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date: 06 April 2020

(p. 523) Index

(p. 523) Index

f denotes figure; t denotes table

A
absorption, 131, 132, 134, 135, 137, 170
absorptive capacity, 38, 341, 342, 369, 426
abstractness, as antecedent of creativity, 306t
Academy of Management, 409
Academy of Management Journal, 261
Accenture, 1
accessories (for devices), 344, 360, 361, 367, 389
achievement flow motive, 133–134
achievement motive, 133
acquisition effort, as antecedent of creativity, 306t
Acrobat Reader, 385, 386
Acrobat software system, 385, 386
action processes (in team creativity), 185, 186
activating, as category of interaction, 238, 240
actor individual attributes, as contingency in tie strength, 214
actor network theorists, 346
adaptation
approach, to creativity, 286
at the edge of chaos, 441
and organizational emergence, 463
adaptive decision program, 448
adaptive instability, 388
adaptive tension, as property of emergence, 459, 460t
adaptors, 51, 88, 283
adaptor-type thinking, 283
Adidas, 63
Adobe Systems, 382, 383, 385
adopting laggards, 345
adoption
increasing returns to, 436
rate (of innovation), 344
AdSense, 124
affect. See also negative affect; positive affect
role of in entrepreneurial creativity, 146
use of term, 141
Affect Infusion Model (AIM), 154
affective mechanisms, 5, 10, 12, 18, 18f, 20–21, 23, 50, 493, 494
affective processes, 122, 229, 493
affective shift, 149, 154
affective states, 20, 35, 48, 50, 54, 122, 172, 187, 211
affect revolution, 141
age, as individual characteristic, 234, 238t
agreeableness, as component in five-factor model of personality, 227
Airplay, 390
AllergyEats, 366
alters’ characteristics, as contingency in tie strength, 213
Amazon, 361, 386, 386t, 387, 388, 398
Amazon Marketplace, 386, 387, 388, 390
Amazon Web Services, 373
Amazon Web Services EC2, 355
ambidextrous organizations, 341
ambient cultural disharmony, 271
ambiguity, handling of/tolerance for, 3, 62, 70, 125, 227, 348, 425, 449, 464, 467, 491, 493, 495, 497
ambivalent mood, 145, 148, 150
AMD, 423
America Online (AOL), 357
antagonism
definition of, 104
explicit identity antagonism and management of professional artistic workers, 115–117
framework of role of in identities of professional artistic workers, 114–115
how it is used in affirmation of professional artistic workers’ identities, 108, 112–114
and identity affirmation, 105–106
linking of role of to innovation and entrepreneurship literatures, 117–118
between professional and artistic evaluation, 112, 113–114
between professional and artistic goals, 112, 113
between professional and artistic work practices, 112–113, 114
role of in identities of professional artistic workers, 103–118
role of in identities of professional creative workers, 115f
use of to signal, to oneself, authenticity in one’s identity, 113
antagonistic categories, professional artistic workers as desiring exclusion from, 106–107
AOL (America Online), 357
Apache, 361
APA PsychNET, 159
Apple, 1, 71, 103, 194, 205, 261, 344, 361, 367, 383, 390, 397, 416
application programming interfaces (APIs), 360–361, 383
apprenticeship, 303–304
appropriateness
association of collectivism with emphasis on, 263
as characteristic of creativity, 247, 249
redefining of, 255–256
apps, 344, 360–361, 367, 368, 380
App Store (Apple), 344, 354, 361, 373, 383, 384, 390
Arsenal, 400
artistic approach (to creative work), 104
artistic workers
desire of for exclusion from antagonistic categories, 106–107
as engaging in consistent antagonism to appear authentic, 107
evidence of role of antagonism in identity affirmation of, 108 t111t
explicit identity antagonism and management of, 115–117
framework of roles of antagonism in identities of professional artistic workers, 114–115
how antagonism is used in affirmation of identities of, 108, 112–114
role of antagonism in identities of, 103–118
asset orchestration, 423, 424, 425
assigned creativity goals, 35
assigned performance goals, 35
assimilation, 81, 96, 152, 272
assimilative processing, 152
assumptions, challenging of, 3, 63, 64, 70
AT&T, 386
Atari, 383
authenticity, of identity, 105, 106, 107, 108, 113, 114 (p. 524)
authentic leadership, 18f, 26–27
authoritarian leadership, 188
autocratic leadership, 268
autonomous evolution, 435, 436
autonomous strategic action/behavior, 438, 438f, 439, 441, 481
autonomy, 19, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 48, 49, 50, 62, 66, 71, 125, 128, 132, 133, 136, 160, 166, 167, 167f, 168, 171, 227, 308t, 333, 335, 459, 470, 507, 508, 510, 516
autonomy orientation, 171, 174, 267
autonomy support, 167, 171, 267
B
Babbage, Charles, analytical machine (1837), 72, 75n2
Babysitters.com, 67
Bach, Johann Sebastian, 262
backward compatibility, 366, 389
Bacon, Francis, 247
Balsille, Jim, 388
BAM (Behavioral Agency Model), 510
bandwidth, 357, 358, 358f
Bang and Olufsen, 388, 389
Bank of America, 97, 99
Barret, Craig, 440
becoming, 434, 438
Behavioral Agency Model (BAM), 510
Bell Labs, 194
Bell System, 386
Benchmark Venture Capital Fund, 494
benevolent creativity, 247
benevolent leadership, 18f, 24, 27, 82, 268, 273
benevolent-malevolent paradigm of creativity, 254
Bennett, Steve, 1
best practices, 98, 416
Beyond Boredom and Anxiety (Csikszentmihalyi), 131
Beyond Freedom and Dignity (Skinner), 131
Bezos, Jeff, 387
bicultural identity integration (BII), 272
biculturals, 95, 96, 272
bifurcation, 434
bifurcation phenomena, 435, 441
bifurcation point, 440
big data, 356, 373
Big Five personality dimensions, 182, 227–228, 231, 233–234
bipolar mood disorders, 148
bisociative model, 250
Blackberry, 386t, 387
blue sky creativity, 280
blue-sky projects, 122, 123–124
Bluetooth, 390
BMI (business model innovation). See business model innovation (BMI)
bottom-up processing, 152
boundaries, firm, 362, 363t364t, 364–365
bounded playing, 128
Box, 356
brainstorming, 69–70, 72, 93, 125, 133, 143, 153, 179, 184, 186, 207, 250, 264, 269, 311, 312, 313, 318, 402, 403, 425
breakthrough thinking, 69, 70
Bricmont, Jean, 435, 443n10
Brin, Sergey, 257
broad categorizations, 207
broaden-and-build theory of positive mood effects on cognition, 142
broad focus, role of in completion of creativity types, 290–291
broad processing, 153
Bruno, Giordano, 249, 256
buffering, as category of interaction, 238, 240
bureaucracy, 2, 237, 446, 448
business innovation processes
complexities associated with innovation, 346–348
development stage, 342–344
implementation stage, 344–346
introduction, 339–340
invention stage, 340–342
business model innovation (BMI)
concept definitions and literature review, 396–401
definition of, 395
design process, 401
drivers and process of, 399–401
and dynamic managerial capabilities, 424, 424f
mental models as affecting, 427
performance consequences of, 399
phases of, 400
role of, 379
similarity of to product innovation, 400
toward a process model of, 401–403
toward a process perspective, 395–404
types of, 398
typologies of, 400
what it is not, 397–398
business skills, as variable around which entrepreneur is formed, 466
Business Source Complete, 159, 306
C
cable lines, 357
calculation, centers of, 346
Canon, 386t, 388
capsule coffee, 261
case example, development of cochlear implants, 346–347, 412
case study, Eureka! Ranch, 303, 305, 310–318, 331, 333, 334, 335
Caterpillar, 1
CE (corporate entrepreneurship). See corporate entrepreneurship (CE)
CEAI (Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument), 482
central processing unit (CPU), 355
challenge orientation, 289, 291–292
Chandlerian logic, 354, 359f, 362
channeling, as category of interaction, 238, 240
channeling effect, 231
cheating, 250, 252
chicken-and-egg problem, 382
Cisco, 1
classical association theory of creativity, 144
classic evolutionary process model, 354
climate for creativity/innovation, 18f
closed
as category of problems, 283, 285, 286, 290, 460
as quality of platform, 383
close monitoring, 19, 232, 233
cloud computing, 355, 365, 366, 370, 372, 373
cochlear implants, development of (case example), 346–347, 412
coevolutionary lock-in, and link to prospect theory, 440–441
cognitive associations, 26, 87
cognitive capital, 427, 451–452
cognitive elements, number and breadth of, as antecedent of creativity, 309t
cognitive evaluation theory, 19
cognitive factors, as antecedent of creativity, 306t
cognitive flexibility, 142, 143, 146, 147–148, 150, 208, 210, 217
cognitive information processing theory, 152
cognitive mechanisms, 18, 18f, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 493, 494
cognitive structures, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
cognitive style, 24, 51, 62, 154, 179, 182, 227, 228, 231, 232–233, 234, 239t, 307t, 465, 466
cognitive theory, 301
cognitive tuning theory, 142, 151, 152
cognitive variation, 26, 249, 251
cohesion, 22, 74, 98, 187, 211, 216, 219, 451, 453, 469
cohesive networks, 216, 451, 453, 454 (p. 525)
cohesive structures, 215, 216, 219
collaborative organizational culture, 189
collaborative problem solving, 54
collective efficacy, 22, 37, 187, 188, 267, 268
collective identity, 81–82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 105, 125
collective intelligence, 71
collectivism, 263, 264, 267, 268
collectivist cultures, 39, 263, 264, 267, 268, 272, 273
collectivistic cultures, 39, 272
command approach, in entrepreneurship, 466
communication, as action process (in team creativity), 186
communities
organizations’ engagement with, 358–361
typology of, 359f
community-centric logic, 354
community logic, 359f
compartmentalization, 96
competence, 32, 50, 51, 52, 66, 69, 166, 167, 168, 171, 212, 229, 290, 331, 421, 466, 483, 484
competitive goals, 185
compilation models, in aggregating individual-level attributes to team level, 180, 181, 183–184
complementary developers/firms, 361
complementary products, 344, 360, 367, 379, 380, 382, 388, 389
complementor interdependencies, 367
completion-contingent rewards, 51
complex adaptive system, 436, 458
complex creativity, 148
complexity
formation of, 436
institutional complexity, 448, 449, 450
science of, 441–442
complexity theory, 433, 436, 437
componential model/theory of creativity, 3, 19, 34, 63, 65, 66, 179, 211
composition models, in aggregating individual-level attributes to team level, 180–183
computational theory, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
computed tomography scanners, 344
concept assessment knowledge, 331f, 332, 333
concept development capacity, 331–332, 331f
conceptual model, connecting psychological empowerment and team empowerment to creativity and innovation, 33f
concrete feedback, 73
conflict management, 22, 53, 185
conformists, 117–118
conformity, 213, 214, 250, 411, 412, 445, 451, 461, 508, 513
conformity pressure, 188, 189, 269
conformity value, 214, 234, 238t, 284
conscientiousness, as component in five-factor model of personality, 227, 228, 233, 239t
conservation of resources theory, 267
conservation value, 234, 238t
