Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 February 2020

(p. 703) Index

(p. 703) Index

A
absolute pitch, music technology for assessing brilliance, 442–443
academic buoyancy, as form of resilience enabling management of low-level setbacks and challenges, 663
academic entrepreneurship (AE), 601–606
access to music learning
adults, 227
digital systems, engagement with, 554–556
special abilities and special needs students, 67–71
acculturation. See migration
acoustic illusions, 179
activation/inspiration of musicians and scholars, 603
active vs. passive participation, social capital in community music organizations, 123, 126
adaptability, as self-regulation in face of uncertainty, change, transition, or novelty, 663
adapted classes and equipment. See special abilities and special needs students
adolescence
at-risk youth. See at-risk youth
personal music identification, adolescent peer status, 658–660
prodigies, 46
adults and adult music learning
generally, 223–315
access to music education, 226–228
age, musical choices and, 234, 306
arts participation, 226
attendance rates for arts and music, 226
best practices for adult music education, 227
business creativity, 226
characteristics of adulthood, 225
contexts for adult music learning, 243–256
cultural issues, 309
enculturation in music, 250–251
international perspectives, 303–315
migrants, musical cultures of, 307
defined, 258–259
ensembles, 247–249, 278–279, 283
ethnomusicology, 250, 251, 283
experiential learning, 250–252
family relationships, role in music education, 307
formal learning, 223, 244–248, 309, 311
goals of adult music education, 223–225
group music participation, 304–306, 311–313
and identity, 244, 261, 305, 313
informal music education, 309
informal music learning, 244–246, 250–252
learning by ear, 251–252
learning by feel, 251–252
learning theories, 259–261, 265
lifelong learning, 224–225, 227
complexity of, 243
migrants, musical cultures of, 307
music teachers
crossing generational borders, 257–272 See also teachers
musically saturated environments, 244
musicians, lifelong learning for, 289–302
need for adult music education, 226
new learners, 225
nonformal music learning, 244–246, 248–250
one-on-one instruction, 311
parents. See parents
population trends, 258
private lessons, 248
productive aging, 258
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 289–302
psychosocial development, 259–261
school programs, 223, 247–248
self-taught methods, 251–252
senior citizens. See elders and music
social groups, 307
teachers
crossing generational borders, 257–272 (p. 704) See also teachers
well-being, 304–306, 308, 313
workshops, 249, 311–312
advanced studies by teachers, 608, 609, 687, 694–697
AE (academic entrepreneurship), 601–606
aesthetical caring, to create positive relationships with and among learners, 188
aging
decline in music teacher education, 258
demographic shift in age of human population, 229–230
musical choices within international perspective on adult music education, 306 See also elders and music
alienation
issues related to migration, 172, 173
the Other, concept of, 102, 156, 160, 354–355, 358, 367
ambiguity of musical meaning, 342, 350
amusia, music learning and teaching through technology, 448
animation (activation/inspiration) of musicians and scholars, 603
animosity among researchers, 682–684
anthropology
“community,” understanding of term, 105, 106, 173, 204
ethnomusicology. See ethnomusicology
human musicality, 434
intercultural tensions and creativity, 357
leader as “active anthropologist,” 192
learning processes, understanding of, 653–656
relocating musical knowledge, skills, and understanding, 503 See also culture
anxiety
multidimensional model of motivation, 662
older adults, 237
primary music education teachers, 627
professional performance practice during public performance, 450
transformative learning, 295, 297
archaeological evidence of community music, 99
argumentation in music education, 609–611
art, segregation from common life, 699
artistic communication, choices regarding forms of, 689–693
arts and sciences, complementary perspectives, 623
arts partnerships. See partnerships
asynchronous communication, defined, 208
at-risk youth, 185–202
adolescence, defined, 186
advocacy, 199
aesthetical caring, natural caring, and ethical caring, 188
“at-risk,” defined, 186
benefits of music programs for, 193
caring relationships, music rooted in, 190, 191
childhood, defined, 186
cooperative systems for, 185–202
El Sistema programs, 198
empathy in, 187
engrossment, 187, 188
ensemble dynamics, 191
ethics of care, 187, 188
European programs, 196, 197
generativity, defined, 190
holistic music-making, 191
hospitality, illustrations of, 111, 113
implications for music education, 198
Israeli programs, 197, 198
legitimate peripheral participation (LPP), 188
music-making as tool for, 185–202
Positive Youth Development, 189, 190
purposes, goals, and functions of musical activities, 192
relational ethics theory, 187, 188
relationships of care, empathy, culturally sensitive support systems, and collegiality, 193, 194
resiliency in, 186, 187
skills of leaders, 193
social interaction, 190, 191
socialization, defined, 187
successful leaders, facilitators, and teachers, 187, 191–193
teaching of, 185–202
United States programs, 194–196
Venezuelan programs, 198
youth, defined, 186
attainment targets, assessment of creativity, 392
attendance rates for arts and music, commentary on adult learning, 226
(p. 705) attention deficit disorder, 623
attentional control in prodigies, 38
Audacity software, 466–470
auditory tricks, 179
aural learning, contexts for adults, 251–252
B
babies as learners, 676
behavior problems. See at-risk youth
belonging, intensification of, 204
best interests of community music therapy clients, 144
biographical learning, explained, 290–291, 297
biopsychosocial process of aging, 230, 231
blended music learning, 282–284, 569–573
blogging
collaborative and creative processes among students, 672
community music, 211
music educator blogs and posts, 576
bonding social capital, 127, 128
explained, 123
“book of questions,” 621
bootleg music communities, 210
brain function
in empathic creativity, 342
older adults, mental function in, 236, 263
prodigies, neuropsychological mechanisms, 37–39, 46
research, 613, 622, 623
on learning process, 675
singing together, brain activity during, 451
special education, children with severe brain damage, 53
technology for music learning and teaching, brain scans of singers, 451 See also cognitive development
bricolage tradition, 358, 365, 463
bridging social capital, 127, 128
explained, 123
brilliance, assessing, 442–444
business entrepreneurship in institutions of higher education, 601–606
C
cancer patients, community music therapy for, 146
capitalism, political meaning of music, 699
career patterns for professional musicians, 291–292
caring relationships, music for at-risk youth, 190, 191
cerebellum, role of, 37, 38
ceremonial or ritual music, 521, 522
everyday life, engagement with music in, 674, 675
migrant ritual communities, 179, 180
music teacher education, church music settings, 268–269
musicking, 346
oral transmission of, 652–654
character, education of, 557
child musical prodigies. See prodigies
childhood, defined, 186
choices in artistic communication, 689–693
church music. See ceremonial or ritual music
circular migrants, explained, 171
citizenship
as reason for music education, 625
values of citizens in education, 593–596
classroom aides (paraprofessionals), 76, 77
client-led music therapy model, 52, 53
club culture, commentary on musical creativity as practice, 322
cognitive development
and music education, 622, 623
prodigies, unique forms of cognitive representation, 38, 39 See also brain function
collaboration
animation (activation/inspiration) of musicians and scholars, 603
creativity in formal practices, 410
digital media performance. See digital media performance
practice, collaborative creativity as, 332
sociomusical practice, 380–382
special abilities and special needs students, collaboration among parents, educators, therapists, students, and others, 60, 75, 76, 85–87 See also partnerships
collective identities in modern communities, 106
colleges and universities
generally, 263–267
advanced studies by teachers, 608, 609, 687, 694–697
artist-teacher-scholar model, 263
(p. 706)  arts as part of expectations for college-bound students, 594
audiences for performances, 281
community music
blended programs, 282–284
ensembles, 263–264
doctoral programs in music education, 608, 609
field experience opportunities, 266–267
music education majors, 277–278, 607–611
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 297–300
psychology programs, collaboration with, 264
revenue
higher education and musically engaged adults, 282
revenue-producing university courses and programs, 601–606
