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date: 23 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The depositions of flash-flood debris attest rainfalls for the millennia before the Valley of the Kings was used as a burial ground. Four graffiti left during the New Kingdom on different spots in the royal necropolis witness rainfalls during that period. According to the dates mentioned in these graffiti, the rainfalls did not occur during the expected period, in winter, but later in the year. This peculiarity is probably the reason the graffiti were written. The threat to royal tombs of intruding rainwater was already considered when they were in the planning stage. Various solutions were envisaged to protect the tombs against flooding. During the Eighteenth Dynasty the entrances were blocked, walled up and filled with debris, and from the Nineteenth Dynasty onward the entrances’ placement was high above the valley bottom so that they would not be reached by flash-flood water.

Keywords: weather, rainfall, runoff, drainage patterns, flood protection in antiquity, graffiti, flash flood, blocking of entrances, placement of entrances

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