consilience, 442
constraints of a new type, 439
contagion models, 344
content, as transferred through network ties, 208
context, as critical component in team effectiveness models, 188
contextual conditions
of flow, 132–133
in understanding when/how rewards influence creative performance, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54
contextual factors, 4, 17, 35, 39, 134, 154, 172, 180, 257, 265, 268, 271, 272, 334, 506, 507, 509
contingency model, for mood and creativity, 147
continuous change, organizational becoming as outcome of, 436–437
contributory creativity, 86, 280, 283, 284, 287, 287t, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 385, 386
controlling supervisor behavior, 19
conventionality, ethical action as requiring, 250
convergent thinking, 249, 250, 251–252
cooperative corporate venturing, 479
Copernicus, 249
Coppola, Francis Ford, 124
core competencies, 343, 366, 372, 484, 485
coreness, 208, 214, 217
core–periphery trade-off, 217, 218
core rigidities, 343
corporate entrepreneurial strategy, critical roles of managers in sustaining of, 483–485
corporate entrepreneurship (CE), 40, 56, 57, 333, 334, 366, 438, 477–486, 509
Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI), 482
Corporate Entrepreneurship Climate Instrument, 482
corporate entrepreneurship strategy, 480–481
corporate innovation, 477, 482, 485
corporate venturing approaches, 479
Costco, 1
costs, monitoring of, 368
country level of analysis, cultural differences (in creativity), 265–266
CPE (creative process engagement). See creative process engagement (CPE)
CPS (Creative Personality Scale), 24, 227
CPU (central processing unit), 355
CQ (cultural intelligence), 270–271
creation, as approach to opportunities, 464, 465
creative action, identity and, 80–82
creative behaviors, 5, 39, 61, 63, 65, 70, 197, 253, 254, 255, 257, 477, 478, 507
creative cognition, 94, 144
creative destruction, 343, 404, 439
creative deviance, 255, 256
creative education, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
creative efficacy, 25. See also team creative efficacy
creative engagement, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 136, 190, 286
creative entrepreneurs, obstacles facing, 445
creative/ethical behavior, 252, 253–255
creative–ethics relationships, 246
creative ideas, 2, 3, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 47, 48, 53, 54, 55, 71, 72, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 189, 193, 195, 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 216, 217, 250, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 262, 266, 269, 273, 344, 417, 446
creative intentions, 445, 450, 454
“Creative Leaders” series (WSJ), 123
creative mental synthesis task, 144
creative opportunities, 83, 86, 196, 197, 448–451
creative performance, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 32, 35, 36, 39, 48–49, 51, 52, 53, 55, 61, 80, 81, 82, 84, 88, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 116, 124, 134, 135, 143, 146, 182, 186, 188, 189, 227, 228, 235, 237, 508, 511. See also team creative performance
creative personal identity, 80, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89
creative personality, 3, 117, 179, 181, 227, 228, 231, 232–233, 238t, 250, 252 (p. 526)
Creative Personality Scale (CPS), 24, 227
creative problem solving, 71, 74, 125, 136, 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151–152, 153, 154, 170
creative process engagement (CPE), 18f, 21, 24, 33f, 34, 35, 40, 41, 124, 149, 184
creative processes, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24, 34, 38, 62–63, 125, 137, 178, 179, 182, 184, 185, 189, 193–194, 195, 196, 212, 249, 251, 253, 262, 267, 273, 284, 285, 288, 289–292, 507. See also team creative processes
creative products, 38, 82, 178, 180, 190, 191, 195, 247, 248, 249, 251, 451
creative requirement, 33f, 34, 284, 286
creative role identity, 3, 24, 27, 82, 85, 87, 89, 268, 307t
creative role models, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
creative self-efficacy, 18, 19, 20, 23, 25, 33f, 36–37, 39, 40, 82, 179, 237, 238t, 284, 288, 293, 307t
creative/unethical behavior, 252, 253–255
creative versatility, 271
creative virtuosity, 271
creative workers, role of antagonism in identities of, 103–118, 115f
creativity
antecedents of, 266–269, 306t310t, 310
basic elements of, 306t
benevolent creativity, 247
blue sky creativity, 280
complex creativity, 148
componential model of. See componential model/theory of creativity
conditions affecting creativity and innovation in entrepreneurial activity, 445–454
consequences of, 293
contributory creativity. See contributory creativity
cross-cultural analysis of, 261–274
definition of, 246, 262, 340, 422, 445–446
as dependent on internal and external components, 62
described, 141
as desirable work behavior, 121
dynamic model of, 262
eminent creativity, 53
employee creativity. See employee creativity
entrepreneurial creativity. See entrepreneurial creativity
ethical creativity, 246, 256
expected creativity. See expected creativity
as factor influencing opportunity recognition, 507
generative creativity, 207, 218, 219
group creativity. See group creativity
incremental creativity. See incremental creativity
individual creativity. See individual creativity
institutional barriers to, 446–448
as intersubjective phenomenon, 262
low creativity with high ethics, 246
low creativity with low ethics, 246
malevolent creativity, 245, 247, 248
multilevel nature of, 88
as not always inherently benevolent, 245
organizational creativity, 261–262, 267, 301, 303
organizing creativity, 319, 320t330t, 331–334, 331f, 335
as outcome, 246–249
as precursor to innovation and entrepreneurship, 2
proactive creativity. See proactive creativity
as process, 2–3, 207, 249–251, 301
radical creativity. See radical creativity
relativity of, 262
responsive creativity, 86
socioemotional wealth, creativity, and sensing opportunities in family firms, 511–512
as a staged process supported by learning behaviors, 61
team creativity. See team creativity
thinking style as predictor of, 280
types of, 52–53, 279–295
unethical creativity, 246, 256
at work, cross-level perspective on, 225–241
creativity-contingent rewards, 51
creativity goals, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
creativity outcomes, 319. See also creative outcomes
creativity processes, 184, 250, 279–295, 334
creativity-relevant cognitive processes/creativity-relevant processes, 3, 34, 53, 62, 63, 64, 69, 122, 184
creativity-relevant group processes, 53–54
creativity-relevant individual processes, 54
creativity-relevant skills, 81, 88, 179, 228, 232, 305f, 333
creativity types
being radically or incrementally creative across different ones, 292–293
categorization of, 283–284
consequences of outcomes of different ones, 293–294
engaging in different ones, 286–289
exploring differences in creativity processes across, 279–295
future research directions, 294–295
measurement challenges, 295
mediators of, 284
moderators of, 284
perceiving the situation as drivers of, 285–286
predictors of, 284
role of expectancy for, 286–288
role of instrumentality for, 288–289
successfully completing creative processes of different ones, 289–292
summary of mechanisms and factors affecting, 287t
summary of reviewed articles, 281t282t
theory of, 284–285, 295
criteria clarity, 52
critic, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
cross-cultural analysis (of creativity), 261–274
cross-level effects, 37, 80, 87, 186, 220
cross-level interactions, person × situation, 237–239
cross-level perspective, for person-in situation research, 236–237
crowdfunding, 366, 446
crowdsourcing, 122, 123, 125, 365
cultural codes view of organizational forms, 446–447
cultural conflict, 271
cultural congruence in leadership, 25
cultural differences (in creativity)
in antecedents, 266–269
country level of analysis, 265–266
individual level of analysis, 264–265
cultural diversity, 262, 269–271
cultural entrepreneurship, 412
cultural evolution, 442
cultural evolutionary theory, 438, 439
cultural influences, on organizational creativity, 261–262, 273–274
cultural intelligence (CQ), 270–271
cultural leadership model, 25
cultural norms, 74, 289, 448, 507
cultural tools, used by entrepreneurs to make venture appear viable/attractive, 490, 499
cultural values, 25, 33f, 36, 39, 450
cultures
criteria for evaluating creativity across, 263–264
meaning of creativity across, 262–263
customer service, 368, 388, 422
D
Darwinian theory, 441
data analytics, 356, 373
deadlines, 71
decision making, as organizational and strategic characteristic, 369
deeper processing, 153
degree centrality, 217
deliberate practice, 303–305, 304f, 305f
deliberate-practice-based model, 310–318
Dell, 398
demographic diversity, 181, 182, 197
de novo (new to the state-of-the-art) business models, 398
deregulation, impact of, 449
Descartes, Rene, 247
Design and Creativity Index, 266
design process model
generate stage, 401, 402
implement stage, 401, 403
observe stage, 401–402
refine stage, 401, 402–403
synthesize stage, 401, 402
desired behaviors
for Stage Four of creative process, 72–73
for Stage One of creative process, 64
for Stage Three of creative process, 70
for Stage Two of creative process, 67–68
developer evangelism, 368
developers/develop ecosystems, 354, 359, 359f, 360–361, 360t, 366, 380
developmental feedback, 19, 20, 23, 149, 154, 235
development stage
across the field, 343–344
within firms, 342–343
overview, 342
diffusion process, 344
digital divide, 355, 357
discovery, as approach to opportunities, 464, 465
discrepant expectations, 449
discretion, 19, 34, 35, 40, 41, 124, 147, 290, 293, 342, 482, 485
Disney, 126
dispositional influences, 133, 231
disruptive technology, 439
dissipative structures, 434
divergent production, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
divergent thinking, 71, 122, 142, 147, 148, 150, 210, 249, 250, 251–252, 265
divergent-thinking mindset, 71
diverse ties, 452, 453
diversionary play, 127–130
diversity
as characteristic of social network, 451, 452, 453
creativity of culturally diverse teams, 269–271
cultural diversity, 262, 269–271
demographic diversity, 181, 182, 197
effects of on team creativity, 181–182, 183
functional diversity, 181, 233, 237
divide-and-conquer pricing mode, 382
domain-relevant knowledge/skills, 62, 63, 67, 75, 182, 208, 211, 228
domain-specific knowledge, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
dominance, as strategy to manage multiple social identities, 96
dual-core model for organizations, 94
dualistic model of passion, 166, 167f, 169, 170, 171
dual moods, 148–151
dual-pathway models of creativity, 290
dual-process theory of reasoning, 150, 151
dual thoughts, 150–151
dual-track model, for mood and creativity, 147
dual-tuning account of mood effects, 154
dual-tuning mechanisms, 150
dynamic capabilities, 421, 422–423, 439