sociomusical practice, communal creativity as, 371–372, 380–385
undergraduate music education students, 694–697 See also higher education and musically engaged adults
colonialism
affecting migration patterns, 170
comparative music education studies, 619
musical polyphony as metaphor in globalizing/ localizing world, 379
repertoires appropriated as commodities, 178
commercialization of music education, 621, 622
commercialization of universities, 602
communal creativity as sociomusical practice
generally, 371–388
case study, 381–385
collaboration, democratic, 380–382
conceptual framework, 382
counterpoint, 378, 379
harmonic activity, 378
“high risk” schools, 371, 374, 375–376, 381–385
instruments, musical, 384
key principles, 373–376
learning and teaching principles, 372, 376–381
learning culture, 376–377
music teachers, 371–385
pedagogical values and, 380–381
peer-to-peer learning, 373, 377–378, 381–385
politics in education, 375–376
polyphony
as conversation of multiple voices, 377–379, 382
as metaphor, 379–380
practical socialization, 372–374, 376, 382
practice theory, 373
social transformation, 375–376, 382, 385
student empowerment, 375–376
students teaching students, 374–375
teaching environments, 374–375
theoretical framework, 372–376
unfamiliar and familiar classroom settings, 374–375, 382
universities, collaboration with schools, 371–372, 380–385
communication. See language
communitas, explained, 203–205
communities
explained, 104, 203–205
intercultural tensions and creativity, 361–362
migration, and changing understanding of community, 168, 173, 174, 219
music education programs cross-section of ages in communities, 231
social capital as glue holding communities together, 122 See also communities of practice; community music; community music therapy; social interactions and perspectives
communities of practice (COP)
generally, 637–640
at-risk youth, 113, 188, 189
forms of musical creativity, illustration of where distinctive practices located and investigated, developed and applied, 327
professional musicians, lifelong learning, 297, 298
technology, learning and teaching through, 486–489
group work and peer learning in the studio, 488
roles and communication in the studio, 487
task-related issues in the studio, 487–488
community music (CM)
generally, 97–219
archaeological evidence of, 99
asynchronous communication, defined, 208
at-risk youth. See at-risk youth
belonging, intensification of, 204
blogging, 211
bootleg music communities, 210
(p. 707)  collective identities, 106
colleges and universities
blended programs, 282–284
ensembles, 263–264
“community, “explained, 104
community music therapy. See community music therapy
composing via Internet, 210
computer-mediated communication (CMC), 207, 208
connectivity schemas, 213, 214
contextual fellowship, 106
and continual patterns of war, peace, and negotiation, 205
cultural upheavals, 105
definitions, 99, 100, 104, 105, 203
etymology, 105, 107
modern use of term, 107
what constitutes community music, debates over, 126
disembedded communities, 210
DJs, 212
downloading communities, 210, 211
drumming circles, 204
emerging trends, 203–219
ethical issues, 101
ethnomusicology, 121, 203, 204, 207
face-to-face (F2F) social networks, 205–207, 213
fascism, fundamentalism, discord, and war affected by word “community,” 107
friends-of-friends, 213
as fully licensed profession, 207
fusion music, 209
future of, 203–219
gender issues, 212
genres in online communities, 211, 212
“goods,” 99, 100, 103
“grassroots” approach to music-making, 126
happiness, factors influencing, 206
hip-hop, 212
hospitality, community as, 108–114
hyperactivity, 208
legally vs. illegally downloaded music, 210
in libraries and museums, 206
liminal communities, 107
and linearly oriented society, 213
meaning, group consensus dependent on, 204
migration's impact on formation, negotiation, and contestation of community music. See migration
mod scene, 210
modern communities, 106–108
music education, at odds with community music, 159
music industry and shifting power relationships, 212
music trading, 210, 211
musician-educator-workers, 207
and notion of communitas, 203–205
older people, 205, 206
online communities, 107, 207–213
cyber ethnography, 209
facilitation of music learning, 209
listening via Internet as changing how music heard and perceived, 210
research on Internet music communities, 208–213
partnerships with schools, 206
power relationships, 211, 212
reciprocity, 101
reinvention, 102
remix culture, 212
sharing communities, 210, 211
six degrees of separation, 213
social contexts, learning in, 204
social cultures, embodiment within musical cultures, 204
social justice values in context of CM. See social justice
social networks, 205–213
socioeconomic frameworks, 206
special abilities and special needs students
role of community music educators, 86, 87
transition from school music programs to community music programs, 98
suspension of time, 204
tapers, 210
tensions between fixed social and political relations and individuation, fragmentation, and border identities, 106
as therapy. See community music therapy
traditional ways of living, 105
unity, community without, 107
urban communities, social justice values in. See social justice
(p. 708)  virtual communities, 107
community music schools, 266
community music therapy (CoMT)
generally, 138–154
best interests of clients, 144
cancer patients, 146
concept of community within community music therapy, 142, 145, 148
culture-centered music therapy, 140
defined, 140
empowerment, 148, 150, 151
enhancing and normalizing interactions and perspectives of community members, 145
gender-based violence, 151
goals
aims of community music therapy, 141, 142
overall goal, 142
specific treatment goals, 149
hospitals and hospices, 144, 152
improving health of community, 145
intervention mode, 142
and mental illness, 147
natural agent of health promotion, music as, 141
peaceful coexistence, capacity of music for, 152
pediatric hospital setting, 144
performances, 144–148
and power imbalances, 148
rehearsals, 147
who performs, 145
and personality theory, 145
political violence, trauma from, 150, 151
private vs. nonprivate spaces, 143, 144
psychotherapeutic expertise of music therapist', 142
refugees, 150, 151
ripple effect, as essential to community music therapy, 142
social justice, 150, 151, 160–163
social solidarity, capacity of music for, 152
songs expressing spontaneous thoughts and feelings, 146
special needs children, 148, 149
traditional music therapy, community music therapy differences, 141, 142
comparative music education, 324, 619
complexity of people's engagement with music in everyday life, 674–677
component model of creativity, 329
computers
computer-mediated communication, 207, 208
conditional hospitality, 174, 175
connectivity in community music, 208, 213, 214
contextual fellowship in community music, 106
continued musical and social growth
special abilities and special needs students, 93
continuing education
music education courses, 261, 282, 592, 616 See also lifelong learning
cooperative systems for at-risk youth, 185–202
copying. See imitation
counterpoint, and communal creativity, 378, 379
creativity
generally, 319–336
arts partnerships, 331
assessment of, 319, 329–331
assessment of creativity
attainment targets, 392
composition, 391, 392, 396–399
criteria, 390–405
exemplar tasks, 391–405
improvisation, 399
musical tasks, types of, 403–404
musicology, 391
performance, 391, 400
teachers, primary and secondary, 390–391
children's conceptions of musical creativity, 320
club culture, 322
collaborative creativity, 332
communal creativity, 331
communal creativity as sociomusical practice
generally, 371–388
“high risk” schools, 371, 374, 375–376, 381–385
music teachers, 371–385
universities, collaboration with schools, 371–372, 380–385
comparative education, 324
component model of creativity, 329
contexts, 320–322
creative workshops, 292, 294
cultural production, 320–321
culturally embedded practice, 331
defined, 390
(p. 709)  discourses as practices, 323
diversity, 323–326
domains, 329, 332
elders, 236
empathic creativity, 330
empathy in. See empathic creativity
fields, 329, 332
genius, musical, 320–321
globally spatialized Internet forms of music, 319
hip-hop music, 322
imagination and fantasy, 144, 356
individuals, 329, 332
intercultural creativity, 330, 354–370 See also intercultural tensions and creativity
international education, 324
international perspectives and practices, assessment of creativity, 389–407
leadership skills, 293
literature on, 319
macrosystems, mesosystems, and microsystems, 325
music education field, 319–320
reasons for music education, 625
and musicking, 320
musicology, 391
ontology of music, 324
opera, 320–321
partnerships. See partnerships
pop music, 321–322
practice-based perspective, 320, 324–326
