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date: 21 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The first identifiable “royal” tombs date to the late Predynastic period, followed by examples at the Abydos and Saqqara during the Early Dynastic period. These comprised the burial place, an adjacent offering place, and a monumental enclosure some distance away. These elements were fused, with the addition of a stepped pyramid, in the tomb of Djoser at the beginning of the Third Dynasty, Around the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty the funerary complex was reconfigured, shifting from a stepped to a true pyramid, and replacing the rectangular enclosure with a linear arrangement. This remained dominant through to the early Thirteenth Dynasty, although local Theban forms of saff and temple-tombs were used during the Eleventh Dynasty. Much smaller pyramids were built for the kings of the Seventeenth Dynasty, with a final large one for Ahmose I, although the details of his interment(s) and that of Amenhotep I continue to present problems.

Keywords: Abydos, Dahshur, Deir el-Bahri, Dra Abu’l-Naga, Giza, pyramid, saff, Saqqara, temple-tomb

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