dynamic capabilities perspective, 506
dynamic innovation capabilities, 505
dynamic managerial capabilities
creativity and innovation, 422
and creativity and innovation in organizations, 424f
described, 423–424
dynamic capabilities, 421, 422–423
impact of on creativity and innovation, 424–427
interactions of human capital, social capital, and cognition, 427
introduction, 421–422
managerial cognition, 423, 424f, 427
managerial human capital, 423, 424f
managerial social capital, 423, 424f, 426
operational capabilities, 422
organizational capabilities, 422
sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring, 425
dynamic model of creativity, 262
dynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems
application of Prigogine’s theory to social systems, 435–436
introduction, 433–434
E
early adoption, 382
early majority, 345
East–West differences, 263, 264
eBay, 380, 383, 494
EBSCO, 306
ecological rationality approach, 448
e-commerce websites, 372
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), 395
edge of time, firms possessing entrepreneurial strategies as remaining close to, 483
Edison, Thomas, 412, 415
effectuation, as entrepreneurship perspective, 468t, 470
ego network size versus dyadic strength, as contingency in tie strength, 214
Einstein, Albert, 205, 434, 442n4
EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit), 395
eLance, 358, 359
email, 372
embeddedness, 88, 206, 208, 216, 409, 416, 448, 510
emergence
as complementing other entrepreneurship-based perspectives, 468–471
definition of, 458
of the entrepreneur, 465–468
entrepreneurship as, 457–472
as entrepreneurship perspective, 468t
and extant theory in entrepreneurship, 461–468
future research needs, 471
as key characteristics of new venture creation process, 457–458
opportunity emergence, 464–465
properties of, 459–461, 460t
subjective emergence, 465
theoretical foundation of, 458–459
venture emergence, 462–464
emergent and deliberate stratetgy, framework of, 443n8
emerging industries, 450
EMI, 344
eminent creativity, 53
emotional challenges, 41
emotional intelligence, 20, 21, 23
emotional stability, 227
employee creativity, 17, 18–27, 18f, 31, 33–41, 33f, 47, 52, 82, 121, 132, 135, 136, 214, 235, 261
employee innovation, 33f
employee passion, 170, 173
employee recognition, 52
empowering leadership, 19, 21, 22, 38, 187, 188, 189, 234, 267
empowerment
of employees, 4
influence of on employee creativity, 31
potential mediators of, 36–40
psychological empowerment, 32
social-structural approach to, 31, 32
theoretical framework of, 32–41
empowerment leadership, 17, 18f, 24, 25, 26
empowerment research, extension of to entrepreneurship, 40–41
empowerment role identity, 24, 234, 238t
The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and the New Laws of Nature (Prigogine), 434
energy, feeling of, 18f
engagements, of organizations with communities, 358–361, 360t (p. 528)
enhanced identity, 167
enjoyment, in flow patterns, 132
Enlightenment, 247
Enron, 245, 247
entrepreneur
described, 27
emergence of, 465–468
entrepreneurial activity, 52, 53, 146, 150, 206–207, 445–454, 470, 478, 479, 481, 482, 485, 486
entrepreneurial behaviors, 32, 40, 56, 169f, 170, 172, 390, 472, 478, 481, 482, 483, 485
entrepreneurial competencies, 462t, 466–467
entrepreneurial context, 173, 196, 197, 491–493, 494, 496, 497, 498, 499
entrepreneurial creativity, 61, 62, 72, 74–75, 146, 445, 446, 447, 448, 450, 451–453, 507
entrepreneurial discovery, 27–28
entrepreneurial emergence, vocabulary of, 461
entrepreneurial identity, 169f, 170, 462t, 466, 467–468, 489500. See also entrepreneur identity
entrepreneurial identity aspiration, 3
entrepreneurial identity centrality, 170
entrepreneurial mindset, 462t, 466, 467, 485, 505
entrepreneurial narratives, as cultural tool, 490
entrepreneurial opportunities, 3, 28, 65, 66, 206–207, 213, 477, 483, 484, 489, 506, 507–509, 511–514
entrepreneurial passion, 3, 169–171, 169f
entrepreneurial process, in family firms, 509–516
entrepreneurial role identity, 170
entrepreneurial self-efficacy, 170, 467
entrepreneurial self-identity, 170
entrepreneurial strategy, 480, 483–485
entrepreneurial teams, 4, 118, 196, 213, 453
entrepreneur identity, 90, 172. See also entrepreneurial identity
entrepreneurship
creativity as infused throughout process of, 3
definition of, 2, 55
as emergence, 457–472
extension of empowerment research to, 40–41
institutional barriers to creativity, 446–448
integration of team creativity into, 195–197
intersection of with creativity and ethics, 256–257
linkage of organizing creativity to, 334
as multifaceted and dynamic process, 507–509
entrepreneurship perspectives, comparison of, 468t
environmental scanning, 425, 426
environmental uncertainty, 40, 189
epistemic motivation, 54, 264
EquityNet, 446
equivocality, 192, 491, 492, 493, 497, 498
ESM (Experience Sampling Method), 129, 132, 133
ethical, creative choices, model of, 254f
ethical creativity, 246, 256
ethical judgments, of creative products, 249
ethics
convergent and divergent thinking and, 251–252
and creativity, 245–258
described, 246
entrepreneurship, creativity, and, 256–257
improving the ethicality of creativity, 255–256
relationship between creativity and ethics, 252–255
Eureka! Ranch, 303, 305, 310–318, 331, 333, 334, 335
evaluation-centered group processes, 190
evaluative thinking, 251
evolutionary model, of entrepreneurship, 458
evolutionary models of creative processes, 251
evolutionary processes, as antecedent of creativity, 307t
evolutionary theory, 446. See also cultural evolutionary theory
exchange relationships, 54
exclusionary categories, 106
existing knowledge, reuse of/combination of, 3
expectancy, role of for creativity types, 286–288, 287t
expected creativity, 86, 279–280, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 287t, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294
Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 129, 132, 133
experimental manipulation, of passion, 166
expertise, as both source and barrier to creative thinking, 68
expertise development-based model, of organizational creativity, 303
expertise-development theory, 331
expertise/skill acquisition, 304f
expertise theory, 301, 332
expert theory, 303
explicit identity antagonism, 115–116, 117
explicit thinking processes, 151
exploitation, 2, 55, 90, 207, 341, 370, 399, 400, 469, 471, 481, 483, 489, 505, 509, 510, 514
exploitative innovations, failure rate, compared to explorative innovations, 2
exploration, 2, 22, 27, 50, 51, 53, 55, 62, 63, 66, 67, 69, 75, 80, 130, 154, 263, 341, 370, 399, 438, 509, 512, 514
explorative innovations, failure rate, compared to exploitative innovations, 2
explore, intention to, 33f, 36
Exploring Complexity: An Introduction (Prigogine and Nicolis), 434, 435
external communities, engagement with, 354
external corporate venturing, 479, 508–509, 515, 516
external feedback, 65, 73
external regulation motivation, 83, 84
extra-role behavior, 173, 226, 289–290, 292
extraversion, 181, 184, 227
extrinsic rewards, 51, 53, 232
F
Facebook, 128, 361, 367, 370, 373
facts on the ground, 465
failure
fast failure, 2, 72, 73
good-effort failures, 66
rate of explorative innovations compared to exploitation innovations, 2
reactions to, 74
time-dependent success or failure, 435–436, 441
family firms, 505–506, 507, 509–516
fantasy scale, 121
far-from-equilibrium conditions/systems, 433, 434, 435, 436, 458
fast failure, 2, 72, 73
fast-motion science, 441, 442
faultlines, in new venture teams, 118
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration), 346, 347
FedEx, 1
feedback, 65, 73, 154. See also developmental feedback
feedback loops, 293–294, 382, 439, 472
feeling-as-information model, 146 (p. 529)
feeling MBTI profile, and creativity type, 283
Ferrari, 126
FIBER model, 511
fiber optic lines, 357
field dependence, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
fine-grained cultural leadership model, 25
firm boundaries, 362, 363t364t, 364–365
first-stage moderators, 25
five-factor model of personality, 227–228
flash memory, 356
flow, 3, 71, 122, 125, 128, 130–136, 137, 168, 171
flow state, 122, 128, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135
flow theory, 131, 132
fluctuation and bifurcation, 434
focus
analysis of representative descriptions of creativity by level of, 302t303t
outcome focused, 302t303t
prevent focus, 27, 229, 235
process focused, 302t303t
promotion focus, 27, 229, 235
regulatory focus. See regulatory focus
role of broad and narrow focus in completion of creativity types, 290–291
self-regulatory focus, 18f, 27
Fortune magazine, 1, 245
founder identities/founder identity, 90, 170, 172
founder-level identification, 494, 496t
founder role identity, 3, 90
free contributions, 369
free time, 69, 122, 124
FriCSo, 397
From Being to Becoming (Prigogine), 438
Fujifilm, 381
functional diversity, 181, 233, 237, 452
G
Galilei, Galileo, 249, 256
Gandhi, Mahatma, 256
The Gap, 372
gatekeepers, for evaluation of creative products, 256
General Electric (GE), 344, 354
generalized identity integration (GII), 99
General Motors, 380
generative creativity, 207, 218, 219
generative potency, 409, 415, 416
generativity, 416
Geschke, Charles, 383
getting the flywheel going, 382
GII (generalized identity integration), 99
Gilt Groupe, Inc., 495
Glansdorff, P., 442n5
Global Competitiveness Index, 265
Global Creativity Index, 266
Global Innovation Index, 266
globalization, 25, 70, 269, 448
global structure, in structural perspective of social networks, 216–218
Gmail, 124
goal orientation, 167f, 226, 227, 228–229, 230, 237
goals
antagonism between professional and artistic goals, 112, 113
assigned creativity goals, 35
assigned performance goals, 35
competitive goals, 185
creativity goals, 307t
shared goals, 185
Gödel, Kurt, 442n4
The Godfather (movie), 124
Goggle, 99
good-effort failures, 66
good investments, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
Google, 1, 69, 97, 124, 127, 128, 194, 245, 257, 280
Google Drive, 355, 356
Google Fiber, 357
Google News, 124
Google Play marketplace, 384
Google Scholar, 69, 159
Gore, 124
government action/initiatives, as stimulus to organizations, populations, and communities, 449–450
Graham, Bette Nesmith, 93, 94
group cohesion, 22
group creative outcomes, 181
group creativity, 22, 53, 54, 264, 270
Grove, Andy, 440, 441
growth model, of entrepreneurship, 458
growth need strength, as individual characteristic, 234, 238t
guanxi, 268
guided evolution, limitations of, 441
H
habits, as explaining much of entrepreneurial behavior, 447, 448, 450
Harley-Davidson, 126
harmonious–obsessive passion scale, 166
harmonious passion, 160, 166–169
Heroku, 373
heuristics, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
heuristics, as explaining much of entrepreneurial behavior, 447–448
Hewlett-Packard, 354, 355, 356
high creativity with high ethics, 246
high creativity with low ethics, 246