reasons for music education, 625
research on, 328–329
sociality of, 330
sociomusical practice, communal creativity as
generally, 371–388
“high risk” schools, 371, 374, 375–376, 381–385
music teachers, 371–385
universities, collaboration with schools, 371–372, 380–385
sociopersonal perspective on creativity, 329
technosphere, 322
creativity in workforce, effect of music education, 625
credit and non-credit students in higher education classes, 284
criteria for assessing creativity, 390–405
critical reflection
elders and music, 232–233
on future action within profession, 585–701
moral/political thinking vs. reflective/critical thinking, 699, 700
video games, learning music through, 538–539
cross-disciplinary projects by academics vs. entrepreneurs, 604
culture
adult music education, international perspective on, 309
communal creativity as sociomusical practice, 379
community music, cultural upheavals, 105
culture-centered music therapy, 140
digital media performance, cultural relevance, 557–559
ethnomusicology. See ethnomusicology
hybrid cultures in 21st century, 367
internationalizing music education, barriers, 642
migrants as culture bearers, 177
musical creativity as practice, 320–321
the Other, concept of, 102, 156, 160, 354–355, 358, 367
curricula
emotional aspect of music, 645–649
enjoyed music vs. curriculum music, 691
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 298
social capital in community music organizations, 129–132
special abilities and special needs students, 68, 69
D
D.A. (Doctor of Arts), 608, 609
data capture, digital media performance, 560–561
definitions
adolescence, 186
adulthood, 258, 259
asynchronous communication, defined, 208
“at-risk,” 186
(p. 710)  childhood, 186
community music, 99, 100, 104, 105, 107, 126, 203
community music therapy, 140
creativity, 390, 404
disabled/special needs students, 65, 66, 82, 92
empathy, 339–340
formal learning, 244–246, 290
generativity, 190
informal learning, 244–246, 290
lifelong learning, 289–290
music education, 621
music engagement, 273–274
musically gifted child, 33
nonformal learning, 244–246, 290
partnerships, 409, 410
socialization, 187
teaching, 618
youth, 186
delinquency. See at-risk youth
democracy in music education, 610 See also equal opportunity
developmental psychologists, interdisciplinary dialogue, 623
dialogical thinking, 611
differentiated model of giftedness and talent, 36
digital “expats,” 508
digital immigrants, 507–508
digital natives, 507–508
disabled students
technology, music learning and teaching through, 437–439
views concerning use of term and other terminology, 82, 92 See also special abilities and special needs students
disc jockeys, 44, 212, 213, 524, 525, 540, 559, 561
discrimination
migration, discrimination issues, 172, 173
in music education, 619, 620
disembedded communities, 210
disembodiment, virtual and online environments, 573
disinterested pleasure, 342, 350
diversity
intercultural tensions and creativity, 356–358 See also culture; migration
DJs (disc jockeys), 44, 212, 213, 524, 525, 540, 559, 561
Doctor of Arts (D.A.), 608, 609
doctoral programs in music education, 608, 609
dose adjustment, titration in music therapy, 56, 57
downloading communities, 210, 211
drumming circles, 204, 206
dyslexia, 623
E
economic capital, conversion of social capital, 122
economic prosperity
reasons for music education, 625
economic prosperity, reasons for music education, 625
Ed.D. and other advanced degrees, 608, 609
education reform agenda, 458–459
educational networks. See global information systems
educational psychology research on preparation, perseverance, and performance in music, 661–666
educational scientists, interdisciplinary dialogue, 623
education-in-music as subfield in music education, 615–620
educators’ commentaries on future action within profession, 585–701
EECEs (extreme early cognitive environments), 8, 9
elders and music
generally, 229–242, 308
adult education, 232–233, 238
aging process, 230
biopsychosocial process of aging, 230, 231
communities, music education in, 231
community music, 205, 206
critical reflection, 232–233
decline, physical and mental, 230, 231, 238
demographic shift in age of human population, 229–230
Elderhostel, 268
experiential learning, 232
extramusical benefits of music participation, 237–239
identity development, 234–235, 239
influence of music on people's lives, 676
(p. 711)  instructors’ role in adult music education, 232–233
intergenerational music programs, 233–234
international perspective on adult music education, 308
learning and teaching principles, 231–237
learning to learn, 232
lifelong learning, 231, 232, 239
mastery-based music programs, 233–234
music therapy, 237–238
praxis, 233
productive aging, 258
quality of life, 236–238
schools, music education in, 230–231
self-directed learning, 232, 239
societal perceptions of, 230
wellness as outcome of music, 238
elections, effect on music education, 593–596
electives
adults, elective music for musically engaged adults, 278
school programs, 680
embedded knowledge, 178
emotion in music education
generally, 644–650
commentaries from scholars and educators, 644–650
curricula, emotional aspect of music in, 645–649
guidelines for student learning, 645, 646
music therapy. See music therapy
perception of emotional content, characteristics of music affecting, 648
“redundancy” of musical information, 648
table of student concepts and competencies, 646
taxonomy of affective realm, 649
emotional intelligence, and music therapy, 669
empathic creativity
generally, 337–353
ambiguity of musical meaning, 342, 350
case study of song composition, 347–350
children's empathic sensibilities, 340
creative musical activity, 340, 345–350
disinterested pleasure, 342, 350
emergence of, 341–342
history of idea, 338–339
and sense of togetherness, 338
theoretical framework for, 337
empathy
in at-risk youth, 187
defined, 339, 340
measurement of, 343
other-directedness and other-directed behavior, development of empathy, 338, 340, 343, 351 See also empathic creativity
employment
creativity in workforce, effect of music education, 625
university professors, employment security of, 602
empowerment. See power relationships
enculturation
adult music learning, contexts for, 250–251
oral transmission of music, 653 See also migration
engaged and critical listening, learning music through video games, 538–539
English as lingua franca, 642
engrossment in relational ethics theory, 187, 188
ensembles
adult music learning, 247–249, 278–279, 283
at-risk youth, ensemble dynamics, 191
enthusiasm of students, 599
entitlement to music education, 67–69, 86, 87, 92, 626
entrainment, 325, 327, 330, 341, 342, 344, 350
entrepreneurial projects, academic entrepreneurship (AE), 601–606
“entrepreneurial university,” 602
equal opportunity
special abilities and special needs students, 8 See also discrimination; exclusion
equilibrium, breaking of, 354, 364–367
equity and fairness. See social justice
ethics
at-risk youth, ethics of care, 187, 188
community music, 101
influence of music on people's lives, 676, 677
special abilities and special needs students, 8
ethnomusicology, 616, 619
adult learning, 250, 251, 283
community music, 121, 203, 204, 207
digital ethnomusicologists, 578
migrants, 169, 179
oral transmission of music, 653–656
evidence-based practice, 622, 623
music therapy, 55, 56
special abilities and special needs students, 91
evolution in music education practice, 686
evolution of musicality, 434–437
(p. 712) exceptional abilities in prodigies
identifying, 43 See also prodigies
exclusion
intercultural tensions and creativity, 359–362 See also discrimination; inclusion
“expats,” digital, 508
experiential learning, 603, 604
contexts for adult music learning, 250–252
elders and music, 232
explicit knowledge, explained, 177
extramusical reasons for music participation
elders, 237–239
music teachers, 261
extraordinary talent. See prodigies
extreme early cognitive environments (EECEs), 8, 9
F
face-to-face (F2F) social networks, 205–207, 213
failure
experiential learning, effect on, 604
prodigies’ failure and guilt, 46
fairness. See social justice
fantasy and imagination, 144, 356
fascism
within concept of community, 107
industrialization, effect on art, 520
politics of music, 698
fellowship as social capital indicator, 126
feminization. See gender issues
flexibility in music-making, 342, 350
flexibility in primary music curriculum, 626
floating intentionality of music, 342
fluctuations of music, learning through, 540–541
formal learning
adult music learning, 223, 244–248, 309, 311
complementary to other ways of learning, 655
influence of music on people's lives, 676
international perspective on adult music education, 309, 311
predictability and stagnation in school programs, 679, 680
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 290 See also school programs
