Abstract and Keywords
During the New Kingdom, stone rectangular sarcophagi were almost entirely the province of kings, a standard cartouche-shaped type being developed under Hatshepsut and Thutmose III and used until the death of Amenhotep III. During the remainder of the dynasty, a rectangular design with protective figures at the corners was adopted, until Ramesses I reverted to the older shape. No stone sarcophagi were used by Seti I and Ramesses II, but Merenptah uniquely possessed a nest of three, the lids of the inner two introducing a recumbent figure on top would be standard until the mid-Twentieth Dynasty. Under Ramesses VII (and perhaps Ramesses IX) the conventional sarcophagus was replaced by a cutting in the floor of the burial chamber, covered by a deep, hollow lid. The burial chamber of Ramesses XI had an unfinished deep shaft in the center that may have been intended to contain or substitute for a sarcophagus.
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