high-impact innovation, criticality of wealth for, 265
high-performance managerial practices, 33f
high resultant conservatism/low resultant self-enhancement culture, Italy as, 263
hindrance orientation, 287t, 289, 291–292
hold-up problems, 365
Homeric Hymn to Hermes, 257
homophily, 210, 451, 493, 494
Housenburg, Jeff, 64
human cloud, 359
humor, role of in social play, 128
hybrid, quality of platform, 383
hyper-competition, 439
I
IBM, 2, 124, 354, 395, 423
ICV (internal corporate venturing), 436–437, 479, 508, 515
idea competitions, online, 125
idea creation, 207
idea elaboration, 125
idea evaluation, 3, 63, 72–74, 125, 193
idea generation, 17, 34, 69–72, 70, 184, 250
idea production, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 150, 151, 153
ideas
creative ideas. See creative ideas
pseudo-creative novel ideas, 247
quasi-creative novel ideas, 247
recombination of existing ideas, 94, 340, 341
idea-solutions, 301, 303
ideational fluency, 147, 249
identified regulation, 83, 84, 85
identity
authenticity of, 105
bicultural identity integration (BII), 272
collective identity. See collective identity
collective identity and creativity, 81–82
creative personal identity. See creative personal identity
creative role identity. See creative role identity
and creativity types, 85–87
empowerment role identity, 24, 234, 238t
enhanced identity, 167
entrepreneurial identity. See entrepreneurial identity
entrepreneurial role identity, 170
entrepreneurial self-identity, 170
entrepreneur identity, 90, 172
founder identities/founder identity, 90, 170, 172
founder role identity, 3, 90
generalized identity integration (GII), 99
ideas for further consideration, 88–90
(p. 530) identity
inclusiveness and creative action, 87–88
individual identity. See individual identity
insider identity, 97, 98, 100
and motivational patterns for creativity, 82–85
multilevel and cross-level effects and creative action, 87
multiplicity as central to, 88
as organizational and strategic characteristic, 363t364t, 368–369
organizational identity. See organizational identity
paradoxical identities, 95
personal identity. See personal identity
relational identity. See relational identity
as relevant to entrepreneurship, 89
as relevant to innovation, 89
role identity. See role identity
role of in entrepreneurial context, 491, 492, 499
social identities. See social identities
superordinate identity, 90
identity affirmation, 105–106, 107, 108, 108t111t, 113, 115, 117
identity categorizations, using antagonism to signal, to others, exclusion from unwanted ones, 112–114
identity centrality, 167, 170, 467, 468, 495, 496–497
identity conflict, 105
identity formation, 105, 467–468
identity formulation, 80, 82, 88
identity integration (II)
and creativity, 96–97
entrepreneurship and, 100
generalized II: cross-domain individual difference for creativity? 99
management of multiple identities, 89, 95–96
and mergers and acquisitions, 100
as seen through lens of organizational boundaries and insider/outsider perspectives, 97
use of in cases where individuals feel pressures to affirm multiple and competing identities at work, 115
identity overlap, across different levels of analysis, 496t
identity perspective, on creative action in organizations, 79–90
identity play, 129–130
identity-related motivation, 272
identity salience, 495–496, 498, 501n5
identity separation, 115, 116
identity shifting, 115, 116, 117
identity theory, 5, 88, 492. See also social identity theory
identity threats, 104, 116, 389
IDEO, 72, 127, 185, 215, 401, 402
II (identity integration). See identity integration (II)
Illustrator, 385
imaginary creative self, 130
implementation stage
across the field, 345–346
within firms, 345
overview, 344–345
implicit theories of creativity, 262, 263
implicit thinking processes, 151
improvisation, 425, 436, 447, 450, 457, 463
inclusiveness, identity inclusiveness and creative action, 87–88
incremental change, era of, 345
incremental creativity, 52–53, 190, 280, 284, 285, 286, 292, 293
incremental innovation, 273, 408, 426, 509
incremental outcome, 280, 292
incubation, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
indeterminism, formation of, 436
Indiegogo, 446
indirect network effects, 382
indirect ties, 216, 452
individual characteristics
broad understanding of, 226
and interplay with situational influences, 225
situational factors interacting with, in influencing creativity, 238t239t
studies of Big Five factors, 233–234
studies of creative personality and cognitive style, 232–233
studies of other ones, 234–236
individual characteristics/differences, and creativity, 226–227
individual creativity, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 53, 132, 135, 137, 173, 178, 183, 184, 188, 189, 194, 212, 215, 218, 220, 225, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 231f, 232, 234, 236, 237, 267, 273–274, 304, 480, 507
individual identification (with organization), 493
individual identity, 3, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 500
individualism, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267
individualism–collectivism, framework of, 263
individualist cultures, 263, 264, 267, 268, 273
individual level of analysis, cultural differences (in creativity), 264–265
individual-level research, person × situation interactions in, 231–236
individual–opportunity nexus, as entrepreneurship perspective, 468t, 469–470
individual orientation, 83
induced and autonomous strategic initiatives, model of, 438
induced negative mood, 144
induced positive mood, 142, 143, 144
induced strategic action/behavior, 438, 438f, 441, 481
inexperience, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
informational feedback, 62
informational supervisor behavior, 19
information communication, 354, 357–358
information completeness, 331f, 333, 334
information constraints
engaging with communities with and without, 360t
future research directions, 373–374
innovating with and without, 371t
innovating without, 353–374
organizational and strategic characteristics with and without, 363t364t
organizational and strategic implications of, 361–370
reduction in, 354–358
information costs, 353–374, 380
information gathering, 17
information processing, 354, 355
information storage, 354, 355–356
information usage, components of, 354–355
Infosys, 416
in-group members, 95
inherent unpredictability, 435, 436
inhibiting, as category of interaction, 238, 240
initial public offering (IPO), 387, 490
InnoCentive, 371
innovation
application of Prigogine’s theory of the dynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems, 433–442
business innovation processes. See business innovation processes
business model innovation (BMI). See business model innovation (BMI)
complexities associated with, 346–348
conditions affecting creativity and innovation in entrepreneurial activity, 445–454
corporate innovation, 477, 482, 485
definition of, 422
described, 446
employee innovation, 33f
encouragement for, 33f, 35
graphic comparison of innovation and institutional innovation, 415f
implications for practice, 347–348
incremental innovation, 273, 408, 426, 509
institutional innovation. See institutional innovation
integrating of team creativity into, 197 (p. 531)
linkage of organizing creativity to, 334
locus of, 354, 370, 413
open innovation, 75, 90, 344, 373, 413
organizational innovation. See organizational innovation
as outcome, 424
radical innovation. See radical innovation
team innovation. See team innovation
technological innovation. See technological innovation
innovation approach, to creativity, 286
innovation capability, 34, 35
innovation communities, 90
innovation consulting, 407
innovation diffusion curve, 345t
innovation journey, 339, 340, 340f, 346, 347f
innovation killers, 341
innovation motivation, 331f, 332–333
innovative behavior, 2, 19, 34, 35, 36, 39, 54, 55, 66, 197, 241, 267, 268, 269, 454, 485
innovative teams, 117–118
innovators, 1, 3, 4, 51, 232, 257, 283, 335, 345, 362, 366, 372, 373, 398, 399, 401, 452, 485, 515
innovator-type thinking, 283
in-role behavior, 289–290
inside-out approach, 437
insider identity, 97, 98, 100
insider/outsider perspectives, 97
inspirational motivation, 19, 24
instability, 388, 434, 449
institutional changes
endogenous, 449
exogenous, 449
institutional complexity, 448, 449, 450
institutional entrepreneurs, 362, 408, 416
institutional innovation
definition and composition of, 414–415
dimensions of, 414f
discussion, 416–418
graphic comparison of innovation and institutional innovation, 415f
innovation in the context of institutionalism, 409–413
institutionalization as bundling of logics and practices, 413
institutionalization as culturally embedded, 412–413
institutionalization as normative, 410–411
institutionalization as social construction, 411–412
introduction, 407–409
processes of, 415–416
theoretical framework of, 413–416
institutionalism, 410, 412, 413
institutional leader, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
institutional logics, 354, 359, 361, 362, 366, 413
institutional structure, and creativity opportunities, 448–451
institutional theory, 410, 411, 414, 415, 447, 449. See also new institutional theory (NIT)
instrumentality, role of for creativity types, 287t, 288–289, 294
intangible rewards, 52
integrated regulation, 83, 84, 85
integration
as identifying with home and host cultures, 272
as strategy to manage multiple social identities, 96
Intel Corporation, 1, 343, 423, 439, 440, 441
intellectual property (IP), 341, 342, 343, 354, 363t364t, 365, 370
intellectual stimulation, 19, 24, 235
intelligence, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
intensity, as antecedent of creativity, 308t
interactional justice, 20, 23, 149, 154, 235
interactional model of venture identification, 490
interaction analysis, 184
interactionist approach, 291, 506
interactive business models, 399
intercultural competence, 270, 271
interdependence and community engagement, as organizational and strategic characteristics, 363t364t, 366–367
interfirm relationships, 358
internal corporate venturing (ICV), 436–437, 479, 508, 515
internal feedback, 65
internal selection environment, 439, 440
internal strategic entrepreneurship, 437
Internet, 380
Internet surfing, 128–129, 357, 366
interpersonal fairness, 54
interpersonal processes, 96, 185, 186–187, 194
intragroup conflict, 89, 116
intrinsic motivation, 3, 18f, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26, 33, 33f, 34, 36, 39, 41, 48, 49, 50, 51, 62, 63, 65, 69, 71, 74, 82, 83, 228, 232, 234, 238t, 256, 269, 308t
intrinsic task motivation, 19, 32, 34, 123, 136, 289
introjected regulation, 83, 84, 85
Intuit, 388
intuition MBTI profile, and creativity type, 283
invention stage
across the field, 341–342
within firms, 341
overview, 340–341
IP (intellectual property). See intellectual property (IP)
iPad, 361
iPhone, 261, 361
IPO (initial public offering), 387, 490
iPod, 416
iPod Touch, 361
