p. 601) Index

abandonment. See also term abandonment of under name of individual tomb
of Amarna, 51
defined, 119–120
at end of New Kingdom, 477
‘Abd al-Qurna. See Qurna
Abd-el-Rassul family, 376
absolute location, 301–302
Abu Ghurab, temple at, 46
Abusir, royal tombs at, 45
Abydos
enclosures at, 45
monuments at, 330
royal necropolis at, 42, 43–44, 52
royal tombs at, 47, 48, 54, 58, 63, 64
acoustics, 511
aerial photography, 506
afterlife. See also netherworld
beliefs concerning, 41, 42, 47, 49
hierarchy of state in, 45
journey, 153
king transference to, 43, 44
landscape, 153
preparations for, 286
provisions for, 283
solar-oriented books of, 168
writing in, 284
Ahhotep (queen), 362
Ahmes-Nefertiry (queen), 67, 68
Ahmose I (king), 67, 248
Ahmose-Inhapi (Tenthapi) (queen) tomb, 364
Ahmose Nefertari (queen), 48, 75
Ahmose-Sipariri (prince), tomb of, 66
Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (king)
burial site of, 42, 49
canopic equipment of, 265
mummy, possible of, 383, 403
reburial of, 51
religious outlook of, 49
sarcophagus of, 251
Akhenaten (King), tomb of
Amarna (TA 26), 156
Valley of the Kings (WV 23)(?), 196, 484
Alexander the Great (king), 418
Allen, Susan, 124
Altenmüller, Hartwig, 553
alterations (of royal tombs), 5, 15, 121–122
Amarna
abandonment of, 51
as royal burial site, 42, 49, 77
royal move from, 286
workmen from, 76
Amarna period, 123, 156, 200, 336
Amarna royal family, 382, 383, 396, 406–411, 524
Amarna Royal Tomb Project (ARTP), 92, 130, 132, 517–518, 525
Amasis (II) (king), tomb of, 51
Amduat (netherworld book)
alternative to, 218
content of, 213
details, aligning, 146
fifth hour of, 184
first hour of, 156, 157
omission of, 220
overview of, 322–324, 327–328
sarcophagi, extracts inside, 254, 256
scenes and depictions (tombs), 138, 155, 156, 183–184, 219, 313
second hour of, 171
statues, papyrus copies inserted into, 278
sun path delineated in, 306
third hour of, 170
in Third Intermediate Period, 228
(p. 602) twelfth hour of, 37
in Twenty-first Dynasty, 228
Amen, cult of, 51
Amen, temple of, 23, 47, 50
Amen-Ra (deity), 47, 298, 424–245, 429
Amenemhat I (king), 47, 48, 63, 67–68
Amenemhat III (king), 253, 418
pyramid of, 64
Amenemopet (king), 258
Amenemope (Huy) (viceroy of Kush), tomb of (TT41), 570
Amenherkhepeshef (Prince), 350
Amenhotep I (king), 68, 75, 80, 248
Amenhotep I (king), tomb of (KV 39)(?). See KV 39 (tomb)
Amenhotep II (king)
canopic, 261, 263–264, 276
family burial arrangements of, 50
models for, 279–280
mummy of, 376, 377, 487–488
pyramid of, 63
Amenhotep II (king), tomb of (KV 35)
cache in, 365, 376, 470, 524
chariot fragments in, 281
decoration, 155–156
discovery of, 487–488
flood protection for, 553
jewelry in, 282
location of, 88
mummies in, 383, 403, 404
overview of, 192–193
plaster incisions in, 146
Ramesses V’s mummy in, 221
ritual objects in, 284
robbery in, 488
sarcophagus chamber, 155–156
sarcophagus in, 249, 250
statues in, 278
storage vessels in, 283
sunken crypt, 226
tombs, other close to, 233
usurpation and reuse of, 359
Amenhotep III (king)
family burial arrangements of, 50, 234
monuments of, 253
queen for entourage of, 233
royal court member burial arrangements of, 234
shabti of, 278
Amenhotep III (king), tomb of (WV 22)
canopic of, 264, 265
chariot fragments in, 281
decoration, 139, 146, 148, 149–150, 156
flooding, vulnerability to, 555
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87
overview of, 194–195
sarcophagus, 249–250
Amenhotep IV (king). See Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV)
Amenmesse (king), 208
Amenmesse (king), tomb of (KV 10)
alterations, 218
appropriation of, 51–52
canopic lacking in, 270
clearing and excavating, 519–521
collision of, 118
damnatio memoriae of, 337
decoration, 159, 163, 214
huts near, 92
location of, 88
measurements of, 208
overview of, 208
tombs, other, adjacent to, 218
usurpation and reuse of, 159, 350
water vulnerability of, 36
Amennakht (necropolis scribe), 31
Amennakhte (scribe), 80
Amenophis III (king), tomb of (WV 22). See Amenhotep III, tomb of (WV 22)
American Research Center in Egypt. See ARCE
amuletic objects, 284
anatomy, 385
AN B (tomb), 67, 68
aDNA). See DNA, ancient.
ancient text sources, 81, 102–103, 228, 278. See also ostraca
Anhorkhew (foreman), family of, 85
Anhorkhew (foreman), tomb of (TT 359), 85
animals, sacred, burial rites for, 295
animals, sacrifice of, 42
antechamber, 108, 174. See also Hall I
(p. 603) antiquities, illicit excavation of, 577
Anubis (deity), 42, 156, 296
figures of, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253
approaches to Valley of the Kings, 23, 24–26
ARCE (American Research Center in Egypt), 535, 550–551
archaeological field work, participants in, 567
archaeological science facilities, 389–390, 397
archaeologists, challenges faced by, 15
architecture, 77, 236–238, 298
artifacts, examination of, 375
artificial light, 95
Ashton, Baroness, 541
Asiatics, 48
ASTER (remote sensing), 507, 511
Aswan High Dam, 561
Aten (deity), cult of 156
Athene (deity), 51
Atlas of the Valley of the Kings (Weeks), 103–104, 111
Atum-Re-Khepri (deity), 167
Awakening of Osiris, 317
and the Transit of the Solar Barques, 330
Aye (king), 49, 156–157, 267
Aye (king), tomb of (KV 23)
chariot fragments in, 281
damnatio memoriae of, 336, 337–346
decoration, 139, 157, 338
flooding, vulnerability to, 555
huts found near, 92
overview of, 197
plaster incisions in, 146
plasters, 140–141
sarcophagus chamber, 157
sarcophagus in, 251–252, 252, 253
storage vessel fragments in, 283
usurpation and reuse, possible of, 350
Ayrton, Edward R.