friends-of-friends community music, 213
funding of primary music/arts education, 626
fusion community music, 209
future action within profession, 585–701
G
Gen Z digital literacy, 671–673
gender issues
community music, 212
community music therapy, gender-based violence, 151
migration, feminization of, 170
in music education, 619
general music education, 680
primary music education, generalist vs. specialist teachers in, 627, 628
for prodigies, 45
generative music systems, 549–566
generativity, defined, 190
genetic vs. environment dynamic in prodigies, 39
genius, musical
commentary on musical creativity as practice, 320–321 See also prodigies
gifted students. See prodigies
global information systems, 629–633
language barriers, 630
predictions, 631
prospective thinking, 631
systematized knowledge about international music education, 629
globalization
competitiveness as reason for music education, 625
of migration, 170
within music education, 619, 625
musical creativity as practice, globally spatialized Internet forms of music, 319
social capital in community music organizations, effect of globalization, 121
virtual and online environments, 568 See also internationalizing music education
“glocalimbodied,” 573
“glocals,” 449
goals
instrumental music, goals of students, 597
music therapy
community music therapy, 141, 142, 149
greater independence from therapy, goal of, 56, 57
prodigies, 45
special abilities and special needs students, 69
good enough music education, 626
goods and nature of “community,” 99, 100, 103
(p. 713) grassroots approach to music-making, 126, 127
group music participation
adult music education, 304–306, 311–313
empathy and creativity, 340–351
music therapy sessions, 53–55 See also community music
guide vocal in preproduction process, 483–484
guidelines for student learning, 645, 646
H
habituation vs. education, 653
happiness, 52
factors influencing, 206
in older adults, 308
as “social goods,” 157
harmonics, 378, 442, 443, 542, 556, 648
harvest songs, oral transmission of, 652
health. See wellness
high risk schools, communal creativity as sociomusical practice, 371, 374–376, 381–385
higher education and musically engaged adults
generally, 273–288
academic courses, 283
audiences for performances, 281
blended university-community music programs, 282–284
community units, 281–282
courses for non-degree seeking adults, 281
credit and non-credit students in classes, 284
curriculum, 276–278
educational programs in music, 276–280
elective music, 278
ensembles
blended university and community members, 283
non-music major students in, 278–279
European Music Council (EMC), 275
faculty, 280
focus on children and youth, music education profession, 285
lifespan perspective
in blended community and university programs, 283
in teacher education programs, 277–278, 280, 284–285
music engagement, defined, 273–274
music majors, 276–277
National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), 275–280
non-music majors, 278–280
responsibility for adult music education, 274–275
revenue, 282
scheduling of blended programming, 284
university-community music relationship, 280–284 See also colleges and universities
hip-hop music
commentary on musical creativity as practice, 322
community music, 212
historical understanding
colonialism and imperialism, 619
music therapy, 51, 138, 139, 668
“musicking” timeline, 434–437
public music education, 612, 613
special abilities and special needs students, history of music education for, 65, 66, 82, 83
technology in music. See technology
holistic music-making for at-risk youth, 191
holistic teaching, lifelong learning for professional musicians, 295
homeless shelter, music in, 160–163
“horseshoe nails,” music learning and teaching through technology, 465–466
hospitality
at-risk youth, illustrations of hospitality, 111, 113
community as, 108–114
to migrants, 173–176
hospitals and hospices, community music therapy in, 144, 152
hybrid cultures in 21st century, 367, 368
hybrid platforms for online music-making, 577–579
hyperconnectivity in community music, 208
I
identity
adolescent peer status, 658–660
adult music learning, 244, 261, 305, 313
collective identities in modern communities, 106
intercultural tensions and creativity, 363
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 293, 297, 298
teachers, effect of, 659
virtual musical identities, 573
vocal identity, reinstating, 446–447
imagination and fantasy, 144, 356
(p. 714) imitation, 224, 442, 654
at-risk youth, 191
and creativity, 317, 325, 330, 341, 344, 350, 415
immigrants
digital immigrants, 507–508 See also migrants and migration
imperialism. See colonialism
impregnation, learning by, 654 See also oral transmission of music
improving health of community, 145 See also community music therapy (CoMT)
improving musical lives of children, guidelines for, 67
improvisation
assessment of creativity, 399
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 296
in the moment music therapy, 53–55
inclusiveness
empathy and creativity, 351
special abilities and special needs students, 8, 65–80
independent sonic events, music as, 120
infant learners, 676
influence of music on people's lives
generally, 674–677
complexity of people's engagement with music in everyday life, 674–677
ethics, 676, 677
formal vs. informal learning, 676
infant learners, 676
intercultural music education, 676
metaphysical discussions of genesis of life, music as link to, 674
motivation for learning, 676
older learners, 676
informal music learning
adult music learning, 244–246, 248–252
defined, 290
influence of music on people's lives, 676
international perspective on adult music education, 309
listening habits, choices regarding, 689–693
mindfulness, new ways of being and new levels of mindfulness, 682
professional musicians, 290, 295–296 See also oral transmission of music
information systems
global systems, 629–633
language barriers, 630
predictions, 631
prospective thinking, 631
systematized knowledge about international music education, 629
UNESCO, 631, 632
inherently social nature of music, 121
inspiration of musicians and scholars, 603
instructors. See teachers
instrumental music
commentaries from scholars and educators, 597–600
communal creativity as sociomusical practice, 384
enthusiasm of students, 599
goals of students, 597
“just in time” learning, 599
self-directed learners, 599
students in charge of learning process, 598
teachers, 597–600
web-based learning, 597–600
YouTube as teacher, 597
intentionality of music, floating, 342
interculturalism
generally, 330, 354–370, 619, 676
anthropology, 357
bricolage, 358
dissociation, 354, 356–358, 364
equilibrium, breaking of, 354, 364–367
exclusion, 359–362
fantasy, 356
identity, 363
influence of music on people's lives, 676
mistakes and experiments, 361, 364
orature, 359
palace, metaphor of, 364
sociocultural perspective on creativity, 356
teaching methods, 363–364
unknown, confrontation with, 355, 365–366 See also enculturation; globalization; migration
interdisciplinary communication, 623, 624
intergenerational music programs, 233–234
intermediate technologies, music learning and teaching, 430, 457, 463–465, 470
international migration. See migration
internationalizing music education
generally, 641–643
barriers in language and traditions, 642
commentary on musical creativity as practice, 324
(p. 715)  English as lingua franca, 642
national concern, music education as, 641, 642
reasons for, 642
interpersonal relationships in achievement motivation, 665
intersubjectivity, explained, 342
intervention
titration (adjusting dose of intervention) in music therapy, 56, 57
intervention mode in community music therapy, 142
J
jali families, intercultural tensions and creativity, 355, 359–362
job security of university professors, 602
“junior” version of normal cultural practices, 558–559
just in time learning, 599
justice. See social justice
juvenile delinquency. See at-risk youth
K
knowledge
explicit knowledge, explained, 177
knowledge sharing. See global information systems
migration, knowledge transfer, 177–179
research, knowledge gained from, 634–636
kora, intercultural tensions and creativity, 359–362
L
language
and empathy, 338
global information systems, language barriers, 630
internationalizing music education, language barriers, 642
knowledge transfer via, 177
lingua franca, English as, 642 See also definitions
laws
downloaded music, legality of, 210
special abilities and special needs students, laws governing education and therapy for, 67–69, 86, 87, 92
leadership roles
professional musicians, 293–295
special abilities and special needs students, 91, 92
learning to learn, 232
legitimate peripheral participation (LPP), at-risk youth, 188
libraries and museums as community music sites, 206
lifelong learning
entrepreneurial processes requiring ongoing learning, 603
liminal communities, 107