irreversibility, 434, 436, 442, 459, 460t, 469, 471
Isaacs, Jeremy, 104
ISI Web of Knowledge, 159
isolated business models, 399
isomorphism, 220, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 447
iTunes, 344, 397
J
Janus/Janusian, 94, 148, 154
job autonomy, 24, 27, 268, 284, 291
job creativity, passion and, 171
Jobs, Steve, 71, 93, 194, 205, 443n10
job satisfaction, 234–235, 238t, 240
Johnson & Johnson, 1
Journal of Applied Psychology, 261
judges, on ethics of creative products, 249
judgment MBTI profile, and creativity type, 283
Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act, 446
K
Kagel, Bob, 494
Kickstarter, 446
Kiluwa, 400
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 256
K-minus, 398
Knight, Phil, 63, 66, 67
knowledge
access to outside sources of, 306t
concept assessment knowledge, 331f, 332, 333
domain-relevant knowledge/skills, 62
existing knowledge, reuse of/combination of, 3
as factor influencing opportunity recognition, 507–508
new knowledge, use of, 3
personal knowledge, 508
prior knowledge, as antecedent of creativity, 309t
relevant knowledge, as antecedent of creativity, 310t
scientific knowledge, 508
shared knowledge, 237
and skills, as antecedent of creativity, 309t
socioemotional wealth, knowledge, and sensing opportunities in family firms, 512–513
tacit knowledge, 69, 273, 508, 510, 513
technological knowledge, 506, 508, 509, 514
transforming knowledge, 509
(p. 532)
knowledge characteristics, as contingency in tie strength, 212–213
knowledge creation, 185, 219
knowledge sharing, 33f, 37, 38, 118, 186, 188, 193, 211, 220, 268
knowledge utilization, 182, 186, 189, 193
Koch Industries, 381
Kodak, 343
L
labor marketplaces, 354, 359–360, 359f, 360t, 365, 366
late majority, 345
leader encouragement (of creativity), 25, 33f, 35
leader–member exchange (LMX), 18f, 19, 20, 24, 26, 81, 88, 232, 236, 284
leader personality traits, 28, 169
leadership
authentic leadership, 18f, 26–27
authoritarian leadership, 188
autocratic leadership, 268
benevolent leadership. See benevolent leadership
critic, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
cultural congruence in leadership, 25
cultural leadership model, 25
empowering leadership. See empowering leadership
empowerment leadership. See empowerment leadership
important role of, 4
institutional leader, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
mediator-based leadership–creativity model, 18
mentor, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
as organizational and strategic characteristic, 363t364t, 367–368
participative leadership, 22
paternalistic leadership, 268
pluralistic leadership roles, 348
positive leadership, 33f
shared leadership, 18f, 27, 130, 194
sponsor, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
supportive leadership. See supportive leadership
transformational leadership. See transformational leadership
types of, 17
visionary leadership, 235
leadership clarity, 22, 23
leadership mechanism model, 18f
leadership styles, 18–19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26–27, 171, 188, 268, 367, 466, 507. See also leadership
lead founder, 28, 399
learned industriousness theory (LIT), 48, 49, 50, 51
learning behaviors, 61, 63, 64–65, 68, 70, 73–74
learning goal orientation, 228, 229, 237, 291
learning mindset, 65, 68
learning orientation, 68, 238t, 285, 294
learning processes, 129
learning races, 342
legitimacy, 105, 113, 207, 208, 217, 343, 381, 409, 410, 412, 413, 414–415, 416, 449, 450, 461, 499
legitimacy-creating activities, as component of emergence, 461
LEGO, 125
Leonardo da Vinci, helicopter, 72, 76n1
Lévi-Strauss, 93, 94
LexisNexis, 159
life cycle model, of entrepreneurship, 458
Linco, 381, 386
Linux, 367
Liquid Paper, 93
LIT (learned industriousness theory), 48, 49, 50, 51
LMX (leader–member exchange). See leader–member exchange (LMX)
local structure, in structural perspective of social networks, 215–216
logics
Chandlerian logic, 354, 359f, 362
community-centric logic, 354
community logic, 359f
institutional logics, 354, 359, 361, 362, 366, 413
lone creator/lone entrepreneur, 4
lone genius view (of creativity), 205
low creativity with high ethics, 246
low creativity with low ethics, 246
low resultant conservatism/high resultant self-enhancement culture, US as, 263
Lucretius, 93
ludic learning space, 129
lunch patterns, 129
M
macro-contexts, in team effectiveness models, 188, 189
macro-infrastructure (for innovation), 343
magnetic tapes/magnetic disks, 356
main effects, 25, 273, 498
malevolent creativity, 245, 247, 248
management support, as antecedent to entrepreneurial behaviors, 482
managerial cognition, 423, 424f, 425, 427
managerial entrepreneurial action, 423–424
managerial human capital, 423, 424f, 425, 426
managerial intentionality, role of, 436
managerial social capital, 423, 424f, 425, 426
managers
critical roles of in sustaining corporate entrepreneurial strategy, 483–485
dynamic managerial capabilities, 421–428
marginalization, as strategy to manage multiple social identities, 96, 272
market makers, 449
market share, 174, 319, 386
market takers, 449
Match.com, 384
matrix-based organizations, 446
Maybank, Alexis, 495
MBNA, 99
MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), 280, 283
McDonald’s, 1
meaningfulness, importance of for purchase, 263
means-ends relationships, 28, 100, 206, 464
mechanism perspective (on leadership and creativity), 19–27
mechanisms
affective mechanisms. See affective mechanisms
cognitive mechanisms. See cognitive mechanisms
dual-tuning mechanisms, 150
leadership mechanism model, 18f
mediating mechanisms. See mediating mechanisms
moderating mechanisms. See moderating mechanisms
multilevel nature of, 18f, 21
organizational-level mechanisms, 23
summary of mechanisms and factors affecting creativity types, 287t
team-level mechanisms, 23
three-mechanism framework for creativity, 18
mediating mechanisms, 34–35, 37–38, 39, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52
mediation, 19, 20, 23, 25, 26, 146, 219
mediator-based leadership–creativity model, 18
mediators, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 33f, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 51, 133, 170, 182, 188, 193, 280, 284
medical diagnostic devices, 360
megabits per US dollar over time, 357f
Mendel, Gregor, 262
mental gymnastics, 70
mental models, 38, 118, 152, 185, 186, 423, 424, 427
mentor, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
merger, as strategy to manage multiple social identities, 96
mergers and acquisitions, lessons for, 99–100
Merrill, 427
meta-organizations, 362 (p. 533)
metric system, adoption of in US, as example of useful idea that stalled, 72
micro-contexts, in team effectiveness models, 188–189
micromanaging, 27
mindful organizing, 149
Minnesota Innovation Research Program (MIRP), 339, 344, 346
MIPS per US dollar over time, 356f
mixed (ambivalent) mood, 145, 148, 150, 153–154
mixed thought, 153–154
MNBA, 97
mobile phone app stores, 379
mobile phone industry, 358, 384, 390
mobile phones, 344, 372, 380
mock-ups, 403
model of induced and autonomous strategic initiatives, 438
model of venture identification and resource acquisition, 493–498, 498f
models
Affect Infusion Model (AIM), 154
Behavioral Agency Model (BAM), 510
bisociative model, 250
classic evolutionary process model, 354
compilation models, 180, 181, 183–184
componential model/theory of creativity. See componential model/theory of creativity
composition models, 180–183
conceptual model, 33f
contagion models, 344
contingency model, 147
creative role models, 307t
cultural leadership model, 25
deliberate-practice-based model, 310–318
de novo (new to the state-of-the-art) business models, 398
design process model. See design process model
dual-core model for organizations, 94
dualistic model of passion. See dualistic model of passion
dual-pathway models of creativity, 290
dual-track model, for mood and creativity, 147
dynamic model of creativity, 262
ethical, creative choices, model of, 254f
evolutionary models of creative processes, 251
expertise development-based model, of organizational creativity, 303
feeling-as-information model, 146
FIBER model, 511
five-factor model of personality, 227–228
growth model, of entrepreneurship, 458
interactional model of venture identification, 490
interactive business models, 399
isolated business models, 399
leadership mechanism model, 18f
life cycle model, of entrepreneurship, 458
mediator-based leadership–creativity model, 18
mental models. See mental models
model of induced and autonomous strategic initiatives, 438
model of venture identification and resource acquisition, 493–498, 498f
mood-as-information model, 154
mood-as-input model, 146, 154
multisided platform business models, 372, 379–380, 380f
multistage creativity models, 184
organizational-level expertise development model, 333
platform-based business models, 379, 380, 390
process model of strategic capital investment, 437
rational actor model, 440
shared mental models, 38, 185, 186
socioemotional wealth (SEW), model of, 506, 510–511, 514
structure-of-intellect model, 249
team input-process-output (IPO) models, 181
venture identification, proposed model of, 493–498, 498f
modems, 357
moderating mechanisms, 32, 34, 35–36, 40, 41
moderators, 23, 24, 25, 26, 33f, 34, 35–36, 38–40, 53, 130, 134, 147, 182, 186, 188, 189, 212, 230, 240, 280, 284
modification, 2, 17, 53, 152, 178, 217, 280, 366, 391, 402, 408, 483, 484
monetary bonuses/monetary rewards, 52
monitoring costs, 368
Monod, Jacques, 435
mood
and creativity in the laboratory, 142–145
as individual characteristic, 238t
mixed (ambivalent) mood. See mixed (ambivalent) mood
negative mood. See negative mood
positive mood. See positive mood
and problem perception, 152
use of term, 141
mood-as-information model, 154
mood-as-input model, 146, 154
mood congruence principle, 142
mood effects, 142, 146, 150, 151–152, 153, 154
mood states, 18–19, 20, 23, 148, 235
Moore’s Law, 355, 356, 423
morality, 246, 248, 249, 257
moral superiority, 106
motivation
epistemic motivation, 54, 264
external regulation motivation, 83, 84
extrinsic motivation. See extrinsic motivation
identity-related motivation, 272
innovation motivation, 331f, 332–333
inspirational motivation, 19, 24
intrinsic motivation. See intrinsic motivation
nonsynergistic extrinsic motivation, 66
pre-creativity motivations, 253
prosocial motivation, 84, 256, 264
subordinate motivation, 234
supervisor motivation, 234
synergistic extrinsic motivation. See synergistic extrinsic motivation
task motivation. See task motivation
motivational mechanisms, 18f, 19–20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 172
motivational patterns for creativity, identity and, 82–85
Motivational Potential Score, 133
multicultural experiences, 98, 99, 271–273
multilevel theory, 236, 240
multiple dynamic equilibria, 435
multisided platform business models, 372, 379–380, 380f