KV 55 discovered by, 377
huts uncovered by, 521
pits discovered by, 123, 124, 125, 128
work of, 490
Badawy’s royal tomb classification, 101
Baketwerel (queen), 159, 350
bandit attacks, 224, 225
Basel University. See University of Basel
Bay (chancellor), tomb of (KV 13)
construction of, 33, 92
damnatio memoriae of, 337
entrance to, 35
flood protection for, 553
overview of, 212
princes, used for, 234
usurpation and reuse of, 348, 350
Beautiful Feast of the Valley, 298, 423, 424, 426–427, 429
Belzoni, Giovanni Batista, 203, 483–485, 517, 526, 546–547, 554, 567
Berlin Museum, 75
Bickerstaff, Dylan, 124
biomedical studies, 4–5, 375, 389–398
bipartite cosmographic tradition, 327
black pigments, 148, 149–150
blood groups, studies of, 380
blue pigment, 148, 149, 150
boat burials, 44, 46
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 482–483
boning rods, 89, 91
Book of Aker, 329
Book of Amduat. See Amduat (netherworld book)
Book of Caverns, 168, 170, 171, 220, 328–329. See also Spell of Twelve Caverns
Book of Gates
division into parts, 213
first six hours from, 157
overview of, 325–326
in Ramesside period, 167
sarcophagi, extracts inside, 253, 254, 256
scenes and texts from, 141, 142, 167, 170, 171, 219, 485
sun path delineated in, 306
Book of Nut, 220, 320–321
Book of the Day, 228, 326
Book of the Dead
overview of, 316, 317–319
ritual objects covered in, 284, 285
rituals covered in, 297
sarcophagus inscriptions from, 248
tomb texts from, 157, 213
in Twenty-second Dynasty tombs, 228
Book of the Heavenly Cow, 167, 213, 320
Book of the Night, 228, 326
(p. 604) Books of the Earth, 168, 228, 329–330
Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity. See Amduat (netherworld book)
Books of the Underworld and Sky, 316, 321–322. See also individual titles, e.g.: Amduat (netherworld book)
Boulaq Museum, 376
Breasted, James Henry, 571
British Museum, 102, 484
Broadbent, B. H., 390
Brock, E. C. (Edwin), 129, 131–132, 555
Browne, William George, 482
Bruce, James, 482
Bruyère, Bernard, 75, 435–436
building site, Valley of the Kings as, 93–94
Burial Chamber J, 108–110, 174–176
burial chambers (royal tombs)
annexes and rear complexes, 176–177
corridors converted into, 121
orientation of, 303–304
overview of, 108–109, 155–156
plasters found in, 140–141
rooms preceding, 281
sarcophagus descent into, 113
burial place, cult place relationship to, 44, 47, 48, 49
burials, intrusive, 351, 369–371, 485
buried features, locating, 509–511
Burton, Harry, 490, 548
Burton, James, 377, 485
Butehamun (scribe), 80
Buto, Lower Egyptian kings of, 50
Byrnes, Andrea, 529
Byzantine/Christian times, 474–477
caches. See also subentry cache in specific tombs: Amenhotep II (King), tomb of; KV 55; Royal Cache at Deir el-Bahri (TT 320);
creation of, 362–365
for dismantled burials, 470
of embalming material, 124, 129–130
mummies gathered into, 52, 271, 361, 362, 376, 477, 524
California Academy of Sciences, 550, 551, 552
canopics
chests, 261, 294
jars, 296
overview of, 260–271
shrines, 296
canopy, 284
Carnarvon, Lord (George Herbert), 491–492, 517
Carter, Howard
excavations by, 489, 521
flooding recorded by, 548–549, 555
home of, 24
huts uncovered by, 92
Merenptah tomb investigated by, 121, 520
mummy transport, assistance with, 381–382
oral tradition, exposure to, 577
pits discovered by, 125, 129–130
pits examined by, 128
Qurnawi, views on, 571, 572
royal tomb measurements taken by, 103
sarcophagus discovered by, 185
Thutmose III tomb surroundings investigated by, 130–131
tomb protection, role in, 488
Tutankhamun tomb and remains discovered by, 19, 377, 517, 529
videos of, 564
work of, 491–492
ceilings (royal tombs), decoration of, 147
cemetery HK6, 54
chalk, formation of, 16, 18
chamber (term defined), 100
Chamber G, 108
Chamber H, 108
chambers (royal tombs). See also burial chambers (royal tombs); subentry chambers under specific tomb
categories and functions of, 107–110
entrances to, 111
letter designations, 98, 99
niches and recesses in, 113
planning, 213
side chambers, 105, 107, 109–110, 173
staircases in, 112
terminology referring to, 98, 100
chambers (tombs), decorated, first known, 54
Champollion, Jean-François, 471, 485–486
chapels, 47, 60, 61, 77, 477
(p. 605) “Chariot Hall,” 281
chariots, 281
chisels, 88–89
Christian communities, 477, 569
chthonic deities, 312–313
classification of royal tombs
by Badawy, 101
by Kemp and Rose, 101
by Prey, 101
cliff-tombs, 33–35
climate change, 19
clothing, 282, 286
coffin/coffins
from Royal Cache at Deir el-Bahri (TT 320), 366, 367
of Merytamum (queen), 366
post-New Kingdom, 277–278
of Seti I (King), 253
stripping of, 366–367, 367, 469
of Thutmose III, 367
Coffin Texts, 293
collisions in tomb construction, 117–119
color symbolism, 147–150
commencements (defined), 122–123, 129–130. See also pits
commoners, burial of, 234–236
computed tomography, 379, 382, 383, 384, 392–393, 403–404, 411
conservation
flooding and drainage as issue in, 544
geologic challenges of, 15, 21
pros and cons, 529
reversibility in, 534–535
Coptic Christian times, 559
corner-goddesses (on sarcophagi), 251, 253
corridor (term defined), 100
Corridor B, 104–105, 169–170
Corridor C, 105, 170–171
Corridor D, 105–106, 171
Corridor G, 173–174
Corridor H, 173–174
corridors (royal tombs), 104–106, 111, 121
cosmetic equipment, 282–283
cosmic order (principle), eternalizing of, 42
cosmography, 167, 322, 327
cow-headed couch, 281
Creation of the Solar Disk, 329
Cretaceous period, 16, 18
Cross, Stephen W., 21
crowns, 282
crypt, sunken (royal tomb feature), 226
cult activities, 45
cult place, 43–44, 47, 48, 49
cult temples, 51
cultural heritage, preserving, 529
damnatio memoriae
case studies, 337–339
de facto damnatio memoriae (term), 335
definition and overview of, 335–336
political motives for, 345
questions regarding, 345–346
religious belief behind, 345
tombs associated with, 336–339
Daressey, George, 487
data syntheses, 5
Davis, Theodore
expedition house built by, 24
KV 54 investigated by, 128
pits discovered by, 123, 124
sarcophagus discovered by, 185
on tomb discoveries, 517
work of, 488–491, 497
DB 320 (royal cache), 470, 524. See also Royal Cache at Deir el-Bahri (TT 320)
dead, judgment of, 228
death
age at, 375
cause of, 375, 382, 395–396, 398
decoration, symbolism of, 307–313
Deir-el-Bahri
buildings at, 16
maps, 17
queens buried at, 50
references to, 26
royal necropolis at, 47
royal tombs at, 60, 62
sacredness of, 49
temple at, 25
Deir el-Bahri cache. See Royal Cache at Deir el-Bahri (TT 320)
Deir el-Medina
appearance and description of, 76, 504
economic conditions, 84
(p. 606) excavation of, 435–436
founding of, 75
growth of, 79
information and source materials, 75–77, 80, 81
location of, 26
ostraca from, 103
paths from, 25
purpose of, 83
surroundings, patrolling, 440
views of, 443
workforce of, 49, 76, 77–79
workmen’s village at, 435
deities
images of, 340–342
local, 51
statues of, 276–278, 277
Delta, Asiatic occupation of, 48
dematerializing methods, 537–539
Denon, Baron Dominique Vivant, 483
Derry, D. E., 382
Description of the East, and Some Other Countries, A (Pococke), 482
Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane, 571–572
destruction, 335, 339–345
Dhutmose (scribe), 80
diadems, 282
diet, biological evidence of, 375, 385
digitization, 529, 536–540
Diodorus Siculus, 471
diseases
biological evidence of, 375, 398
diagnosing, challenges of, 385
evidence of, 391–392
family associations, 396
investigating, 398
Djoser (king)
burial and tomb of, 44–45
burial complex of, 47
Khasekhemwy burial conducted by, 44
sarcophagus of, 245
Step Pyramid, 47, 52, 58, 63
DNA, ancient (aDNA), 380, 389, 390, 394–396, 405–407
DNA profiles, 382
documentaries, 401–402, 403
doorkeepers, 437–438
Dra Abu El-Naga, 48, 64, 65, 67, 68
drainage
as conservation issue, 544
human activity impact on, 548, 549
valley basin role in, 545
water amount, reducing, 544
Drovetti, Bernardino, 75
earth plasters, 140
earthquakes, 18
Eastern Valley of the Kings
abandonments, 119–120
alterations, 121–122
