Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 26 January 2021

(p. 591) Index

(p. 591) Index

Figures are indicated by “f” following the page numbers.

AAIs (animal-assisted interventions), 87–88
Abolitionist paradigm
on animal research, 346
on animal rights, 2, 34–38, 66
on carnism, 304
criticism of welfare reform efforts, 3, 36
on domesticated animals, 2, 9, 304
nonviolent nature of, 37–38
responses to, 38
on sentience, 37
speciesism rejected by, 37
on veganism, 2, 35, 36–37
on working animals, 9
Abram, David, 159
Abuse. See also Anti-cruelty laws; Pain and suffering
civil suits for, 74
in contemporary art, 15, 446, 447–448
criminalization of, 281–282
damages awarded for, 68–69, 74
exploitation and, 156
legitimization of, 220
of roaming dogs, 120
Acampora, Ralph, 5, 9, 47, 152
Acquired vs. basic rights, 34
Acrophobia, 140
Actor Network Theory (ANT), 243, 244, 245, 247, 262
An Act to Prevent the Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle. See Martin’s Act of 1822
Actualist higher-order thought, 340n8
Act utilitarianism, 28, 31
Adams, Carol, 196, 369
Adams, Douglas, 380–381
Adorno, Theodor, 195, 209
Advocacy movements
failure of, 3, 46
focus on passive suffering in, 48–50
grassroots efforts, 40
for humane animal use, 25, 33
nonviolence in, 37–38
political nature of, 45, 61–62n10
Aesopian fables, 16, 457–458, 459
Affection for working animals, 311–312
Agency, 240–257. See also Autonomy
cognition and, 248
defined, 241
denial of, 241–244
documentation challenges, 8, 249
of domesticated animals, 243
in groups, 8
history-shaping influences of, 244–247, 262–264, 266, 270
intentionality-based, 7, 8, 247–250, 253
overview, 240–241
reasoning abilities and, 241, 242
in research, 12–13
as resistance, 240, 250–252
of wild animals, 253n4
Ag-gag laws, 200, 201, 220
Agoraphobia, 140
Agriculture. See also Factory farms; Livestock
biodiversity and, 197–198
critical animal studies on, 196–201
greenhouse gas emissions from, 192, 198
habitat destruction due to, 191, 192, 197
historical animal studies of, 8, 261
objectification of animals in, 10–11
in urban ecosystems, 550–551
Agropark project, 20, 551
(p. 592) AI-C (animal-industrial complex), 201
Aldrovandi, Ulisse, 491
Aloi, Giovanni, 434
Altruistic concern, 20–21, 581
American Bird Conservancy, 551
American Civil Liberties Union, 200
American Humane Association, 98
American Notes (Dickens), 100
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), 102, 103
American Veterinary Medical Association, 103, 175, 187n13
Amish groups, 55
Ammonites, 475
Analogism, 467, 468
Anchoring argument of beliefs, 327
The Ancient Distribution of Ungulate Mammals in the Middle East (Uerpmann), 485
Anderson, Kay, 279–280
Anderson, Virginia, 244
Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), 87–88
Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC), 11, 359, 360, 361
Animal divination, 15, 456, 465
Animal-industrial complex (AI-C), 201
The Animal in Ottoman Europe (Mikhail), 262
Animality
deconstruction of, 156, 161
diversification of, 160–161
human rejection of, 5, 9, 147–148
ontology of, 155
typologies, 156
Animal law
academic courses on, 171–172
human exceptionalism challenged by, 179
influences on, 185
on research, 358–361
trends within, 182–185
Animal Law (Frasch et al.), 171, 173
Animal Liberation (Singer), 25, 30, 104, 171, 371
Animal Machines: The New Factor Farming Industry (Harrison), 282, 370–371
Animal protectionism, 40
Animal proverbs, 457, 458–459
Animal research, 345–363. See also Animal studies; Scientific animal objects
abolitionist paradigm on, 346
agency of subjects, 12–13
benefits of, 351–352
categories of, 350–351
on commensal species, 527–528
cost-benefit analysis of, 10–11, 12, 356, 389–390