multisided platforms, 379, 380, 381–382, 383, 384
multistage creativity models, 184
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 280, 283
N
narcissism, 182
narrow focus, role of in completion of creativity types, 290–291
NASA, 371
National BankAmericard, 414
National Institutes of Health, 347
Naturehouse stores, 400
negative affect, 52, 62, 127, 142, 145, 146, 147, 149, 168, 189, 227, 309t, 321t, 332, 463, 467
negative consequences, of creativity types, 285
negative mood, 20, 143, 145, 146, 147–148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 235, 290
neoinstitutional theory, 453
Nespresso, 261
Nestle, 1
Netflix, 1
Net Present Value calculations, 341
network-based organizations, 446
network centrality, 280, 284 (p. 534)
network closure, 216
network effects/externalities, 381
network governance, 208
networks
entrepreneurial creativity and, 451–453
as pipes and prisms, 341
network structure, 208, 214, 215, 216, 218, 219, 220, 451
network theory, 410
neuroticism, 28, 181, 227
New England Journal of Medicine, 248
new entry
as factor influencing opportunity recognition, 508–509
socioemotional wealth and, 515–516
new institutional theory (NIT), 447, 448
new knowledge, use of, 3
new products/markets and technologies, as factor influencing opportunity recognition, 509
new venture teams, 118
New York Port Authority, 381, 388
Nextel, 99
Nicolis, Grégoire, 434, 435, 439, 441, 442n1
Nike, 63, 67
Nintendo, 383
NIT (new institutional theory), 447, 448
Nobel Prizes, 265
Nokia, 343, 386t, 390, 400
non-conformists, professional artists as commonly defining selves as, 106
nonlinear change, as property of emergence, 459–460, 460t
nonlinear strategic dynamics, 439
non-managerial, professional artists as commonly defining selves as, 106
nonsynergistic extrinsic motivation, 66
non-traditionalists, professional artists as commonly defining selves as, 106
non-work identities, 97–98
Nordstrom, 1
norms, 74
novel associations/connections, 3, 64
novelty
association of individualism with emphasis on, 263
as characteristic of creativity, 246–247, 250
emergence of, 340–341
importance of for purchase, 263, 264
institutional innovation as located at intersection of novelty, usefulness, and legitimacy, 414, 415
Nuance, 358
O
Obama, Barak, 446
obsessive passion, 166–169
oDesk, 358, 359
Omidyar, Pierre, 494
online idea competitions, 125
on the fly, solutions as created, 463
open
as category of problems, 283, 285, 286, 290, 460
as quality of platform, 383
open innovation, 75, 90, 344, 373, 413
open-minded thinking, 250, 251
openness, 71
openness to experience, as component in five-factor model of personality, 227, 228, 233, 239t
open source software, 354, 361, 365, 370
open systems view, 65
opinion leaders, 213, 345
opportunities
approaches to, 464, 465
creative opportunities, 83, 86, 196, 197, 448–451
entrepreneurial opportunities, 28, 206–207
identification of, 2
institutional structure and creative opportunities, 448–451
seizing opportunities, 508–509, 514–516
sensing opportunities, 511–514
opportunity emergence, 464–465
opportunity evaluation, 100
opportunity exploitation for new venture creation, 2
opportunity recognition, 3, 4, 170, 195, 196, 197, 207, 466, 469, 506, 507, 508, 510, 513, 514
opposite side network effects, 382
optical disks, 356
optimizing criteria, 152
order, complexity, and chaos, as regimes Boolean networks can exhibit, 441
organizational becoming, 436–438, 462
organizational boundaries
as antecedent to entrepreneurial behaviors, 482
revisiting identity integration through lens of, 97
organizational capabilities, 422, 423, 509
organizational centrality, 483
organizational climate and culture, 21
organizational creativity, 18f, 261–262, 267, 301, 303
organizational deviance scale, 121
organizational ecology, 439
organizational emergence, 463
organizational evolution, and Prigogine’s theory of the dynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems, 433–442
organizational forms, cultural codes view of, 446–447
organizational identification, 82, 461, 491, 492, 493, 498
organizational identity, 98, 100, 101, 130, 368, 369, 380–381, 386–390, 391, 423, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 498, 499
organizational innovation, 31, 32, 34, 47, 54, 416, 446, 477, 480, 481, 507
organizational-level expertise development model, 333
organizational-level mechanisms, 23
organizational norms, 74
organizational support and control, 189
organization-level identification, 494–495, 496t
organizations, as needing to be ambidextrous, 94
organizations-in-creation, 461
organization theory, 362, 433, 436–437, 438, 439
organizing creativity, 319, 320t330t, 331–334, 331f, 335
orientation
autonomy orientation, 171, 174, 267
challenge orientation, 291–292
goal orientation, 167f, 226, 227, 228–229, 230, 237
hindrance orientation, 287t, 289, 291–292
individual orientation, 83
learning goal orientation, 228, 229, 237, 291
learning orientation, 68, 238t, 285, 294
performance-approach goal orientation, 229, 237, 238t
performance-avoidance goal orientation, 228–229, 237, 238t
performance orientation, 68, 266, 291
pro-self orientation, 182
pro-social orientation, 182
relational orientation, 83, 86, 268, 273
originality, 20, 143, 144, 147, 226, 249, 250, 264, 265, 270, 272
outcome
creativity as, 246–249
innovation as, 424
outcome focused, 302t303t
outcomes
creative outcomes. See creative outcomes
creativity outcomes, 319
group creative outcomes, 181
incremental outcome, 280, 292
radical outcome, 288, 292, 293, 294
superior creativity outcomes/superior creative outcomes, 319, 331, 334
team creative outcomes. See team creative outcomes, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 189
out-group members, 95
outside-in approach, 437
outsider identities, 97, 98, 99, 100
outsider perspectives, 72, 97, 98–99 (p. 535)
outsiders, 95, 97, 98, 100, 106, 112, 381, 453
outsourcing, 359, 365
P
PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Scale), 146, 149
paradoxical identities, 95
parallel mediation, 26
participative leadership, 22
passion
definitions of, 160
dualistic model of, 160, 166, 167f, 169, 170, 171
entrepreneurial passion, 169–172, 169f
experimental manipulation of, 166
future research directions, 172–174
harmonious passion, 160, 161–169
importance of for creativity, 3
and job creativity, 171
obsessive passion, 161–169
passion contagion, 170, 171
passion–creativity relationship, 171
passion research, 159–160, 161t165t
paternalistic leadership, 268
path dependence, 436, 449
patient capital, 342
pattern recognition, 3
PDFs, 385, 386
peak experiences, 131
peak performances, 131
Peapod, 496
peer production processes, 366
performance-approach goal orientation, 229, 237, 238t
performance-avoidance goal orientation, 228–229, 237, 238t
performance-contingent rewards, 48–49, 51
performance incentives, 56
performance orientation, 68, 266, 291
person × situation interactions, 226, 227, 228, 230, 231–236, 285
personal factors, 3, 4, 291
personal identity, 80–81, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 160, 166, 168, 174
personality
five-factor model of, 227–228
and individual differences and creativity, 227–229
as predictor of creativity type, 280, 283
personality characteristics, for creativity, 3
personality-like traits, and individual differences and creativity, 227–229
personality processes, 62
personality traits, of lead founder, 28
personality view (of creativity), 205, 206
personal knowledge, 508
personally identifiable information (PII), 367
personal projects, 97
personal strengths, passion and, 167
person-in-situation interactions, 225–241
person-in-situation perspective, 225, 229–231, 231f
person-in-situation research, 226
person(s), component of Four P’s framework of creativity in teams, 179, 180–183, 192
phone lines, 357
Photoshop, 385
Pixar, 127
platform-based activities, 385t
platform-based business models, 379, 380, 390
play
benefits of, 122–123
definition of, 122
as diversion, 127–130
elements of, 122, 123
as engagement, 123–127
future research directions, 129
introduction, 121–122
playfulness, 121
pluralistic leadership roles, 348
Polaroid, 343, 381, 427
positive affect, 18f, 20, 26, 27, 52, 75, 82, 122, 134, 142, 145, 146, 147, 168, 169, 170, 211, 227, 284, 290, 309t, 321t, 463, 492
Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), 146, 149
positive consequences, of creativity types, 285
positive effect, of rewards on creativity, 48–49, 52
positive emotions, 129, 168, 290
positive leadership, 33f
positive mood, 20, 142–145, 146, 147–148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 235
positive mood-cognitive flexibility proposition, 147
Postscript standard, 382, 383, 385
power distance, 39, 266
pre-creativity motivations, 253
preparation
desired behaviors for, 67–68
as second stage of creative process, 63, 67–69
work environment influences at Stage Two of creative process, 68–69
press, component of Four P’s framework of creativity in teams, 179, 180, 188–190, 194–195
prevention focus, 27, 229, 235
pricing strategies, 382
Prigogine, Ilya, 433, 434, 441, 442
Prius, 261
proactive creativity, 3, 86, 147, 280, 283, 284, 285, 287, 287t, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295
problem identification/opportunity identification, 17, 63–67
problem perception, as dimension of problem solving, 151, 152
problem sensitivity, in creativity, 152
problem solving
approaches to, 3
dimensions of, 151
problem-solving approach (to creative work), 104
problem-solving variant of dual-process theory, 151
problem spaces, 149, 151, 153
procedural fairness, 54
process
component of Four P’s framework of creativity in teams, 179, 180, 184–187, 192–194
creativity as, 249–251
as dimension of problem solving, 151, 152–153
processes
action processes (in team creativity), 185, 186
affective processes, 122, 229, 493
business innovation processes. See business innovation processes
cognitive processes. See cognitive processes
creative processes, 251
creativity processes. See creativity processes
creativity-relevant cognitive processes/creativity-relevant processes. See creativity-relevant cognitive processes/creativity-relevant processes
creativity-relevant individual processes, 54
evaluation-centered group processes, 190
explicit thinking processes, 151
implicit thinking processes, 151
interpersonal processes, 96, 185, 186–187, 194
learning processes, 129
peer production processes, 366
personality processes, 62
stationary processes, 422
structured knowledge processes, 74
team cognitive processes, 21
team creative processes, 194
team processes, 269
transition processes (in team creativity), 185–186
process focused, 302t303t
processing
breadth of, 152
broad, 153
deeper, 153
level of, 152
processing power, 355, 356, 423
process model of strategic capital investment, 437
Procter & Gamble, 1 (p. 536)
product-based activities, 385t
product concept deliberate practice, 331, 331f, 332, 333