collisions, 117–119
commencements and pits, 122–130
entrance to, 25
huts in, 90
maps, 9–10
pits in, 497
remote sensing in, 502–503
routes to, 24
royal tombs in, 200, 497
as West Bank region, 27
East-Theban royal temples, 421
east-west aligned complex, 58
east-west orientation of tombs, 167
Eaton-Krauss, Marianne, 124
Egypt
exploration of, 481–482
geological history of, 16, 18, 19
invasion of, 482
rainfall in, 19, 30–33
Egyptian Antiquities Service, 382
Egyptian Museum in Cairo, 92
Egyptology, past-present connections in, 572–573
Eighteenth Dynasty
nonroyal tombs during, 230
queens’ burial arrangements during, 50
records from, 77
royal family member burials during, 2334
royal tombs during, 76, 88, 90, 92, 94, 102, 149, 153–156, 167, 183–197, 200, 212
royal tomb usurpation and reuse during, 348–350
royal workmen during, 75
(p. 607) sarcophagi during, 249, 250, 251
temples during, 67
tomb access eliminated after burial, 298
el-Amarna. See Amarna
electrical resistivity, 511
electron microscopy, 380, 385
electron scanning tests, 383
Eleventh Dynasty
funerary complexes, 183
Thebes-based rulers during, 46
el-Gen¯ina (later Qasr el Bubaya), 23
el-Kurru, royal cemetery at, 51
el-Lisht, royal tomb built at, 47
el-Qurn, peak of, 49, 183
El-Tarif (later Khokha), tombs at, 60, 61
embalming pits, 123, 124, 129–130
embalming ritual, 294 See also funerary ritual; mummies; mummification
Encyclopedia of Egyptology (UCLA), 7
endoscopy, 379
Entrance A, 104, 168–169
Eocene period, 18
Esna shale
characteristics of, 15, 16
formation of, 16, 18
hazards posed by, 21
maps, 17
eternal life, beliefs concerning, 137
etiological compositions, 316, 319–321
excavation debris and chippings, 545, 549, 550
expedition house surroundings, 24
facial reconstruction, 378, 393–394
Factum Arte, 530, 531, 536, 537–538, 539, 541
Factum Foundation for Digital Technology in Conservation, 531
familial relationships
Amarna royal family, 406–411
identifying or confirming, 375, 385, 398
Fathy, Hassan, 573
Ficus sycamorus (tree), 23
Fifth Dynasty, 45–46, 60
finishing (royal tombs), 150
First Dynasty
royal burial sites during, 42, 43, 44
royal tombs during, 54
tomb construction techniques during, 58
First Intermediate Period, 46, 60
first tomb in Valley of the Kings, 38, 183, 186
Five Walls (guard posts), 130, 442–444
flash floods, 19, 32, 33, 526
Fletcher, Joann, 402
flood channel, destruction of, 545
flooding
as conservation issue, 544
damaged caused by, 544–545
hydraulic response of Valley of the Kings, 550–551
impact studies, 550–552
recording of, 546–549, 555
response to, challenges of, 554
flood protection, 33, 130–131, 552–554, 555–556
food and drink, 283
fossils, 15, 20, 21
Fouquet, Daniel Marie, 379, 380
Fourth Dynasty, 58, 60
Frandsen, Paul John, 443
French Institute of Cairo, 75
funerals, mourners present at, 297
funerary complexes, 183
funerary goods. See tomb goods
funerary ritual, 293–299. See also embalming ritual; mummification
furniture, 281, 284, 286
gaming boards, 285
“gatehouse of the Tomb,” 79–80
gates, 100, 101, 111–112
gender, biological evidence of, 375
genetic analysis, 396
genetics, 401, 406–407. See also DNA
geographical features, ancient terms for, 27
geology, 15–21, 138
geology maps, 17
(p. 608) GIS (geographic information systems), 511
glass panels, 529, 563
god. See individual deities; see also deities
god (defined), 41–42
God’s Passage (term usage), 100
God’s Wives of Amun, 50
goddess. See individual deities
gold, symbolism of, 148–149
Goneim, Zakaria, 577
GPR (ground-penetrating radar), 511, 525–526, 526
graffiti, 94, 131
Granville, A. B., 379
graves, physical grouping of, 41
Great Pyramid, 45, 46
Great Tomb Robberies of the Twentieth Dynasty, The (Peet), 448, 459, 460
Greco-Roman times, 470–474, 549, 559
green pigment, 148
guard posts, 25–26, 440, 441–444. See also Five Walls
guards, 436–437
Gurob, royal burials at, 50
gypsum plasters, 140
Habu, antiquities in, 569, 572
“hall” (term defined), 100
Hall E, 106–107
Hall I, 108, 174. See also antechamber
halls (royal tombs), 106–108
hammers, 88, 89
Harsiese, “King,” tomb of, 50
Hasham Ibrahim Abdullah, 578
Hathor (deity), 49, 131, 143, 156, 339
Hatshepsut (queen)
canopic, 261, 263
DNA of, 404, 405
identifying, 411
monuments, destruction of, 336
mummy of, 377, 384, 392
names and images, destruction after reign, 335
reign of, 48, 424–425, 426
sarcophagus for, 185, 245
temple of, 76, 419, 423, 424, 425, 427, 429
tooth of, 404–405, 411
Hatshepsut (queen), tomb of (KV 20)
alteration of, 522
burial and cult places separate for, 48
decoration, 155, 245, 248
destruction not extended to, 336
entrance to, 35, 303
examination of, 485
as first, potential in Valley of the Kings, 183
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87
Hatshepsut takeover of, 348
location of, 88, 183
overview of, 188–190
Romer, J. commentary on, 186
sarcophagus, 51, 249
sarcophagus chamber, 155
storage vessels in, 283
Thutmose I, possible association with, 68, 348
Thutmose II, possible association with, 68
Hawass, Zahi, 92, 402, 555
Hay, Robert, 485, 547
Hayes, William C., 185–186
heart, weighing of, 228
Heliopolis, temples at, 426
hematite, 148, 149
heritage management, 573–576
Herodotus, 51
Hetepsekhemwy’s tomb, 54, 58
Hetherington, Nigel, 529
Hierakonpolis, cemetery at (HK 6), 54
hierarchy of state, 42, 45
hieroglyphs, colored, 214
histology, 396–397
Horemheb (king)
Amarna interlude during reign of, 77
burial of, 49
canopics, 261
models for, 279–280
reign, length of, 201
statues of, 275, 276
Horemheb (king), tomb of (KV 57)
burial chamber, 141, 142
chest fragments in, 267, 269
decoration, 139, 149, 150, 157, 214
drawing procedures in, 147
flooding of, 554
(p. 609) furniture, 281, 284
measurements of, 201–202
overview of, 201–202
relief decoration attempted in, 141, 142
Saqqara tomb abandoned for Valley of the Kings, 200
sarcophagus chamber, 167
sarcophagus in, 252
shrine near, 132
statues in, 276–277
tombs over, 117–118
wall discovered near, 130
Hornung, E., 101–102, 103
Horsheri (scribe), 80
Horus (deity), 42, 330
Horus, Four Sons of (deities)
canopic images, 267
canopic texts, 260
sarcophagi inscriptions, 245, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 257
Horus Sehertawy Intef I. See Intef I
Horus Wanakh Intef II. See Intef II
House of Life (temple scriptorium), 317
human remains, identifying, 4–5
hunting tableaux (royal tombs), 157
huntite, 148, 149, 535
hydrology, 30–37
Hyksos, 48, 64, 67
immunohistochemistry, 380, 397
Ineni (vizier), 184
inhibition agglutination test (IAT), 380
Intef I (king), 60
Intef II (king), tomb of, 60, 61, 67
Intef III (king), 47, 60
Intef V (king), 65, 66
Intef VI (king), 64–65, 65, 66, 67
Intef VII (king), 66
interpretive signs, 564
Isis (deity)
images of (sarcophagi), 248, 251, 252–253, 254, 255, 256, 257
images of (tombs), 155, 168, 308
representations, repositioning, 304
texts (canopics), 260
Isis (Queen), tomb of, 521
isotope ratio studies, 385
Itytawy, royal tombs near, 47
Iunmutef (deity), 170
James, Susan, 402
jewelry, 282
Jones, Harold, 120, 123, 127, 490
Jones, Michael, 529
K93.11 (tomb), 68
K93.12 (tomb), 68
Ka (royal), 156, 283, 342–343
Kamose, 362
Kamose, tomb of, 66, 67
Karnak
antiquities in, 569
sanctuary at, 60
temples at, 23, 47, 50
Kemp and Rose’s royal tomb classification, 101
Khaemwaset (prince), 50, 52
Khasekhemwy (king), 43–44
Khokha (formerly El-Tarif), tombs at, 60, 61
Khufu (king), 44, 245
king(s). See also individual kings
Amun-Ra, association with, 47
cult for individual, 429–430
death of, 44, 283, 294
divine rule, regeneration of, 429
divine status of, 41, 42
family burial arrangements, 50
figures, destruction to, 340
human status of, 228
netherworld journey of, 167
reburial of, 361–362
reign, length of, 203
ritual duties of, 284
rituals for individual, 298–299
statues of, 275–276, 277
transformation into Osiris, 110
kinship patterns, tracing ancient, 380
Kush, burial of rulers from, 51
KV 3 (tomb), 234, 477
KV 8 (tomb). See Merenptah, tomb of (KV 8)
KV 10 (tomb). See Amenmesse, tomb of (KV 10)