linearly oriented societies, 213
linking social capital, 127, 128
explained, 123
listening, in empathic processes and empathic
relationships, 340, 346, 348
listening habits of teachers, 689–693
literacy
language. See language
related to digital media, 533–534
love, as crucial dimension of social justice, 157–163
LPP (legitimate peripheral participation), at-risk youth, 188
M
macrosystems of musical creativity, 325
marketing and marketability
academic entrepreneurship, 601–606
shifting power relationships in music industry, 212 See also commercialization
master's degree in music education, 608
mastery-based music programs, 233–234
meaning
in communitas, 205
delineated meaning in music choices, 557
empathic creativity, 346 See also musicking
media, importance and value as field of study and set of practices
generally, 513–583
accessibility, 554–556
appreciating performed media, 555
art for art's sake, 521
audiovisual aspects of, 553–554
(p. 716)  as celebration in the 1960s, 522–525
character, education of, 557
collegial pedagogy, 526–527
and commercialism, 520
computers as performance instruments, 553–554
cultural relevance, 557–559
data capture, 560–561
delineated meaning in music choices, 557
digital media performance. See digital media performance
directing musical tasks, 555
educational advantages, 554–561
electronica performers, 553
enriched live performance, 561–562
ensemble performance, 552–553
estrangement by musician, 521
evaluating recorded activities, 555
exploring musical options, 555
extensions of man, 523
generative music systems, 549–566
as intrusion in the 1930s, 519–522
lifelong learning, 526
mass media, 522
mixed ensembles, 562–563
modes of engagement, 555
music as, 518–519
new media, 525
and original art, 521
phonograph effects, 525–526
postperformance world, music education in, 517–530
societal ramification, 526
studio environments, 523
as transformative in the 1990s, 525–527
mental burnout in prodigies, 46
mental illness, 147
social justice, music for mentally ill people, 160–163
therapy. See therapy
mentoring, 194, 210, 299, 438, 488, 535
adult learners, 234, 239, 267, 293, 295
creativity as practice, 356, 357, 384
mesosystems of musical creativity, 325
metaphysical discussions of genesis of life, music as link to
influence of music on people's lives, 674
methodology in research, 682–684
microsystems of musical creativity, 325
migrants and migration
generally, 168–184
acoustic illusions and auditory tricks, 179
adult music education, international perspective on, 307
alienation issues, 172, 173
“circular migrants,” 171
comhcheol, women's community choir, 172, 173
community, changing understanding of, 168, 173, 174, 219
conditional hospitality, 174, 175
culture bearers, 177
digital immigrants, 507–508
discrimination and integration issues, 172, 173
embedded knowledge, 178
explicit knowledge, 177
feminization of migration, 170
global governance in monitoring human movement, 171
globalization of, 170
hospitality, 173–176
impact on formation, negotiation, and contestation of community and music, 168–184
international perspective on adult music education, 307
Ireland, impact of migration on, 171–173
knowledge transfer, 177–179
migration patterns, 169–172
nations, rhetoric surrounding, 173, 174
refugees and asylum seekers, 170
ritual communities, 179, 180
support groups for new migrants, 172–176
transcultural position of migrants, 178
unconditional hospitality, 175, 176
World Carnival, 176
military industrial complex, political meaning of music, 699
mindfulness, new levels of, 682
minimalist technologies, 463–464 See also modding music education
mistakes
and experiential learning, 604
intercultural tensions and creativity, 361, 364
(p. 717)  public music education, successes and failures, 614
mixed ensembles, 562–563
mod scene in community music, 210
modding music education, 543–545
explained, 535
moral/political thinking vs. reflective/critical thinking, 699, 700
motivation research, 662–665, 676
multiculturalism. See interculturalism
multitrack studio recording, 483–484
music education
children and youth, focus on, 257, 285
communities, 637–640
defined, 621
ecosystem, 686
internationalizing. See internationalizing music education
knowledge sharing. See global information systems
music teaching vs. music learning, 617
at odds with community music, 159
organizational challenges, 637–640
practice, commentary on musical creativity as, 319–320
teachers. See teachers
virtual communities, 638
music engagement, defined, 273–274
music identification, personal. See identity
music industry and shifting power relationships, 212
music literacy, 522, 528, 692
music research. See research
music teachers. See teachers
music therapy
generally, 51–64, 86, 619, 667–670
achievements, 57–59
changing face of music therapy in schools, 51–64
client-led model, 52, 53
commentaries from scholars and educators, 667–670
community music as therapy. See community music therapy
culture-centered music therapy, 140
elders and music, 237–238
and emotional intelligence, 669
Every Child Matters agenda, 669
evidence-based practice, 55, 56
goals
community music therapy, 141, 142, 149
greater independence from therapy, goal of, 56, 57
group music therapy sessions, 53–55
history of, 51, 138, 139, 668
“in the moment,” 53–55
Intensive Interaction, 57
music teacher education, 266
No Child Left Behind agenda, 668
noticeable improvements, 56
psychodynamic approach, 52–57
role of educators and therapists in relation to students, 84–86
therapeutic vs. educational approach, 53–55
titration (adjusting dose of intervention), 56, 57
traditional practice, 52–55
music trading communities, online, 210, 211
musical identity. See identity
musical interaction programs, 340–351
musically gifted children
defined, 33 See also prodigies
musically saturated environments, 244
music-education-research as subfield in music education, 615–620
musician-educator-workers, 207
musician-scholars, pride in profession, 607–611
musicking, 320, 434–437, 452
explained, 334, 346
timeline, 434–437
N
national concern, music education as, 641, 642
national music curriculum, 594
nations, rhetoric surrounding, 173, 174
natural caring, positive relationships with and among learners, 188
nature vs. nurture, effect on prodigies, 33
networking. See social networks
neuroscience
neuroscientists, interdisciplinary dialogue, 623 See also brain function
newspapers, 522
public music education, media attacks on, 614
special abilities and special needs students, media portrayals of, 92 (p. 718) See also media, importance and value as field of study and set of practices
non-formal learning
non-music higher education majors, 278–280
normalizing interactions and perspectives of community members, 145
normative music experiences for special abilities and special needs students, 71, 72
norms and values, social capital in community music organizations, 122, 124, 125
novice teachers, 694–697
O
older people. See elders and music
one-on-one instruction for adults, 311
online and web-based music and learning
generally, 567–583
blended music learning, 569–573
community music. See community music (CM)
cultural diversity, 569
disembodiment, 573
downloading communities, 210, 211
education environments, 567–568
exploitation of unique possibilities, 570–571
globalization, 568
globally spatialized Internet forms of music
commentary on musical creativity as practice, 319
“glocalimbodied,” 573
hybrid platforms, 577–579
instrumental music, 597–600
knowledge sharing. See global information systems
media, music and education, 569–573
mediated musical experiences, 569–573
music educational communities, 638
music teacher education, 569
music trading communities, 210, 211
online vs. face-to-face, 572–573
participatory media, 576–580
popular music, 568–569
qualities of virtuality, 569–572
remix culture, 576
richly synchronous interactivity, 570
“schizophonia,” 573
sense of transcendence, 570, 571
social media musicianship, 576–580
media, music and education, 576–580
teacher education and professional development, 575–576
technology as empowerment, 568–569
theorizing qualities of virtuality, 570
virtual environments, 572
virtual musical identities, 573 See also global information systems
ontology of music, 324
oral transmission of music
generally, 651–656
anthropological and ethnomusicological issues, 653–656
as basis for living music culture, 651–656
ceremonial music, 652, 653
children's musical traditions, 651, 654, 655
commentaries from scholars and educators, 653–656
enculturation, 653
formal learning as complementary to other ways of learning, 655
habituation vs. education, 653
harvest songs, 652
impregnation, learning by, 654
intercultural tensions and creativity, 359
parents teaching children, 652
“song chain,” spontaneous process of, 651
orchestral education outreach programs, 267–269