product concepts, 319, 331, 332, 333, 334
product innovation, socioemotional wealth and, 514–515
products, component of Four P’s framework of creativity in teams, 179, 180, 190–191, 195
product-to-platform transitions
from creativity to discipline, 388–389
discussion, 390–391
from end-user service oriented to end-user and complementor service oriented, 388
example of, 384f
future research directions, 391–392
introduction, 379–380
from maximizing product profit to driving platform adoption, 385–386
from maximizing units sold to maximizing transactions enabled, 386
from one definition of the business to another, 386–387
and organizational identity, 386–390, 386t
process of, 383–386
product-based vs platform-based activities, 385t
from providing the best products to developing the best network of complementors, 385
from self-reliant to team player, 389–390
from technology driven to business development focused, 387–388
professional identity, role of antagonism in identities of professional artistic workers, 103–118
progress principle, 75
projects
blue-sky projects, 122, 123–124
personal projects, 97
use of, in development stage, 343
project team dynamics, 343
promotion focus, 27, 229, 235
ProQuest, 306
Proquest, 159
pro-self orientation, 182
prosocial motivation, 84, 256, 264
pro-social orientation, 182
prospect theory, link to, 440–441
Protestant relational ideology, 97
pseudo-creative novel ideas, 247
PsychInfo, 159
psychological bricolage
definition of, 93
entrepreneurship and identity integration, 100
exposure to outsider perspectives vs integration of identities, 98–99
generalized identity integration: cross-domain individual difference for creativity? 99
identity integration and creativity, 96–97
lessons for mergers and acquisitions, 99–100
making non-work identities salient, 97–98
management of multiple identities, 96–95
revisiting identity integration through lens of organizational boundaries and insider/outsider perspectives, 97
social identities as resource for, 95
sources and challenges, 94–95
strategies that facilitate (and inhibit) activation of outsider identities, 97
when insider identity strength can inhibit creativity, 98
psychological empowerment, 21, 25, 31, 32, 33–41, 33f, 234, 267
psychological safety, 18f, 25, 27, 123, 130, 189, 512
punctuating shifts, in venture emergence, 463
Q
quality assurance (QA) departments, evolving role of, 362
quasi-creative novel ideas, 247
QuickBooks, 388
R
R&D (research and development), changes in as information constraints decrease, 362
radical creativity, 52–53, 190, 194, 264, 280, 284, 285, 286, 288, 292, 293
radical innovation, 261, 273, 408, 423, 426, 445, 453, 499, 506, 509
radical outcome, 288, 292, 293, 294
rapid prototyping, 2, 72, 403
RAT (Remote Associates Test), 148, 173, 250
rational actor model, 440
rational choice theory, 369
Ratner, Dan, 67–68, 73
reasonable risks, 480
reasoning, as antecedent of creativity, 309t
reciprocal interactions/coevolution, as property of emergence, 459, 460–461, 460t
recognition, as approach to opportunities, 464
recombination of existing ideas, 94, 340, 341
reconfiguring function, of dynamic managerial capabilities, 425, 426, 427
red tape, 72
reframing, 64, 144, 151, 413
regulation, impact of, 449
regulatory focus, 18f, 27, 226, 228–229, 230, 235, 238t
regulatory focus theory, 229
relational dimension (of social networks), 208
relational identity, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
relational orientation, 83, 86, 268, 273
relationship conflict, 22, 28, 118, 267
relative absorptive capacity, 342
relativity, of creativity, 262
relevant social priming, 331f, 332
remote associates tasks, 142, 147
Remote Associates Test (RAT), 148, 173, 250
remote association, 207, 211, 215
renqing, 268
requisite variety, 95
research and development (R&D), changes in as information constraints decrease, 362
Research In Motion Limited (RIM), 343, 387–388
resource acquisition
described, 489
entrepreneurial identity and, 489–500
implications for entrepreneurship research, 499
implications for future research and extensions, 499–500
model of venture identification and resource acquisition, 498f
as two-stage process, 491
resource management, 423, 424
resource orchestration, 423, 424
resource providers, 490, 491, 493–495, 497
resource seekers, 490
responsive creativity, 86, 279, 280, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 287t, 288, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294
retention, 246, 249, 354, 370, 371, 371t, 372–373
review procedures, 74
rewards
and creativity, 47–54, 290
and entrepreneurship, 47–48
future research directions, 52–54
and innovation, 47
meta-analytic investigation, 51–52
moving beyond controversy, 50–51
negative effect of on creativity, 49–50
positive effect of on creativity, 48–49
rehashing and resolving theoretical controversies, 50
relationship between rewards and creativity, 48–54 (p. 537)
relationship between rewards and innovation, 54–55
relationship of rewards to entrepreneurship, 55–57
types of, as direction for future research, 52
rewards–creativity relationship, 47, 48, 51, 52
rewards–entrepreneurship relationship, 56, 57
rewards–innovation relationship, 54, 55
rewards/reinforcement, as antecedent to entrepreneurial behaviors, 482
right–right ethical issues, 246, 255, 256
right–wrong ethical issues, 255
RIM/Blackberry, 386t, 387–388
risk reduction, 365
role conflict, 168, 170
role identity, 82, 85, 86–87, 89, 90, 170
routines, 65, 72
rumination, 153
run in packs, organizations as having to learn to, 344, 348
S
Samsung, 368
satisficing, 448
satisficing criteria, 152
SBA (US Small Business Administration), 67, 72
Schumpeterian entrepreneur, 439
science, toward a new philosophy of, 441–442
scientific knowledge, 508
Scopus, 159, 280
SDKs (software developer kits), 383
SDKs (software development kits), 361
SDT (self-determination theory). See self-determination theory (SDT)
search, as organizational and strategic characteristic, 363t364t, 369–370
search breadth, as predictor of BMI, 399
search width, as predictor of BMI, 399–400
seatbelts, standardized use of, as example of useful idea that stalled, 72
second-state moderators, 25
seizing capabilities, 505, 506
seizing entrepreneurial opportunities, 508–509
seizing function, of dynamic managerial capabilities, 425, 426, 427
seizing opportunities, in family firms, 514–516
selection, 249, 354, 370–371, 371t, 372
self-competence, 37
self-consistency, 83
self-definition, 80, 81, 82, 106
self-determination, 26, 33, 37, 38, 48, 49, 50, 51, 83
self-determination theory (SDT), 48, 49, 50, 51, 166, 167, 168, 171, 267
self-enhancement, 81, 83, 263
self-evaluation, 75, 90, 237, 491
self-interest, 83, 246, 249, 251–252, 253, 512
self-motivated pursuits, 69
self-organization, 372, 435, 438, 458
self-organizing capacity, 434
self-rated creativity, 182, 268
self-regulatory focus, 18f, 27
self-reliance, 38, 389
self-validation, 86
sensemaking process, 149, 285
sensing capabilities, 505, 506
sensing entrepreneurial opportunities, 507–508
sensing function, of dynamic managerial capabilities, 425, 426, 427
sensing MBTI profile, and creativity type, 283
sensing opportunities, in family firms, 511–514
sensitivity to initial conditions, 434
separation
as identifying with home culture only, 272
as strategy to manage multiple social identities, 96
sequential mediation, 26
serial entrepreneurs, 466, 467
service-oriented architecture (SOA), 388
SEW (socioemotional wealth). See socioemotional wealth (SEW)
shared goals, and team creativity, 185
shared knowledge, 237
shared leadership, 18f, 27, 130, 194
shared mental models, 38, 185, 186
sharing sites, 372
Shutterfly, 64
Silicon Valley, 69, 126
Simmelian ties, 216
Simon, Herbert, 367
simulation technologies, 125
Singapore Airlines, 1
Sittercity, 64, 67, 70, 73
situational factors, as interacting with individual characteristics in influencing creativity, 238t239t
situational influences, 225, 226, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238
situational priming (around passion), 166
situational resources, 230, 231f, 233, 234, 235, 237
situation strength, 230, 231f
situation trait relevance, 230, 231f
skunk works, 341
slack, 334–335
small wins, 71, 75, 463
small world configuration, 453
smartphones, 360, 367, 379, 384, 388
Smith, Kim, 496
SOA (service-oriented architecture), 388
social antagonism, 104, 106
social bricolage, 94
social categorization theory, 269
social constructionism, 411
social context, role of for creativity, 4
social disidentification, 105
social embeddedness, 206
social environment, as external component of creativity, 62, 65
social identities
antagonism as central to affirmation of, 104–105
definition of, 95
entrepreneurship and identity integration, 100
examples of, 94
exposure to outsider perspectives vs integration of identities, 98–99
generalized identity integration: cross-domain individual difference for creativity? 99
identity integration and creativity, 96–97
integration of to produce creative solutions, 93–100
lessons for mergers and acquisitions, 99–100
making non-work identities salient, 97–98
management of multiple identities, 95–96
as resource for psychological bricolage, 95
strategies that facilitate (and inhibit) activation of outsider identities, 97
types of, 95
when insider identity strength can inhibit creativity, 98
social identity theory, 80, 81, 82, 90, 114, 116, 493
SociallyActive, 366
social media, 369, 372
social networks
and creativity, 205–221
definition of, 451
as factor influencing opportunity recognition, 508
future research directions, 218–221
impact of on information constraints, 362
importance of for creativity, 4
relational dimension/perspective of, 208
relational dimension/structure of, 209–214
as situational resource, 233
structural dimension/perspective of, 208–209, 214–218
as tool for startup entrepreneurs, 69
(p. 538)
social network view (of creativity), 206, 208
social play, 122, 128, 129
social structural antecedents, 33f
social-structural approach (to empowerment), 31, 32
social structures, as facilitating entrepreneurial creativity, 445
social ties, socioemotional wealth, social ties, and sensing opportunities in family firms, 513–514
social validation, of creative products, 255–256
social view (of creativity), 206
socioemotional wealth (SEW)
as approach to entrepreneurial process in family firms, 509–516
introduction, 505–507
model of, 506, 510–511, 514
pervasive effect of, 510–511
sociopolitical support, 33f
software developer kits (SDKs), 383
software development kits (SDKs), 361
software operating systems, 380
solopreneurs, 366
solution requirements, as dimension of problem solving, 151, 152
Sony, 345, 388
Sony PlayStation 3, 355
Sony Walkman, 345
Southwest Airlines, 64, 65, 398
specific phase (of innovation process), 345
sponsor, as pluralistic leadership role, 348
Sprint, 99
S-shaped curves, 344, 345
stabilization of meaning, 346
Stamp, Jeffrey A., 303, 310