KV 12 (tomb), 118–119, 222
KV 13 (tomb). See Bay, tomb of (KV 13)
KV 14 (tomb). See Tausret, tomb of (KV 14)
KV 16 (tomb). See Ramesses I, tomb of (KV 16)
KV 17 (tomb). See Seti I, tomb of (KV 17)
KV 18 (tomb). See Ramesses X, tomb of (KV 18)
KV 20 (tomb). See Hatshepsut, tomb of (KV 20)
KV 21 (tomb), 378, 484
KV 23 (tomb). See Aye, tomb of (KV 23)
KV 29 (tomb), 36
KV 30 (tomb), 36
KV 31 (tomb), 36
KV 32 (tomb), 36, 118, 188, 233
KV 33 (tomb), 233
KV 36 (tomb). See Maiherpri, tomb of (KV 36)
KV 38 (tomb). See Thutmose I, tomb of (KV 38)
KV 39 (tomb)
abandonment, possible of, 120
communal burial arrangements in, 50
construction of, 35
owner identification for, 68, 522
as queen’s tomb, prospective, 233
re-excavation of, 378
KV 40 (tomb), 36, 234
KV 41 (tomb), 25
KV 42 (Thutmose II, possible tomb of). See Meritre-Hatshepsut, tomb of (KV 42)
KV 44 (tomb), 378, 488
KV 47 (tomb). See Siptah, tomb of (KV 47)
KV 49 (tomb), 233
KV 54 (pit), 128
KV 55 (tomb) (Amarna cache)
alterations to, 121–122, 122
construction of, 119
damnatio memoriae of, 336
discovery of, 377
excavation of, 122
flood protection for, 553–554
funerary goods in, 377
mummies in, 383, 404
rain and flash flooding covering, 32
as tomb of Akhenaten, presumed, 233
as tomb of queen, prospective, 233
water damage in, 33
water protection for, 36
KV 56 (tomb), 120, 233
KV 59 (pit), 128–129
KV 60 (tomb), 33, 384, 404
KV 63 (tomb), 4, 32, 33, 517, 526
KV 64 (tomb), 4, 36, 517
KV B (pit), 124
KV C (pit), 124–125
KV D (pit), 125
KV E (pit), 125
KV F (pit), 125–126
KV G (pit), 126
KV H (pit), 126
KV L (pit), 127
KV M (pit), 127
KV N (pit), 127
KV O (pit), 127
KV P (pit), 127
KV Q (pit), 127
KV R (pit), 127
KV S (pit), 127
KV T (pit), 127–128
landscape (Valley of the Kings), 183, 184, 544, 549
landscapes, remote sensing and, 505–511
(p. 611) Late Period, 228, 470, 477
Lefébure, Eugène, 487
Legourné. See Qurna
Lepsius, Karl Richard, 486
library, established in Luxor by Theban Mapping Project, 564
LIDAR (light detection and ranging), 509
lifespan, earthly, beliefs concerning, 41
lifestyle, biological evidence of, 375, 385
limestone
carving, 138
characteristics of, 15, 16, 18
formation of, 18
hut furnishings made of, 93
maps, 17
massif, shape of, 49
quarrying out, 88
shales below and within, 19, 21
tomb walls made of, 94
Litany of Re (Litany of the Sun)
deities, 171
in first corridor, 169, 170, 218
in first two corridors, 225
overview of, 319–320
scenes from, 167, 220
scroll-like depiction of, 138
sun god images from, 155
text of, 213
Litherland, Piers, 21
local deities, 51
location, symbolism of, 301–303
Lord of the Two Lands, 436
Loret, Victor, 185, 186, 187, 376, 487–488
Louvre Museum, 484
Lucida laser scanner, 537
Luxor Airport, 551–552
Luxor area
Christians in, 569
early explorers in, 481
geologic conditions, 18
maps, 17
Nile river course at, 23
rainfall in, 19
royal tombs at (excavation), 15
tour guides hired in, 560
tours if, 561
Luxor Museum, 378
Luxor temple, 418
Maat (deity), 104, 159, 169, 171, 174, 211, 308
Maat (principle of cosmic order), eternalizing of, 42
“magic bricks,” 284
magnetometry, 511
Maiherpri, tomb of (KV 36)
canopic of, 265
construction of, 35
entrance to, 131
models, 280
as queen’s tomb, prospective, 233
religious site near, 94
sarcophagi in, 250
water damage absence in, 33
Mariette, Auguste, 65, 486
Maspero, Gaston, 380, 381, 384, 488, 491, 577
Mathey, M., 380
measuring instruments, 89
Medinet Habu, temple at, 67
Medjay, 437, 438–441
Meketaten (princess), 156
Memphis, 43, 76, 426
Memphite necropolis, 44–46, 64
Menkaura (king), 52
Mentuherkhepshef (prince), 350
Mentuherkhepshef (prince), tomb of (KV 19). See Ramesses Mentuherkhepeshef (prince), tomb of (KV 19)
Mentuhotep II (king)
burial place of, 61–62
country united by, 60
Middle Kingdom beginning with, 47, 60
royal household tomb-chapels, 61
temple-tomb of, 60–61, 62, 63, 68
Mentuhotep III (king), 62–63
Mentuhotep IV (king), tomb of, 63
Merenptah (king)
mummy of, 379, 384
reign of, 31, 32, 206
sarcophagi of, 254, 256, 258
sarcophagi produced under, 249, 253
Merenptah (king), tomb of (KV 8)
alterations to, 121
axis of, 88
(p. 612) burial chamber, 140
canopic chest of, 270
clearance of, 520
decoration, 158, 163, 214, 219, 309
drainage installation at, 36
drawing of, 100
entrance to, 144, 145, 308
location of, 88
measurements of, 206–208
over Horemheb’s tomb (KV 57), 117–118
overview of, 206–208
pit near entrance to, 130
relief decoration at entrance to, 144, 145
resources available for, 138
ritual objects in, 284
water vulnerability of, 36
work tools and equipment discovered near, 94–95
Meretseger (deity), 49, 94, 132, 169, 183
Meritaten (princess), 285
Meritre-Hatshepsut (queen), 233
Meritre-Hatshepsut (queen), tomb of (KV 42)
clearance of, 488
construction of, 35
debate over, 68, 188
decoration, 146
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87
location of, 88
sarcophagus in, 245
unknown status of, 188
usurpation and reuse of, 348–349
Merykara (king), 46
Merytamum (queen)
burial of, 364
coffin of, 366
mummy of, 365, 366
Middle Kingdom
Coffin Texts of, 293
founding of, 47, 60
royal necropolises during, 46–48
sarcophagi during, 253–254, 258
Ministry of Antiquities, 555
models, 279–280
Möller, G., 75
monastic complex (Qurnet Murai), 504
Mond, Robert, 488
Montumose (chief of police), 80
monuments, destruction, selective in, 335–336
mortuary. See funerary
mumiya, 570, 571
mummies
autopsies of, 379, 380–381, 382
biological studies of, 383–384
clearance and reburial of, 285
dentitions of, 379
discovery of, 377–378
early accounts of, 569
examination of, 378–385
gathered into caches, 52, 271, 361, 362, 376, 477, 524
identifying, 382–383, 385, 398, 401–405
location of, 278
reburial of, 367–368
research, challenges of, 385
restoration of, 363, 365–366, 375–376
rituals for, 295
royal, 271, 285, 378, 385
transport of, 363, 366–367, 375, 376–377
treatment of, 296
mummification, 294, 295, 375. See also embalming ritual
Mummy Tissue Bank, proposed, 385
musical instruments, 285
Nakhtbasteru (queen), 51
National Antiquities Service, 486
Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II (king). See Mentuhotep II (king)
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep (king), 183
Nebtawyra Mentuhotep IV (king). See Mentuhotep IV (king)
necropolis. See also name of specific necropolis, e.g.: Theban necropolis; royal necropolises
concept and practices, 41
fortress/administrative outpost of, 441–442, 443
guards of, 436
journal, 30
plan, unknown of, 117
Neferneferuaten (king), 265
Neferrenpet (vizier), 87
(p. 613) Nefertiti (queen), 156, 383, 402–404
Nefertum (deity), 169
Neferu II (queen), tomb-chapel of, 47, 61
Negative Confession, 228
Neith (deity), 251, 257, 260
Nepherites I (king), 51
Nephthys (deity)
images of (sarcophagi), 248, 249, 251, 252–253, 254, 255, 256, 257
images of (tombs), 168, 308
representations, repositioning, 304
texts (canopics), 260
netherworld. See also afterlife
books of, 306–307
division into two sections, 329–330
king’s greeting to, 218
royal tomb representation of, 153, 167, 213
sun descent into, 307, 308, 309
Netjerikhet (Djoser) (king). See Djoser (king)
New Kingdom
burials, 281
canopics of, 266
coffins after, 277–278
flooding during, 545
founding of, 67
funerary books during, 316
painting during, 150
plasters used during, 140
rainfall during, 19, 32
route to KV during, 25
royal burial dismantling during, 360–362
royal burial sites during, 42, 497
royal necropolises during, 48–50
royal tombs during, 153
rulers, chronology of, 7–8
sarcophagi during, 249
tomb digging out during, 549
tomb usurpation and reuse during, 347
Valley of the Kings abandonment at end of, 477
West-Theban royal temples during, 422–423
Niagra Falls Museum, 378
niches (royal tombs), 105–106, 110, 113
Nile River, 18, 23
Nineteenth Dynasty
huts from, 92
nonroyal tombs during, 230
records from, 77
royal family burial arrangements during, 50
royal tombs during, 88, 102, 141, 147, 157, 167, 200–214, 303–304
royal tomb usurpation and reuse during, 350–351