organizational challenges in music educational communities, 637–640
other-directedness and other-directed behavior, development of empathy, 338, 340, 343, 351
the Other, concept of, 102, 156, 160, 354–355, 358, 367
P
palace, metaphor of, 364
palliative care, music therapy and, 269
paraprofessionals (classroom aides), 76, 77
parents
oral transmission of music, parents teaching children, 652
special abilities and special needs students, parents’ concerns, 76
(p. 719) participatory media, 576–580
partnerships
generally, 331, 408–425
art museums, 418–420
artist-in-schools programs, 418
arts education and music, 409
case descriptions, 410–421
community music partnerships with schools, 206
creativity in, 408–425
defined, 409–410
evaluation of, 420
formal practices, 410
orchestral and choral compositions, 412–413
policy, government, 408–421
public schools, 417–419
student participation in music education, 412–420 See also collaboration
peace
community music therapy, peaceful coexistence, 152
continual patterns of war, peace, and negotiation, 205
pedagogy and pedagogical practices
adult music learning, 243
knowledge sharing. See global information systems
media, collegial pedagogy, 526–527
social capital in community music organizations, 131
special abilities and special needs students, 619, 620
pediatric hospital setting, community music therapy, 144
peer relationships
communal creativity as sociomusical practice, 373, 377–378, 381–385
psychology, 665
special abilities and special needs students, 73–75
performance
assessment of creativity, 391, 400
community music therapy, 144–148
digital media performance. See digital media performance
partnership practices, creativity in, 414, 415
resituating education in postperformance world, 527–528
social capital manifested in, 124
video games and virtual worlds, 536, 537
personal music identification. See identity
Ph.D. programs, 608, 609
phonograph, 525–526
physical burnout in prodigies, 46
PMLDs (profound and multiple learning difficulties), 11–30
politics
art, segregation from common life, 699
community music therapy, trauma from political violence, 150, 151
moral/political thinking vs. reflective/critical thinking, 699, 700
music education, effect on, 593–596, 625
music shaped by, 698–701
praxial philosophy of music education, 700
reflective/critical thinking vs. moral/political thinking, 699, 700
sociomusical practice, communal creativity as, 375–376
teachers’ perceptions and understandings of political forces and ideologies, 699 See also fascism
polyphony
as conversation of multiple voices, 377–379, 382
as metaphor, 379–380
pop music
commentary on musical creativity as practice, 321–322
virtual and online environments, 568–569
popular culture, music as embodied in, 692
portfolio careers, lifelong learning, 291–292, 297
postperformance world, music education in, 517–530
power relationships
community music, 211, 212
community music therapy, empowerment, 148, 150, 151
music industry and shifting power relationships, 212
student empowerment, communal creativity as sociomusical practice, 375–376
technology as empowerment, 568–569
“trading zone” empowerment, 500–503
practical socialization, 372–374, 376, 382
practice theory, creativity, 320, 324–326, 373
practice vs. theory in school programs
generally, 678–681
electives, 680
(p. 720)  general music offerings, 680
reformers’ views, 680
stagnation and predictability, 679
status quo, 680
theoretical work in music education, 679
praxial philosophy of music education, 233, 700
preproduction, music making by students, 483–484
pride in music profession, 607–611
primary music education
generally, 625–628
advocacy agenda, 625
anxiety and lack of confidence by teachers, 627
basic/minimum entitlement, 626
commentaries from scholars and educators, 625–628
“flexibility” in curriculum, 626
funding of music/arts education, 626
generalist vs. specialist teachers, 627, 628
“good enough” music education, 626
legal entitlement to music education for all children, 626
special abilities and special needs students, 85, 86
prison choir, 111
private lessons, contexts for adult music learning, 248
private vs. nonprivate spaces, community music therapy, 143, 144
prodigies
generally, 31–50
adolescence, changes during, 46
attentional control, 38
balance between work and rest, 46
case study, 42, 43
catalysts, 35
cerebellum, role of, 37, 38
and chance, 35
changes in learning orientations and social influences, 41, 46
cognitive representation, unique forms of, 38, 39
differentiated model of giftedness and talent, 36
failure and guilt, 46
general education for, 45
genetic vs. environment dynamic, 39
identifying exceptional abilities, 43
intensive early learning results, 37–39
mental and physical burnout, 46
musically gifted child, defined, 33
nature vs. nurture, 33
neuropsychological mechanisms, 37–39
patient vs. restless children, 35
phases in talent development, 39–41
positive feedback loop, 38
prevalence in population, 37
self-regulation and goal setting, 45
sensitive periods in development, 38, 39, 44, 45
special needs of gifted and talented students, 42–46
stages for musical development, 41
stages in talent development, 39–41
stereotypes, 31
teachers’ inexperience, 45
theories of exceptional achievement, 32–36
three-circle model, 34
vulnerability of, 46
production, music making by students, 485–486
professional development, music learning and teaching through technology, 457, 459–463
professional musicians, lifelong learning for, 289–302
biography
biographical learning, 290–291, 297
research, 292–299
career patterns, musicians
twenty-first century, 291–292
creative workshops
as artistic laboratory, 294
by community musicians, 292
curricula in music colleges, 298
Davidson, J., 296
Davidson, J. S., 294
formal learning
defined, 290
higher education
lifelong learning and, 297–300
holistic teaching, 295
improvisation, 296
informal learning
in childhood, 295–296
defined, 290
leadership, artistic, 293–295
learning environments, 293
lifelong learning
conceptual framework for, 292–293
defined, 289–290
mentoring
(p. 721)   teachers and, 299
non-formal learning, 295
defined, 290
portfolio careers, 291–292, 297
professional organizations
higher education, role in, 298
self-identity, 293, 297, 298
teachers
as role models, 299
transformative learning, 294, 295
professional organizations for musicians, 298
professionalism in music education, 607–611
profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD), 11–30
psychodynamic approach in music therapy, 52–57
psychology and psychologists
generally, 259–261, 661–666
academic buoyancy, as form of resilience enabling management of low-level setbacks and challenges, 663
adaptability, as self-regulation in face of uncertainty, change, transition, or novelty, 663
adult development theories, 259–261
collegiate music education programs, 264
commentaries from scholars and educators, 661–666
educational psychology research on preparation, personal best (PB), balancing of mastery and performance, 664
interdisciplinary dialogue, 623
interpersonal relationships in achievement motivation, 665
motivation research, 662–665
music teacher education, 259–261
music therapy. See music therapy
peer relationships, 665
teachers
collaboration between psychology programs and collegiate music education programs, 264
research on preparation, perseverance, and performance in music, 661–666
teacher-student relationships, 665
therapy. See therapy
psychosocial process of aging, 230, 231
psychotherapy. See therapy
public music education
generally, 612–614
assumptions concerning, 614
commentaries from scholars and educators, 612–614
history of, 612, 613
media attacks on, 614
successes and failures, 614 See also primary music education; school programs
Q
qualities of virtuality, 569–572
quality of life
and arts involvement, 236–237
and music education, 262–263 See also wellness
R
radio, 522
public music education, media attacks on, 614
special abilities and special needs students, media portrayals of, 92 See also media, importance and value as field of study and set of practices
real world vs. research, 634–636
recording studios, 480–488
redundancy of musical information, 648
reflection on future action within profession, 585–701
reflective/critical thinking vs. moral/political thinking, 699, 700
refugees and asylum seekers, 170
community music therapy, 150, 151 See also migrants and migration
rehearsals and performances, social capital manifested in, 124
relational ethics theory, 187, 188
religious music. See ceremonial or ritual music
remix culture, 212
research
critical reflections and future action, 585–701
denigrating value and applicability of, 635
knowledge sharing. See global information systems
methodology, 682–684
vs. real world, 634–636
resiliency in at-risk youth, 186, 187
resituating of practices, 515, 518, 527–529
revenue