standards, 346
Starbucks, 1
startups, 28, 67, 68, 69, 71, 74, 75, 439, 445, 446, 447, 448, 451, 461
stationary processes, 422
status auctions, 185
Stengers, Isabelle, 442n1
storytelling, 127–128
strain, 26, 41
strategic alliances/partners, 358, 359f, 367
strategic capital investment, process model of, 437
strategic context determination, 437, 438, 440, 441
strategic dissonance, 440
strategic entrepreneurship, 433–442, 479–480
strategic inflection points, 440
strategic renewal, 478, 480, 483
strategy
as dimension of problem solving, 151, 153
for entrepreneurship, 480
and new business models, as organizational and strategic characteristic, 363t364t, 365–366
strategy making
internal ecology of, 439–440
parallels with role of in organizational evolution, 437–441
as variation–selection–retention process, 438
strategy-making process in established companies, evolutionary framework of, 438f
strength of weak ties theory, 209
strong ties, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 268, 451, 452, 453, 508, 513
structural dimension (of social networks), 208
structural empowerment alterations, 41
structural holes, 69, 214, 215–216, 340, 341, 426, 452
structural supports, 66
structured knowledge processes, 74
structure-of-intellect model, 249
subjective emergence, 465
subordinate motivation, 234
substituting, as category of interaction, 238, 240
sufficient resources, 74, 408
superior creativity outcomes/superior creative outcomes, 319, 331, 331f, 334
superior product concepts, 319, 331, 331f, 332, 333
superordinate identity, 90
supervenience, as property of emergence, 459, 460t, 461
supervisor motivation, 234
supervisor supportiveness, 33f, 35, 41
supervisory style, 19
supportive leadership, 17, 18, 18f, 19, 20, 24, 26
sustainable entrepreneurial mindset, 485
Symantec, 1
symbol artifacts, 125
symbolic actions, as cultural tool, 490, 500n1
synergistic extrinsic motivation, 3, 5, 62, 63, 66, 68, 69, 74, 75
T
tablets, 356, 360, 380
tacit knowledge, 69, 273, 508, 510, 513
Taco Bell, 398
tactical contributors, 358, 359f
tangible rewards, 52, 66
task conflict, 28, 117, 187, 190
task conflict asymmetry, 187
task constraints, 154
task marketplaces, 354, 359, 364, 365, 366
task motivation, 19, 32, 34, 37, 62, 63, 123, 136, 289, 290
task performance, 22, 39, 141, 142, 150, 151, 154, 229, 279, 288, 292, 492
task platforms, 360, 365
task structures and mechanisms, 74
TCE (transaction cost economics), 365, 368
team bureaucracy, 237
team climate, 22, 180, 184, 188, 189
team cognitive diversity, 26, 27, 237
team cognitive processes, 21
team communication, 22
team creative efficacy, 18f, 21, 22, 33f, 36, 37, 40, 182, 187, 188, 189
team creative performance, 181, 183, 186, 187, 188, 189
team creative processes, 178, 179, 182, 184, 185, 191, 192, 193, 194
team creativity
attention being paid to in creativity literature, 4
collective efficacy and, 267, 268
in conceptual model, 33f
cultural diversity and, 259–271
definitions of, 178–179
extant literature on, 179–191
Four P’s framework of, 179–191
future research directions, 191–195
integrating with entrepreneurship, 195–197
integrating with innovation, 197
introduction, 177–178
in leadership mechanism model, 18f
from person(s) perspective, 179, 180–183, 192
from press perspective, 188–190, 194–195
from process perspective, 184–187, 192–194
from product perspective, 190–191, 195
rewards and, 53–54
team empower and team creativity/innovation, 36
team efficacy, 187
team empowerment, 32, 33, 33f, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40
team empowerment climate, 33f, 36, 38–39
team innovation, 22, 23, 33f, 36, 38, 81, 270
team input-process-output (IPO) models, 181
team knowledge management, 189
team learning, 33f, 37–38
team learning behavior, 188, 237
team learning climate, 33f, 36
team-level mechanisms, 23
team-level mediators, 33f, 40
team-level moderators, 36
team participation, 33f, 36, 37, 39
team polarity, 187
team processes, 19, 22, 37, 184, 185, 188, 192, 193, 261, 269 (p. 539)
team psychological safety, 18f
team reflection, 22
technical learning, 70
technological evolution, path dependence in, 436
technological innovation, 379, 424, 424f, 425, 426, 427, 506, 514, 515
technological knowledge, 506, 508, 509, 514
technological platforms, 344
telecommunications channels, 357
temporal contexts, in team effectiveness models, 188, 190
tension, role of in strategy-making process, 439, 440, 443n9
Test for Creative Thinking–Drawing Production, 264
theories
broaden-and-build theory of positive mood effects on cognition, 142
classical association theory of creativity, 144
coevolutionary lock-in, and link to prospect theory, 440–441
cognitive evaluation theory, 19
cognitive information processing theory, 152
cognitive theory, 301
cognitive tuning theory, 142, 151, 152
complexity theory, 433, 436, 437
componential model/theory of creativity, 3
conservation of resources theory, 267
cultural evolutionary theory, 438, 439
Darwinian theory, 441
dual-process theory of reasoning, 150, 151
evolutionary theory, 446. See also cultural evolutionary theory
expertise-development theory, 331
expertise theory, 301, 332
expert theory, 303
flow theory, 131, 132
identity theory, 5, 88, 492. See also social identity theory
institutional theory. See institutional theory
learned industriousness theory (LIT), 48, 49, 50, 51
multilevel theory, 236, 240
neoinstitutional theory, 453
network theory, 410
new institutional theory (NIT), 447, 448
organization theory. See organization theory
problem-solving variant of dual-process theory, 151
rational choice theory, 369
regulatory focus theory, 229
self-determination theory (SDT). See self-determination theory (SDT)
social categorization theory, 269
social identity theory. See social identity theory
strength of weak ties theory, 209
theory of nonlinear dynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems, 433
two-continuum theory, 252
variation–selection–retention framework/paradigm/theory, 442
theory of nonlinear dynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems, 433
Thiers, Genevieve, 64, 67–68, 70, 72–73
thinking
adaptor-type thinking, 283
breakthrough thinking, 69, 70
convergent thinking, 249, 250, 251–252
divergent thinking. See divergent thinking
evaluative thinking, 251
explicit thinking processes, 151
implicit thinking processes, 151
innovator-type thinking, 283
open-minded thinking, 250, 251
thinking style, as predictor of creativity type, 280
37signals, 127
Thomson Reuters, 253–254
thought worlds, 341
Threadless, 361, 372
3D printing, 373
3M, 1, 69, 124
three-mechanism framework for creativity, 18
thumb drives, 356
ties, impact of on entrepreneurs, 451–452
tie strength
contingencies in, 212–214
definition of, 209
in social networks, 451–453
strong ties. See strong ties
weak ties. See weak ties
time, in team creativity literature, 190
time availability, 481, 482, 485
time-dependent success or failure, 435–436, 441
timelessness, 122, 125, 131, 136–137
Time magazine, 73
time pressure, 71, 74, 137, 233, 271, 272, 284, 288, 290, 291
TopCoder, 358, 359, 371
top-down processing, 152
top management teams (TMTs), 341, 342, 343, 368
Torrance Creativity Test/Torrance test of Creative Thinking, 249, 264, 265
Total Quality Management (TQM), 345, 423
Toyota, 261
trade associations, 450
trait activation, 7, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 238
transaction cost economics (TCE), 365, 368
transactive memory system, 33f, 37, 38, 185, 186
transformational leadership, 17, 18f, 19, 20, 21–22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 37, 39, 135, 171, 182, 188, 234, 291
transformational learning, 70
transforming capabilities, 505, 506
transforming knowledge, 509
transient advantages, 344
transition processes (in team creativity), 185–186
translation (according to actor network theorists), 346
trial and error, 2, 72, 346, 348, 400, 403, 424, 462, 472, 511
trials of strength, 346
TripAdvisor, 361
trust in supervisor, 33f, 35, 41
trustworthiness, 20, 216
two-continuum theory, 252
U
uncertainty avoidance, 39, 266
uncollaborative, professional artists as commonly defining selves as, 106
uncreative/ethical behavior, 252–253
uncreative/unethical behavior, 252–253
understandability, as cognitive mechanism for resource providers, 493, 494
unethical creativity, 246, 256
units sold, 386
unity and coherence, assumption of in effects of institutions, 448
urgency, 74
US Council on Competitiveness, 2
usefulness
association of collectivism with emphasis on, 263
as characteristic of creativity, 247, 248, 249, 422
institutional innovation as located at intersection of novelty, usefulness, and legitimacy, 414
redefining of, 255–256
user contributions, 366
user-generated contributions, 354, 361, 370
user-generated reviews, 361
user idea generation and selection, 361, 365
user reviews, 354, 365, 369
users, as part of typology of communities, 359f, 360t, 361
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 346, 347
US Small Business Administration (SBA), 67, 72
US West, 386 (p. 540)
V
value chain, 396, 398
value creation, 4, 335, 395, 396, 397, 398, 404
Van Gogh, Vincent, 205, 262
variation, 246, 249, 354, 370, 371–372, 371t
variation–selection–retention framework/paradigm/theory, 438, 439, 442
Velten mood induction procedure, 144
venture assessment, 494
venture creation, 2, 4, 57, 100, 170, 172, 207, 457, 462, 466, 468, 469, 478, 506, 515
venture emergence, 461, 462–464, 462t
venture evaluation and control systems, 479
venture experience, 462t, 465
venture identification
definition of, 493
implications for future research and extensions, 499–500
proposed model of, 493–498, 498f
and resource provider support, 497
role of, 489–500
venture uncertainty, 491, 497–498
verbal rewards, 50, 52
Verizon Wireless, 384
via negativa approach, in identity formation, 105
Victors and Spoils, 365
videogames/gaming, 126, 380, 385
virtualization technologies, 124
VISA, 414, 415
visionary leadership, 235
Volkswagen, 1
W
The Wall Street Journal, 123
Warnock, John, 385
weak ties, 69, 209–210, 212, 213, 214, 233, 268, 284, 341, 452, 453, 508, 513
Web of Science database, 178
Webvan, 496
Wedgewood, Josiah, 446
Welch Allyn, 360
Wells Fargo, 1
Wikipedia, 362
Wilson, O. E., 442
wireless data communication, 357
work, creativity at, described, 225–226
work design characteristics, 33f
work discretion/autonomy, as antecedent to entrepreneurial behaviors, 482
work engagement, 33f, 34–35, 40, 41, 136
work environment
influences at Stage Four of creative process, 74
influences at Stage Three of creative process, 71–72
influences of during Stage One of creative process, 65–67
influences of during Stage Two of creative process, 68–69
working memory capacity, as antecedent of creativity, 310t
“The World’s Most Admired Companies,” 1
X
Xerox PARC, 194
Y
yellow pages directory, 379
Yelp, 361
YouTube, 99
Z
Zara, 398
zero-level capabilities, 422
zhong yong, 268–269