sarcophagi during, 249, 256
sarcophagus inscriptions from, 248
workmen during, 77, 80, 81, 83
Ninetjer (king), tomb of, 54, 58
Niussera (king), 46
non-contact conservation, 536–540
non-contact-surface observations, 532–533
nonroyals, burials of, 477
nonroyals, mortuary ritual for, 299
nonroyal tombs
archaeology and research, 240
architecture of, 236–238
chronology of, 231–232
distinctive features of, 239–240
models not present in, 280
number and location of, 230–231
overview of, 230, 234–236
owners of, 232
searching for, 524–526
Norden, Frederic, 482
North Africa, 16, 18
northern region (Valley of the Kings), 500–501, 501
north-south orientation of tombs, 153, 155, 167
Nuri, royal cemetery at, 51
Nut (deity)
images, destruction to, 340–341, 341, 342
images of, 249, 250, 254, 338
representations in books, 326
object, biography of, 540–541
object, digitizing, storing and rematerializing, 529
offering rituals (royal tombs), 46
officials, mortuary ritual for, 299
Old Kingdom
pyramids, 45
rainfall during, 19
royal burial sites during, 44–46
royal tombs during, 48
tomb chapels during, 60
(p. 614) Opening of the Mouth ritual
depiction of, 167, 219
for mummies, 295
omission, 220
performance of, 156–157
for statues, 296
for temples, 293
orange-red pigment, 148
orientation
symbolism of, 303–305, 306–307
Orléans, Father Charles François d’, 481, 568–569
Osiris (deity)
Awakening of, 317, 330
burial elements relating to, 47–48
burial place of, 52
cult of, 43
images, destruction to, 341–342
images of, 156, 167, 169, 221
judgment of, 157, 167
king’s transformation into, 110
land of dead, authority over, 42
myth, reenactment of, 52
Re taking over former roles and functions of, 168
royal tomb parts emphasizing, 108
shrine, 309, 310
tomb of, 47
Osiris beds, 284
Osorkon II (king), 258
Osorkon II (king), tomb of (NRT-1), 227–228, 297
ostraca
examples of, 78, 102, 103
grave goods documented in, 274
royal tomb construction covered on, 77, 90
Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The (Shaw, ed.), 8
paint
glossy, 149, 150
matte, 149, 150
paint application
and color symbolism, 147–150
limited, 139
paintbrushes, royal tomb figures painted with, 89
plastering and, 140, 141
purpose of, 137
relief combined with, 139, 141, 143, 144–146, 145, 214
setting out and drawing procedures, 146
setting-out and drawing techniques prior to, 146
substrate for, 139
paint loss, 533, 534
paleohistology, 379–380, 385, 389
paleoimaging, 379, 385, 390–393
paleopathology, 394–396
paleoserology, 380
Paneb (foreman), thefts and accusations against, 456–459
Panedjem I (high priest/king), 248
panoramic photographic system, 538–539
papyri, 81, 103, 228, 278
papyri, Ramesside Tomb Robbery, 48, 274
Papyrus Abbott, 60, 61, 66, 67, 459
Papyrus Leopold II, 459
Paraloid, 534, 534
Pasebkhanut I (king), 254, 257–258
pathological conditions. See diseases
patience, virtue of, 578–579
Peet, T. E., 448, 459, 460
Peribsen (king), 43
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders, 389, 529
Pettigrew, T. J., 379
pilasters (royal tombs), 109, 112, 218
pillared hall annex Fa, 173
pillared hall F, 172–173
pillars (nonroyal tombs), 236–237
pillars (royal tombs)
chambers with, 548
decoration, 155–156
numbering and labeling of, 101
overview of, 107, 112
varying numbers of, 109
Pinedjem I (high priest/king), 226–227, 351, 363
Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, 528
pits
definition and overview, 122–123
examples of, 124–129
recently discovered and unnumbered, 129, 129–130
types of, 123–124
(p. 615) Place of Truth, guards in, 436
plasters and plastering, 138, 139–141, 146
Pococke, Richard, 103, 471, 482, 497
police, 25–26, 453
policing and site protection, 436–441
population movements, tracing ancient, 380
pottery, 92. See also ostraca
preservation, 528, 529, 565
press releases, 401–402
Preys’ royal tomb classification, 101
primary sources
documentaries as, 401–402, 403
of mummy studies, 401–402
private tombs
data about, 77
proscribed individual
representation of, erasure of, 336
Protais, Father, 568–569, 570, 572, 576
pseudo-pathology, 385
Psusennes I (king, tomb of, 51
Ptah (deity), 94
Ptolemaic period, 51
pyramids
complexes, functioning of, 46
examples of, 63–66, 65
during First Intermediate period, 46
during Fourth and Fifth dynasties, 58, 60
inscriptions on walls of, 48
Intef VI, 67
during Middle Kingdom, 47
overview of, 44–45
post-New Kingdom, 51
preservation and restoration of, 52
during Second Intermediate period, 48
stepped, 47, 52, 58, 63
Pyramid Texts, 248
Qasr el Bubaya (later el-Gen¯ina), 23
Qenherkhepeshef (scribe), 80
Quantapoint system, 536
queens. See also individual queens
burial of, 50, 51
sepulchers of, 233
tombs of, 233–234
Quibell, James, 489–490
Qurn (pyramidal peak), 183
Qurna
anthropological fieldwork in, 577
demolitions in, 567, 576
prior to demolition, 568
queens buried at, 50
visitors to, 569
Qurnawi
as archaeological field work participants, 567, 570, 572–573
diverging views on, 571–573
early travelers’ first impressions, 567–569
oral literary traditions, 576–579
reputation and identity of, 568
social behavior, 5, 569–571, 577
Qurnet Murai, 503, 504, 504–505
Ra (deity), 42, 45, 46, 47–48. See also Aten, cult of; Re; sun; sun god
“radar valleys” (term), 19
radiography, 379, 389, 390, 392
radiology, 389, 401, 407–411
rainfall, 19, 30–31, 551
Ramesses I (king)
missing body of, 378
mummy, possible of, 392–393
reign of, length of, 202
statues of, 275
Ramesses I (king), tomb of (KV 16)
burial chamber, 148
clearance work in, 486
decoration, 147, 157, 158, 161, 167, 214
discovery of, 484
entrance to, 554
measurements of, 202
overview of, 202
plaster incisions in, 146
sarcophagus chamber, 167
sarcophagus in, 252–253, 257
Ramesses II (king)
brazier of, 285
burial of, 49
canopics, 261
facial reconstruction of, 378, 393–394
head of, 484
mummy of, 379, 384
shabtis of, 279, 285
Ramesses II (king), reign of
huts used during, 93
(p. 616) length of, 204
rainfall during, 30, 32
tomb security measures during, 200
tomb size increase during, 549
Ramesses II (king), sons of, facial reconstruction of, 378, 393–394
Ramesses II (king), sons of, tomb of (KV 5)
examination of, 485
mummies in, 377, 393–394
overview of, 3, 50, 234
rainfall impact on, 32
Ramesses II takeover of, 349–350
size of, 549
water protection for, 36
Ramesses II (king) tomb of (KV 7)
alterations to, 121
burial chamber, 547
canopic chest in, 269
clearance work in, 486
cosmetic objects in, 282–283
decoration, 158, 162–163, 168, 169, 219
entrance to, 168, 169
flooding of, 546, 547
flood protection for, 552
location of, 88
measurements of, 204, 206
overview of, 204, 206
rainfall impact on, 32
reexamination of, 4
sarcophagus in, 253
shaft, 37
size of, 549
textual program of, 213
water protection for, 36
water vulnerability of, 36
Ramesses III (king)
canopic not found for, 270
death, cause of, 384, 392
death, rituals following, 298–299
mummy of, 384, 392
reign of, 81, 84, 92
sarcophagus of, 24, 253, 255, 256, 257, 484
shabtis of, 279
Ramesses III (king), tomb of (KV 11)
chambers, 99
collision of, 118
decoration, 159, 164, 169, 170, 219
discovery of, 482
drawing of, 99
entrance to, 88, 169
flooding of, 554
food preparation scenes in, 283
goods, 118
huts near, 92
overview of, 218
religious site near, 94
Seti I template followed by, 168
shrine near, 132
takeover of Sethnakht’s tomb (KV 11) for, 351
usurpation and reuse of, 351
water vulnerability of, 36
Ramesses IV (king), reign of
huts constructed during, 92, 94
legitimate nature of rule, 298
rainfall, possible during, 31, 32
workmen during, 81, 93
Ramesses IV (king), shabtis of, 267
Ramesses IV (king), tomb of (KV 2)
burial chamber, 220
canopic equipment in, 270–271
conversion into church, 477
decoration, 159, 165, 170, 171, 219–220, 278
drawing procedures, 147
entrance to, 87, 169
flood protection for, 522
goods, 274
location of, 87, 222
plans and drawings, 103, 222, 249
relief decoration attempted in, 144, 146
sarcophagus in, 256–257
settlements near, 549