revenue-producing university courses and programs, 601–606
taxes to support local schools, 593
(p. 722) ribbon controllers, 444–445
richly synchronous interactivity, 570
ripple effect, as essential to community music therapy, 142
ritual
communitas, explained, 203–205 See also ceremonial or ritual music
S
“saving music education,” implications of, 608, 609
“schizophonia,” 573
scholars’ commentaries on future action within profession, 585–701
scholarship and practice communities, 637–640
school programs
adult music learning, contexts for, 223, 230–231, 247–248
electives, 680
general music education
for prodigies, 45
general music offerings, 680
historical understanding of public music education, 612, 613
media attacks on, 614
partnerships, 417–419
practice vs. theory in, 678–681
prodigies, general music education, 45
reformers’ views, 680
self-education vs. formal education, 618
social capital in community music organizations, 129–132
stagnation and predictability, 679
status quo, 680
successes and failures, 614
theoretical work in music education, 679 See also formal learning; public music education
self-concept, 657–660
adolescent peer status, 658–660
teachers, effect of, 659 See also identity
self-criticism in music education, 609–611
self-determination of special abilities and special needs students, 72, 73
self-directed learning
elders, 232, 239
instrumental music, 599
self-education vs. formal education, 618
self-esteem, reason for music education, 625
self-identity. See identity
self-regulation by prodigies, 45
seniors. See elders and music
severe learning difficulties (SLD), 11–30
shared intentionality, 339, 342
sharing communities, 210, 211 See also community music
six degrees of separation in community music, 213
SLD (severe learning difficulties), 11–30
social capital in community music organizations
generally, 120–137
active vs. passive participation, 123, 126
bonding, bridging, and linking, 123, 127, 128
within community music, 120–137
community music and social capital, nexus between, 121, 122
curricula, 129–132
economic capital, conversion to, 122
fellowship as social capital indicator, 126
forms of, 123
globalization, effect of, 121
as glue holding communities together, 122
grassroots, 126, 127
independent sonic events, music as, 120
indicators of, 123–126
inherently social nature of music, 121
link between poor social capital and communities with high unemployment, high crime, and low trust, 127
music teacher education fostering development of social capital, 132
networks, 122, 123
norms and values, 122, 124, 125
pedagogical development of musical leadership skills, 131
rehearsals and performances, social capital manifested in, 124
school-based offerings, 129–132
sites generating social capital, 126, 127
sociocultural expression, music as a form of, 121
sonic-centric understandings of music, 121
students’ musical decisions, 132
students’ nonmusical skills, 131
and trust, 122, 124, 125, 127
social interactions and perspectives
at-risk youth, 187, 190, 191
community music, socioeconomic frameworks, 206
(p. 723)  community music therapy, capacity of music for social solidarity, 152
intercultural tensions and creativity, sociocultural perspective, 356
musical creativity as practice, 328–329
special abilities and special needs students, socially valued roles, 71, 72
social justice
generally, 155–167
community music, social justice values in context of, 155–167
community music therapy, 150, 151, 160–163
homeless shelter, music in, 160–163
love, 158–163
as crucial dimension of social justice, 157
ethic of love, 158–160
love-as-action, 158–163
mentally ill people, music for, 160–163
social networks
collaborative digital media performance, 550, 552, 554, 559
community music, 101, 148, 149, 186, 205–213
embracing new technologies, 672
face-to-face, 205–207, 213
learning and teaching via, 487, 505, 573–580
social capital, 122, 123
sociomusical practice, communal creativity as
generally, 371–388
case study, 381–385
collaboration, democratic, 380–382
conceptual framework, 382
counterpoint, 378, 379
harmonic activity, 378
“high risk” schools, 371, 374, 375–376, 381–385
instruments, musical, 384
key principles, 373–376
learning and teaching principles, 372, 376–381
learning culture, 376–377
music teachers, 371–385
pedagogical values and, 380–381
peer-to-peer learning, 373, 377–378, 381–385
politics in education, 375–376
polyphony
as conversation of multiple voices, 377–379, 382
as metaphor, 379–380
practical socialization, 372–374, 376, 382
practice theory, 373
social transformation, 375–376, 382, 385
student empowerment, 375–376
students teaching students, 374–375
teaching environments, 374–375
theoretical framework, 372–376
unfamiliar and familiar classroom settings, 374–375, 382
universities, collaboration with schools, 371–372, 380–385
sociopersonal perspective on creativity, 329
song chain, spontaneous process of, 651
sonic events, music as independent sonic events, 120
sonic-centric understandings of music, 121
special abilities and special needs students
generally, 7–96, 623
access to music learning and adaptations, 67–71
adapted equipment, need for increased use, 91
adapted music classes, primary service providers for, 84, 85
behavior impairments. See at-risk youth
collaboration among parents, educators, therapists, and others, 75, 76, 85–87
collaboration with students, 60
community music programs
role of community music educators, 86, 87
transition from school music programs to, 98 See also community music therapy
community music therapy, 148, 149
continued musical and social growth, 93
curricula, 68, 69
definitions
identifying people with disabilities, terminology for, 82, 92
inclusive education, need for further clarification of term, 65, 66
educators’ role in relation to students, 84–86
encouraging continued musical and social growth, 93
equal opportunity, ethical imperative for, 8
ethical imperative for equal opportunity, 8
evidence-based practice, 91
extreme early cognitive environments (EECEs), 8, 9
fundamental levels of music processing capacity, 16
future of music education for, 81–96, 619, 620
recommendations, 89–96
universal design principles, 91
gifted students, special needs of. See prodigies
(p. 724)  goals, 69
history of music education for, 65, 66, 82, 83
improving musical lives of children, guidelines for, 67
inclusive classrooms and programs, 65–80
access to music learning and adaptations, 67–71
benefits and challenges, 88, 89
collaboration among parents, educators, therapists, and others, 75, 76
curricula, 68, 69
goals, 69
guidelines for inclusive music programs, 66, 67
normative music experiences, 71, 72
paraprofessionals (classroom aides), 76, 77
parents’ concerns, 76
peer interactions, 73–75
self-determination, 72, 73
socially valued roles, 71, 72
transition to adult life, 72, 73
universal design for learning (UDL), 69–71
language to identify people with disabilities, 82, 92
laws governing music education and music therapy, 67–69, 86, 87, 92
leadership roles, need for increased representation of students in, 91, 92
media portrayals of, 92
monitoring participation, 89, 90
music therapy. See music therapy
normative music experiences, 71, 72
paraprofessionals (classroom aides), 76, 77
parents’ concerns, 76
pedagogical methods for inclusion, 619, 620
peer interactions, 73–75
positive portrayals of, 92
present status of music education for, 82–84
primary instructional focus, 85, 86
primary service providers for adapted music classes, 84, 85
principles of presentation, expression, and engagement, 70
prodigies, special needs of. See prodigies
profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD), 11–30
small steps for students, 27, 28
role of community music educators, 86, 87
role of educators and therapists, 84–86
self-determination, 72, 73
separate music classes for, benefits and challenges, 89
severe learning difficulties (SLD), 11–30
small steps for students, 27, 28
socially valued roles, 71, 72
stereotyping, 92
strengths and weaknesses in service provision for, 88, 89
talented students, special needs of. See prodigies
technology, need for increased use, 91, 92
terminology to identify people with disabilities, 82, 92
therapists’ role in relation to students, 84–86
transition to adult life, 72, 73
from school music programs to community music programs, 59, 60, 98
typical patterns of service, 88, 89
universal design for learning (UDL), 69–71
universal design instruction (UDI), 90, 91 See also prodigies
spectograms, 440–442
spiritual music. See ceremonial or ritual music
stagnation and predictability in school programs, 679, 680
stereotypes
adult learners, 258
prodigies, 31
special abilities and special needs students, 92
students teaching students, 374–375
subfields in music education, 615–620
support groups for new migrants, 172–176
synthesizers, 477–478