statues in, 278
themes emphasized in, 168
Ramesses V (king)
burial of, 220–221, 523–524
death of, 384–385
mummy of, 221, 379, 384–385, 523
reign of, 31, 32, 118
Ramesses V (king), tomb of (KV 9). See Ramesses VI (king), tomb of (KV 9)
Ramesses VI (king), 31, 32, 118–119, 365, 523
Ramesses VI (king), tomb of (KV 9)
alterations to, 122
(p. 617) burial chamber, 221, 311
calcite fragments in, 271
construction of, 33, 118–119
decoration, 146, 147, 160, 165, 169, 171
flood protection for, 552–553
in Greco-Roman times, 471
huts near, 92, 93, 444
location of, 222, 222
measurements of, 220
over Horemheb’s tomb (KV 57), 117–118
overview of, 523
ownership of, 220
plastering, 141
recording of, 485–486
robber entry into, 222
sarcophagus in, 253, 256
takeover of tomb of Ramesses V (KV 9) for, 351
tombs, other compared to, 226
Ramesses VII (king), 92, 271
Ramesses VII (king), tomb of (KV 1)
axis of, 88
decoration, 146, 160, 165–166, 168, 169, 170
drawing techniques, 147
entrance to, 168
flood protection for, 552
location of, 222
mummy sheltering in, 257
plan of, 222–223
Ramesses VIII (king), 223, 523
Ramesses VIII (king), tomb intended for. See Ramesses Mentuherkhepeshef’s tomb (KV 19)
Ramesses IX (king), 84, 271, 365–366
Ramesses IX (king), tomb of (KV 6)
burial chamber plastering, 141
construction of, 33, 119, 223–225
corridors, 224
decoration, 146, 160, 166, 168, 169, 170
entrance to, 168
flood protection for, 552
huts near, 92, 93
Ramesses X (king), 85, 226
Ramesses X (king), tomb of (KV 18)
axis of, 88
canopic lacking in, 271
construction of, 94, 225–226
decoration, 161, 166, 168, 169–170
entrance to, 88, 168, 488
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87
huts near, 90, 92, 94
material arrangement in, 226
rainfall impact on, 32
sarcophagus in, 257
Ramesses XI (king), successors of, 360–361
Ramesses XI (king), tomb of (KV 4)
abandonment of, 227
burial of, 226
canopic lacking in, 271
construction of, 94, 226–227, 360
corridors of, 227
decoration, 161, 166, 168, 170
entrance to, 88, 168
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87
reuse of, 351
sarcophagus in, 257
themes emphasized in, 168
Ramesses Mentuherkhepeshef (prince), tomb of (KV 19)
construction of, 33, 94
discovery of, 484
intrusive burial in, 351
overview of, 234
royal family burial in, 50
tomb intended for Ramesses VIII, 50, 234, 351
Ramesses Setherkhepshef (prince). See Ramesses VIII (king)
Ramesside royal tombs, 167–177, 277, 455–459
ramps (royal tombs), 112
rebirth, 49, 137, 153, 286
recesses (royal tombs), 113
Re (Re-Horakhty) (deity). See also Aten, cult of; Ra; sun; sun god
flesh of, 310
images of, 169, 220, 221
king greeted in netherworld by, 218
netherworld journey of, 167
Osiris roles and functions, former taken on by, 168
royal tomb parts emphasizing, 107
tomb chamber references to, 104
(p. 618) red pigment, 150
Reeves, C. N., 448
Reid, D. M., 560
relative location, 302–303
relief decoration
examples of, 142, 143, 145
ideals and realities, 141, 144, 146
introduction of, 147
overview of, 141–146
painting combined with, 139, 141, 143, 144–146, 145, 214
religious processions, 23
religious sites, 94
rematerializing, 539–540
Re-Osiris (deity), 327
representation, writing and, 305–306
restorations, problems inherent in, 533–534
reversibility (term defined), 534–535
Rhind, Alexander, 486, 517
Rhind, Henry, 577
ritual landscapes, 42, 43, 49
ritual objects, 283–284
rock, excavating, 88
rock carving. See relief decoration
rock support, 138–139
Roentgen, Wilhelm Conrad, 389
Rome, excavating, 528
Romer, John, 186, 187
royal burials
discovery of, 376
dismantling of, 360–362, 469–470
importance of, 42
location of, 51
Middle Kingdom innovations in, 47–48
protecting, 27
Royal Cache at Deir el-Bahri (TT 320)
coffins from, 366, 367
description and overview of, 362
discovery of, 487
first recorded burials made in, 365
Inhapi cache transferred to, 364
mummies from, 384, 404, 488
royal cemeteries, 63, 64
royal children, burial of. See Ramesses II (king), sons of, tomb of (KV 5)
royal court members, burial of, 51
royal cubit (mH), 89–90
royal families, burial of, 50, 234
royal funeral ceremonies, 23
royal funeral processions, 24
royal funerary cult, 417–418
royal funerary objects, 285
royal funerary texts, 138, 213, 306–307, 360
royal mortuary complex, 45
royal mummies, 271, 285, 378, 385
Royal Necropoleis of Thebes, The (Thomas), 4, 5, 492
royal necropolises
beliefs and practices, 42
establishment of, 60
during Middle Kingdom, 47–48
during New Kingdom, 48–50
nonroyal individuals buried in, 230
during Old Kingdom, 44–46
postburial activity and attitudes, later toward, 51–52
post-New Kingdom, 50–51
during Seventeenth Dynasty, 66–67
royal relatives, mortuary ritual for, 299
royal tomb decoration
Amarna and post-Amarna period, 156–157
Eighteenth Dynasty, 155–156
evolution of, 298
influences, 137–139
interior, 137, 138–139
Nineteenth Dynasty, 157–167, 205, 213–214
overview of, 137
painting (see paint application)
plasters, 139–141
Ramesside period, 167–177
relief carving (see relief decoration)
sequencing and finishing, 150
(p. 619) setting-out and drawing procedures, 146–147
solar symbolism, 303–304
symbolism of, 307–313
royal tombs
alterations, 5, 15, 121–122
ancient text sources, 81, 102–103, 228, 278 (see also ostraca)
angles of descent, 218
appropriation of, 51–52, 352–357
architectural elements, letter designations for, 98, 99, 104–111, 168–176, 187
basic structure, 200
classifications of, 101–102
component parts, 98–113
construction delays, 224, 225
construction of, 49, 76, 77, 88–90, 212, 436–437
design and planning of, 58, 103–104, 212–213
distribution of, 45
and drawings, 103–104
earliest, 54–68
entrances to, 33–34, 35, 36, 104, 168–169, 218
evolution of, 54–68
excavations, 103
flooding of, 544, 546–548
foundation deposits and rites, 87–88
goods, tomb goods
grouping of, 42
guards of, 436–437
hidden, 49, 298
impressions of, 569
innovations in, 46
location of, 44, 87–88
measurements of, 203
modern sources on, 103–104
pre-Valley of the Kings, 55–58
protection of, 488
pyramids, 44–45
Ramesside period, 167–177
rituals for, 297–298
study sources, 102–104
sun’s path replicated by, 49
symbolic aspects of, 301–314
terminology, ancient 100, 305
terminology, architectural terms, 98, 100–101
tourism versus preservation of, 529–531
types of, 33–37
usurpation and reuse of, 159, 335, 347–358
valuables stripped from, 52
Ruffer, M. A., 379–380, 389
Rutherford, J., 552, 553, 554
sacrifice
animal, 42
human, 42
saff (term defined), 60
Saff el-Qisasiya, Plan of, 61
saff tombs, 46, 47, 60
Saharan region, rainfall in, 18
Said Pasha, Mehmed, 486
Sais, Lower Egyptian kings of, 50
Salt, Henry, 24, 75, 483–484
sanctuaries, 131
San el-Hagar (Tanis), royal tombs at, 227–228
Saqqara
private tombs at, 200
royal burials at, 44, 45, 50
royal cemetery at, 44, 45, 54, 58
royal necropolises at, 46
SAR (synthetic aperture radar), 511
sarcophagi
descent into burial chamber, 113, 121
design of, 249
location in tomb, 109
orientation of, 304–305
overview of, 245–258
texts on, 248
underworld books and elements in, 228
satellite imagery, 506
satellite imagery data processing, 506–507
scepters, 282
Schaden, Otto
excavations by, 521
huts found by, 92
KV 63 discovered by, 526
pottery found by, 92
aided by tomb collision, 118
WV 23 cleared by, 484
Schiaparelli, E., 75
scientific studies, source material for, 375–378 (p. 620)
scribes, 31, 81
Seankhkara Mentuhotep III. See Mentuhotep III
sea urchins, 15, 18, 20, 21
Second Dynasty, 43, 54, 58
Second Intermediate Period, 48
seismic methods (remote sensing), 511
Selqet (deity), 251, 257, 260
Semenkhare (king), 383
Senakhtenre Ahmose (king), 66
Senenmut (chief steward), 249
Sennefer (mayor), tomb of (KV 42). See Meritre-Hatshepsut (queen), tomb of (KV 42)
Senusret I (king), 47, 63
Senusret III (king), 47
Senwosret III (king), 63–64, 253
Seqenenre Taa-aa (king), phantom name, 66
Seqenenre-Tao II (king), mummy of, 383–384
sequencing (royal tombs), 150
serological micromethod (SMM), 380
Sethirkhopshef C (prince). See Ramesses VIII (king)
Sethnakht (king), 144, 147, 254, 255, 270
Sethnakht (king), intended tomb for (KV 11). See Ramesses III (king), tomb of (KV 11)
Sethnakht (king), tomb of (KV 14). See Tausret (queen), tomb of (KV 14)
Seti I (king)
cenotaph of, 330
coffin of, 253
reign of, 32, 92, 202–203
shabtis of, 279, 280
Seti I (king), temple of, 20, 21, 24
Seti I (king), tomb of (KV 17)
canopic chest from, 269
closure of, 530
construction of, 92
damage to, 540–541
decoration, 158, 161–162, 167, 170, 213
discovery of, 485, 526
entrance to, 36, 554
flooding and protection measures, 546–548
hut near, 92
measurements of, 202–204
overview of, 3, 202–204
relief decoration in, 141, 143, 214
resources available for, 138
restoration of, 488
sarcophagus in, 253
size of, 549
statues in, 278
template, 167, 168
work in, 531
Seti II (king), 208, 276, 549
Seti II (king), tomb of (KV 15)
angles of descent, 218
canopic lacking in, 270
chariots in, 281
construction of, 33, 92
decoration, 141, 158, 163, 169, 170, 214, 220
entrance to, 35
goods, 274
location of, 88
measurements of, 208–209
overview of, 208–209
relief decoration attempted in, 141, 144, 146
restoration of, 488
sarcophagus lid in, 254
statues in, 276, 277
usurpation and possible reuse of, 348, 349, 350
Seventeenth Dynasty, 48, 66–67
shafts, 106, 107, 237–238
shaft tombs, 35–36
shales, 19, 21
Shaw, Ian, 8
Shoshenq I (Sheshonq I) (king), 271, 470
Shoshenq III (king), 258
Shoshenq III (king), tomb of (NRT-V), 227–228
shrines, 77, 131–132
Shuroy (brazier carrier), tomb of (TT 13), 64
Sicard, Father Claude, 481–482, 497
Siculus, Diodorus, 471
side-chamber Faa, 173
SIDIO white light scanning system, 538
Siptah (king)
canopic chest of, 270
mummy of, 384
reign of, 209
sarcophagus of, 253, 254–255, 255, 256
Siptah (king), tomb of (KV 47)
(p. 621) angles of descent, 218
construction of, 89, 90, 91, 92
damnatio memoriae of, 337
decoration, 159, 164, 170
figures, painting in, 89
fragments found in, 233
huts near, 92
investigation of, 118
location of, 88
measurements of, 209
overview of, 209
pits near, 127–128
usurpation and reuse, possible of, 350
site location, 59
site protection. See also tomb robbery: security and prevention measures
guard posts, 441–444
policing and, 436–441
security failures, inspections following, 444
topographical considerations, 433–436
tourism versus, 565
understanding, 5
workmen’s huts role, possible in, 435–436, 444–445
Sitre-In (royal wet nurse), 404
Sixth Dynasty, 60
Smith, Elliot (Sir Grafton Elliot)
background, 381
mummies examined by, 380, 391, 523
mummy unwrapped by, 384
radiography advocated by, 381–382
Sobekemsaf I (king), tomb of, 66
social behavior, storytelling as guide to, 577
Sokar (deity), 42
solar disk motif, 308
solar symbolism, 303–304. See also sun; sun god
solar temples, 45–46
southern region (Valley of the Kings), 503–505
Spell of Twelve Caverns, 324–325
staircases (royal tombs), 112
stairs, nonroyal tombs with, 236–237
statues as grave goods, 275–278, 277
stelae, 77
Step Pyramid, 47, 52, 58, 63
steps (royal tombs), 112
stone weights, 89
storytelling, traditional, 577, 578
stream-flows, 34
Sudan, 16
sun
nocturnal journey of, 153, 155, 213, 307
path of, 307–311, 309
sundial, 95–96
supernatural realm, entrances to, 41
Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA)
biomedical studies conducted by, 389–390, 392
digging by, 555
huts excavated by, 90, 92
Nefertiti mummy identification, possible not discussed with, 402
restoration efforts, 570
tomb clearances by, 520–521
tomb preservation measures, 530
tombs excavated by, 118
symbolism
color symbolism, 147–150
of decoration, 307–313
of designation, 305
of location, 301–303
of orientation, 303–305, 306–307
overview of, 313–314
solar, 303–304
of text, 305–307
TA 26 (tomb), 156
Taa-aa (phantom name), 66
Takelot I (king), 258
Takhat (queen), tomb of Amenmesse (king) (KV 10) reused for, 159, 350
Takhuit (queen), tomb of, 51
Tanis, 50, 51
Tausret (queen)
burial chamber, 147
canopic not found for, 270
mummy, possible of, 376
reign of, length of, 210
sarcophagus for, 255
(p. 622)
Tausret (queen), tomb of (KV 14)
alterations to, 210–212
construction of, 33, 92
damnatio memoriae of, 337
decoration, 159, 164, 168, 169, 170–171
entrance to, 35
flood protection for, 553
goods, 274
location of, 88
measurements of, 210–212
overview of, 210–212
plaster used in, 144
usurped by Sethnakht, 159
sun’s journey in, 312–313
tombs, other compared to, 218–219
usurpation and reuse of, 348, 350–351
technology, developments in, 535–536
television documentaries, 403
Tem (queen), 47, 61
temenos tombs, 50–51
temples
in Eastern Thebes, 421
foundation ritual, 293
funerary/mortuary temples, 58, 212, 58, 293
robbery of, 460–461
in Western Thebes, 417–430
temple-tombs, 60–61
text, symbolism of, 305–307
text sources (royal tombs), 81, 102–103, 228, 278. See also ostraca
Theban communities, modern, 571, 574
Theban foothills, central area of, 568
Theban Mapping Project (TMP)
3D plans and models produced by, 536
architectural terms adopted by, 98, 100, 100
flooding impact and hydraulic response studies, 550–551
pillar numbering and labeling system, 101
publications, 103–104, 111
sonar surveys, 511
tomb visitor impact studied by, 562
tourism, facilitating by, 564
website, 5, 98, 104, 536
Theban necropolis
conservation of, 575
cultural landscape of, 573
earliest known tombs at, 60
folk stories from, 576–579
impressions of, 570, 572
indigenous community, 576
literary texts in, 577
map of, 11
in Middle Kingdom, 47
overview of, 46
re-establishment of, 156
royal tomb construction at, 77
as social landscape, 567–568, 576
Theban Plateau, 20
Thebes
collapse of, 560
Egyptian rule centered on, 64
recognizing, difficulty of, 481
royal tombs at, 43, 283
temples at, 417–430
west bank, rainfall on, 30
thermography, 511
Third Dynasty, 58
Third Intermediate Period, 227–228, 271, 285, 469, 477
Thirteenth Dynasty, 48, 64, 245
Thirtieth Dynasty, 51
Thomas, Elizabeth
chamber designations adopted by, 98
pits discussed by, 123, 124, 126
royal tomb architectural letter designations adopted by, 98, 187
royal tomb shafts, theories concerning, 107
works by, 4, 5, 492
Thoth (deity), 251, 253
Thoth Hill, temples on, 18
Thutmose I (king)
burial of, 68
canopics, 261, 262–263
as founder of Deir el-Medina, 75
mummy of, 404, 405
reburials of, 51, 245, 249
Thutmose I (king), tomb of (KV 20). See Hatshepsut (queen), tomb of (KV 20)
Thutmose I (king), tomb of (KV 38)
as burial place, 68
decoration, 155
entrance to, 35
as first in Valley of the Kings, 183
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87 (p. 623)
inscriptions, 138
location of, 88, 185, 185
overview of, 184–188
plan and elevation of, 186
plaster, 140
as prototype, 188
sarcophagus chamber, 155
sarcophagus in, 185–186, 248, 263
Thutmose II (king), 68, 404, 522
Thutmose II (king), tomb of (KV 42). See Meritre-Hatshepsut (queen), tomb of (KV 42)
Thutmose III (king)
coffin of, 367
models for, 279–280
mummy of, 404
reign of, 48
sarcophagi made under, 249
sarcophagus of, 263
temple of, 76, 425–426
Thutmose I reburial by, 51
Thutmose III (king), tomb of (KV 34)
Amduat, text and vignettes from, 183, 184
decoration, 138, 149, 155
discovery of, 487
earliest tomb in Valley of the Kings, 68
entrance to, 35, 35, 87
flood protection for, 553
foundation deposit for, 130
graffiti near, 94
location of, 88
overview of, 190–192
pits near, 128
plaster, 140
ritual objects in, 184
sepulcher of, 233
surroundings, 130–131
tombs, other near, 233
Thutmose IV (king)
canopic of, 264, 265
family burial arrangements of, 50
Medjay under, 439
monuments of, 253
mummy of, 379, 381–382
pottery dating from reign of, 90
royal court member burial arrangements of, 234
sarcophagus of, 256
Thutmose IV (king), tomb of (KV 43)
bread and grain in, 283
chariot fragments in, 281
decoration, 89, 146, 156
foundation deposits in front of entrance to, 87
furniture, 281
location of, 88
overview of, 193–194
ritual objects in, 284
Tia’a (queen), 264, 350