systematized knowledge about international music education, 629
T
tactile learning by adults, 251–252
talented students. See prodigies
tapers in online music trading communities, 210
taxonomy of affective realm, 649
teachers
adults and adult music learning
artist-teacher-scholar, 263
crossing generational borders, 257–272
elders, 232–233
learning theories, 259–261, 265
(p. 725)   lifelong learning, concept of, 262, 277–278, 280, 284–285
perceptions of adult capabilities, 258
population trends, 258
and stages of adulthood, 259–260
theories on adult development, 259–261
advanced studies, 608, 609, 687, 694–697
anxiety, primary music education teachers, 627
artist-teacher-scholar, 263
assessment of creativity, primary and secondary teachers, 390–391
at-risk youth, successful leaders, facilitators, and teachers, 187, 191–193
church music settings, 268–269
community music ensembles, 263–264
community music schools, 266
“ecosystems” in music education, 686
education of music teachers, 257–272, 685–688, 694–697
educators’ commentaries on future action within profession, 585–701
emerging adults, 259
evolution in music education practice, 686
extramusical reasons for music participation, 261
field experience teaching opportunities, 266–267
future vision, commentary on, 608, 609, 685–688, 694–697
generalist vs. specialist teachers, 627, 628
generational borders in music teacher education, crossing, 257–272
identity development, 261, 659
instrumental music, 597–600
interdisciplinary dialogue, 623
listening habits, 689–693
music therapy, 266
music-teacher-education as subfield in music education, 616–620
novice teachers, 694–697
orchestral education outreach programs, 267–269
perceptions of adult capabilities, 258
and personal music identification, 659
political meaning of music, teachers’ perceptions and understandings, 699
preparation of music teachers, 685–688, 694–697
primary and secondary, assessment of creativity, 390–391
prodigies, teachers’ inexperience, 45
psychology
collaboration between psychology programs and collegiate music education programs, 264
research on preparation, perseverance, and performance in music, 661–666
teacher-student relationships, 665
theories on adult development, 259–261
research
on preparation, perseverance, and performance in music, 661–666
research-based teaching and learning, 622, 623
training in, 687, 688
as role models, 299
and self-concept of students, 659
social capital in community music organizations, 132
society's needs, responsiveness to and anticipatory of, 686
sociomusical practice, communal creativity as, 371–385
special abilities and special needs students, educators’ role in relation to, 84–86
students teaching students, 374–375
teacher-student relationships, 665
role models, 299
teaching others to teach music, 687
technology, 430–431, 457–475
media, teacher education and professional development, 575–576
savvy music educators, 671–673
theories on adult development, 259–261
virtual and online environments, 569, 575, 576
teaching
defined, 618
music teaching vs. music learning, 617 See also teachers
teaching environments, sociomusical practice, 374–375
technology
generally, 427–511, 671–673
absolute pitch, music technology for assessing brilliance, 442–443
amusia, 448
brain scans of singers, 451
brilliance, assessing, 442–444
CDs (compact discs), 478
communities of practice (COP), 486–489
composing via Internet, 210
(p. 726)  curriculum, technology in, 479–480, 482–486
digital “expats,” 508
digital immigrants, 507–508
digital natives, 507–508
disabled students, 437–439
distance learning, 464
education reform agenda, 458–459
educational collaborations, 505–506
educators and technology, 496–497
electric guitars, 478
as empowerment, 568–569
extension of knowledge and skills, 503–505
future of, 498
Gen Z digital literacy, 671–673
group work and peer learning in the studio, 488
historical context, 493–494
evolution of musicality, 434–437
“horseshoe nails,” music learning and teaching through technology, 465–466
instant age, 461
intermediate technologies, 430, 457, 463–465, 470
learning styles, 671–673
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) technology, 478
minimalist technologies, 463–464
misunderstandings of, 430, 433–456
mobile technologies, 671–673
music educators, technology-savvy, 671–673
music making by students, 476–491
musical vs. technological humanity, 430
musicking humanity, 434–437, 452
and new language of music, 502–503
professional development, 457, 459–463
recording studio, 480–482, 487–488
reel-to-reel tape recorders, 459, 460
ribbon controllers, 444–445
savvy music educators, 671–673
singing, evaluating in real time, 444–445
SoundJunction, 449
Sounds of Intent project, 448–449
special abilities and special needs students, 91, 92
spectograms, 440–442
student music making, 476–491
subject culture of music, 498–502
synthesizers, 477–478
task-related issues in the studio, 487–488
teachers, technology-savvy educators, 671–673
teachers and technology, 430–431, 457–475
technological vs. musical humanity, 430
trading zone empowerment, 500–503
“trading zone” empowerment, 500–503
“tweak to transform,” pedagogical value on specific, smaller technologies, 461, 462, 465, 466
visualizations, 439–442
vocal identity, reinstating, 446–447
technosphere, club scene, 322
teen-age years. See adolescence
television, 522
public music education, media attacks on, 614
special abilities and special needs students, media portrayals of, 92 See also media, importance and value as field of study and set of practices
tension
collective identities in modern communities, 106
intercultural tensions and creativity, 354–370
tenure, employment security of university professors, 602
terminology. See definitions
the postperformance world, 518
theoretical vs.
praxial philosophy of music education, 700
theorizing qualities of virtuality -, 570
theory vs. practice, subfields in music education, 616, 617
therapy
generally, 619, 667–670 See also music therapy
titration (adjusting dose of intervention) in music therapy, 56, 57
trading communities, online, 210, 211
transcendence, sense of, 570, 571
transculturation, 178 See also culture; migration
transformative learning, 294, 295
trust
among musicians, 296, 298
at-risk youth, 193
(p. 727)  community music therapy, 151
empathic relationships, 350
social capital in community music organizations, 122, 124, 125, 127
U
UDI (universal design instruction), 90, 91
UDL (universal design for learning), 69–71
unconditional hospitality towards migrants, 175, 176
undergraduate music education students, 694–697 See also colleges and universities
unfamiliar classroom settings, 374–375, 382
unity lacking in community, 107
universal design for learning, 69–71
universal design instruction, 90, 91
universities. See colleges and universities
V
video games and virtual worlds
generally, 531–548
adaptive audio, 541
creating music in the game environment, 542–543
cue sheets, 541
Dance Dance Revolution (DDR), 539
downloadable content (DLC), 532
dynamic audio, 541
educator's roles, 535–536, 544–546
emotion maps, 541
engaged and critical listening, 538–539
extensions and expansions of performance, 537–538
fluctuations of music, 540–541
future of, 546
immersive environments, 540
in-game, in-room and in-world experiences, 535
interactive audio, 541
learning through, 534–543
limitations of music video games, 544
listening critically, 540
massively multi-player online games (MMOG), 533
media, music and education, 531–548
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) technology, 533
modding music education, 543–545
explained, 535
multimodal affordances of video games, 539
multimodality, nonlinearity, and interactivity, 544
musical and gaming cultures, 544
new literacies, 533–534
original content, creation of, 541–542
performing, 536–537
playing games or instruments, 537, 538
“pretty ugly game sound study,” 540
research agenda, building, 545
rhythm action games, 533, 536–537
serious games, 533
virtual and physical musical engagement, 543–544
vocal parts, 537
visionary projects within concept of entrepreneurship, 601–606
visualizations, music learning and teaching through technology, 439–442
voting, effect on music education, 593–596
vulnerability of prodigies, 46
W
war
and community music therapy, 140, 151
within concept of community, 107
and music's meanings, 698
social networks, forces affecting, 205
wellness, 304–306, 308, 313
natural agent of health promotion, music as, 141
as outcome of music, 238
quality of life, music education and, 262–263
reasons for music education, 625 See also happiness
workforce creativity, effect of music education, 625
workshops, 292, 294
contexts for adult music learning, 249
international perspective on adult music education, 311–312
Y
youth, defined, 186
YouTube, 673
as instrumental music teacher, 597 See also online and web-based music and learning