Tia’a (queen), tomb of (KV 32), 36, 118, 188, 233
Tiye (queen)
burial of, 233
image, destruction of, 339
lock of hair from, 285
mummy, possible of, 377, 383, 403
Tjuiu (superintendent of the harem), visceral bundle of, 262
Toivari-Vittala, Jaana, 436
tomb 100, 54
tomb-commencements (defined), 122–123. See also pits
tomb goods
appropriation and reuse of, 347, 360, 361, 368–369, 469–470
overview of, 274–286
theft of, 448
tomb robbers, descendants of, 571, 572
tomb robbery
description of, 449, 451–453
examples of, 450–459
grave goods stolen in, 274
post-Amarna period, 454–455
Ramesside period, 455–459, 469
restorations following, 453–454
security and prevention measures, 200, 361, 433–445, 434, 448–449, 453
so-called, 84, 85
timing of, 450
“tomb-robber’s pit,” 106–107
understanding, 5
vulnerability to elements in wake of, 19
water protection after, 33
(p. 624)
tombs. See also royal tombs
alignment of, 303
conservation of, 563
construction of, 15, 19, 33, 36, 94–96, 95, 293
design, adaptations to, 15, 121–122
digging out of, 549
digitizing, 535
excavations, challenges to, 15, 21
flooding of, 550
flood protection, 552–554
foundation ritual, 293
functions of, 41, 137
humidity within, 21
iconography, 138–139
lighting of, 563
names, 49
numbering of, 6–7, 485
orientation of, 153, 155, 167
overview, 3
photographing of, 564
physical grouping of, 41
plans and drawings, 33, 122
position of, 34
recording of, 485–486, 528–541
reuse of, 347
saff tombs, 46, 47, 60
search for, 517–526
settlements near, 549
shafts (“robber’s shafts”), 36–37
sharing of, 347
structural repairs to, 563
studying, 4–5
survival rate of, 42
temenos tombs, 50–51
terminology, 26–27
visitor experience, improving, 564
water damage, 33, 36
water protection for, 33–37, 35
Tombs of the Kings, routes to and from, 24, 26
toponyms, 23–27
torch, ritual use of, 296–297
tourism
in Byzantine/Christian times, 474–477
facilitating and facilities, 561–563
future of, 564–565
in Greco-Roman times, 471, 472–474
importance of, 544
overview of, 559–565
preservation versus, 528, 565
royal tombs as object of, 4
tombs prepared for, 293, 338, 345
topographic impact of, 549–550
Travels in Africa, Egypt and Syria (Browne), 482
Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (Bruce), 482
TT 41 (tomb), 570
TT 155, burial sites, possible near, 67
TT 359 (tomb), 85
Turin Museum, 75, 484
Tutankhamun (king)
ancestry of, 411
Aye’s tomb possibly originally intended for, 157
canopic coffinette usurped for, 265
death of, 286, 382
DNA profile of, 382
facial reconstruction of, 393
family tree of, 395, 405
funerary feast for, 128
models for, 279
mummification deposits, 295
mummy of, 377, 382, 392, 403
reburials arranged by, 51
studies on, 571
treasures of, 4
Tutankhamun (king), tomb of (KV 62)
burial chamber, 140, 148, 149, 284, 531, 534
canopics, 261, 266, 296
clearance of, 492
clothing, 282, 286
cosmetic objects, 282
decoration, 139, 147, 148, 149, 150, 156
deterioration and restoration attempts, 533–534
discovery of, 444, 517, 549–550
facsimile of, 531
flooding of area, 19, 32
flood protection for, 553
furniture, 281, 284, 286
goods, 274, 284, 285, 286
huts near, 92
loss of location for, 32 (p. 625)
mummy, scene showing, 294
overview of, 196–197
pits near, 128
plasters, 140–141
preservation of, 298, 541
ritual objects, 297
robbing of, 19, 450–454, 460
sarcophagus chamber, 156
sarcophagus in, 249, 251, 252, 253
sarcophagus of, 538
search for, 572
security for, 453
shabtis, 278–279
shrine, 284
statues, 275–276
storage vessels, 283
takeover of private tomb, possible, 350
tourism of, 529–530, 549–550
videos of, 564
water damage absence in, 33
water protection for, 36
weapons, 281
work done in, 5, 531
Twentieth Dynasty
Deir el-Medina during, 79
huts used during, 93
political and chronological background, 458–459
records from, 77
religious site dating from, 94
royal family burial arrangements during, 50
royal family member burials during, 234
royal tombs during, 88, 90, 102, 168, 200, 218–228, 222, 249, 303–304
royal tomb usurpation and reuse during, 351–352
sarcophagi during, 250, 256
tomb robberies in, 457–459
workmen during, 77, 80, 82, 84
Twenty-fifth Dynasty, 51, 260, 285
Twenty-first Dynasty
Amduat during, 228
funerary books prior to, 316
political division, 360–361
royal tombs during, 50
sarcophagi during, 254
tomb robberies, so-called during, 85
Twenty-second Dynasty, 228, 257, 351
Twenty-sixth Dynasty, 51
Twenty-third Dynasty, 50
UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 7
Umm el-Qaab, 52, 54
Umm el-Qaab cemetery, 42, 43
underworld. See netherworld; afterlife
UNESCO, 573–576
units of measurement, 89–90
universe (concept), 147–148
University of Basel
3D color recording, participation in, 341
areas cleared by, 126, 128
areas investigated by, 131
concessions of, 127, 130
excavations carried out by, 94–95
Kings’ Valley Project, 521–526
pits investigated by, 118, 128, 129
queen’s tomb identified by, 233
usurpation, 335, 347
valley buildings, 58
Valley of the Kings (Reeves), 448
Valley of the Kings (Weeks and Hetherington), 529
Valley of the Kings (KV) overview, 3–4, 498–505
Valley of the Queens
burials in, 50
earthquake damage in, 18
need for, 525
references to, 26
tomb construction in, 75
tombs for royal sons in, 234
as West Bank region, 27
Village du Col, 435, 444
Visitors Center, 24, 25, 564
visitors to Valley of the Kings. See also tourism
in Byzantine/Christian times, 474–477
in Greco-Roman times, 472–474
in Late Period, 470
vizier, authority and duties of, 80, 83–84, 87, 212
Voyage d’Egypte et de Nubie (Norden), 482 (p. 626)
walls (royal tombs), 130–131, 147
Waly, Tarek, 541
Warburton, Eliot, 560
weapons, 281
weather, sources on, 30–33
Weeks, Kent, 103–104, 111, 529
Weigall, Arthur, 490, 491
well-room chamber E, 172
Wendjebauendjed (general), burial of, 51
Wescher, C., 471–472
West Bank, 23–24, 27
Western Thebes
discoveries, potential future in, 497
guards in, 436–437
maps, 498
security, 434
temples in, 417–430
Western Valley of the Kings
abandonments, 119
activity in, 497
graffiti in, 31
huts in, 90, 92, 93
maps, 10
pits, 123, 124
routes to, 24
royal tombs in, 157, 195, 196
storehouses in, 125
unfinished tombs in, 119
as West Bank region, 27
West-Theban royal temples
iconographic program, temple theology, and cult of, 426–429
names of, 418–422
during New Kingdom, 422–423
overview of, 417–418
topography, layout, and function of, 424–426
white light recording, 537–538, 538
white pigments, 148
Wilkinson, John Gardner, 6, 66, 471, 485
Wilkinson, Richard H., 338
Winckelmann, Joachim, 528–529, 541
wisdom, patience as head of, 578–579
wooden doors, gates with, 111
workmen
absentee lists, 83
administration and organization of, 76, 78–79, 80–82, 83–84
increase in, 93
information and source materials, 75–77
necropolis administration of, 26
path taken by, 25
pits for, 123
religious practices, 94
self-contained community of, 49
as state employees, 80
techniques and tools, 88–89
wages and grain rations, 82–83
workmen’s huts
contents of, 92–93
discovery of, 118, 128
excavations of, 5, 90, 92
excavations under, 521
location of, 435
overview of, 90, 92–94
security role, possible of, 435–436, 444–445, 519
workplace function of, 79
World Heritage Sites, 3, 573–574
World Museum Liverpool, 282
WorldView-2 findings, 507–508, 511
WorldView-3 potential, 508, 511
writing and representation, 305–306
writing equipment, 284
WV 23 (tomb), 196, 484
WV 24 (tomb), 90, 92
WV 25 (tomb), 90, 92
X-ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies (Harris and Wente), 390
X-ray cephalometry, 390–391
X-rays, 389, 397
yellow pigments, 148, 149, 150
Yuya (father of the god) and Tjuiu (superintendent of the harem), mortuary ritual for, 299
Yuya (father of the god) and Tjuiu (superintendent of the harem), tomb of (KV 46)
(p. 627) Amenhotep III family members buried in, 234
canopics, 265
chariot in, 281
discovery of, 489–490
furniture in, 284
models in, 280
mummies in, 377
sarcophagi in, 250–251, 253
visceral bundle from, 262
water damage absence in, 33