defenses of, 351–356
in ecological science, 17, 493, 494, 496–497
ethics in, 11
ethnographic, 305, 547
failure to provide proper care in, 356–358
historical perceptions of, 345–346
housing and husbandry considerations in, 349, 357, 358, 384
hypothetical-deductive, 305
inductive, 305
laws and regulations on, 11, 358–361
long-term ecological projects, 552
moral critiques of, 348–350
objectification in, 10
pain and suffering in, 11, 349, 357–358
scientific ideologies on, 346–348, 353, 357–359
shelter animals used in, 104, 111n53
utilitarianism on, 11, 354, 355, 356
vivisection in, 35, 101, 102, 576
Animal rights, 25–42. See also Animal welfare
abolitionist paradigm on, 2, 34–38, 66
definitions of, 25, 66
historical development of, 2, 26–30
legal protections for, 38–39
limitations of traditional approaches to, 3, 46, 50, 56
modern movement for, 30–34
overview, 25–26
political theory of. See Political theory of animal rights
as social movement, 39–40
utilitarian views on, 26, 27–28, 29, 31–33
Animals. See also specific animals
abuse of. See Abuse
advocacy efforts. See Advocacy movements
agency of, 240–257. See also Agency
domesticated. See Domesticated animals
exploitation of. See Exploitation
extinction of. See Extinction
in folklore, 456–472. See also Folklore
for food, 364–379. See also Food animal production
hoarding of, 78
humans and, 81–97. See also Human-animal relationships
inferiorities of, 27
as legal subjects, 167–188. See also Animals as legal subjects
objectification of. See Objectification
as property, 65–80. See also Property status
religion and. See Religion and animals
rights of, 25–42. See also Animal rights
as scientific objects, 380–396. See also Scientific animal objects
sheltering of, 98–112. See also Animal shelters
as social problems, 99–103
urban, 542–570. See also Urban ecosystems
welfare of. See Animal welfare
wild. See Wild animals
working, 302–318. See also Working animals
Animals, Men and Morals: An Enquiry into the Maltreatment of Non-Humans (Godlovitch et al.), 31
Animals as legal subjects, 167–188. See also Property status
challenges and contemporary opportunities, 179–182
cognitive considerations in, 182, 183
companion animals, 182, 183
critique of dominant paradigm regarding, 173–176
cultural variations regarding, 169
dualism and, 178–179, 182
empirical support for, 169
future of, 186–187
history of, 174
implications of expanded notions of, 172–173
overview, 5–6
social-change techniques for promoting, 177–178
terminology considerations, 167–169
as topic of concern in legal practice and law education, 170–173
trends inside and outside law, 182–185
wild animals, 183–185
Animals Ecology (Elton), 493
Animals’ Friends Society, 30
Animal shelters, 98–112
adoption promotion measures, 106
caring-killing paradox of, 99
extermination of animals in, 99, 100, 102, 104
funding for, 98–99
history of, 4, 98, 99–100, 101–103
humane movement for, 101–103
legal functions of, 106
literature review, 99
for livestock, 100
no-kill, 4, 99, 104–107, 545
open admission, 105
overpopulation of, 103, 107n2
research subjects from, 104, 111n53
social and cultural significance of, 98, 107
The Animals Issue (Carruthers), 353
Animals’ Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress (Salt), 30
Animal studies. See also Animal research
as academic discipline, 1, 171–172
diversification of inquiry in, 162
ethics in, 2
factors influencing growth of, 1, 172
theoretical contributions to, 5, 160–161
Animal tourism
frameworks for interpretation of, 507
hyperprivileged, 18
ideological elements of, 506–507
mass, 18, 506. See also Aquariums; Zoos
supplementary, 18, 506
(p. 594) Animal welfare. See also Animal rights
affective indicators of, 373
biological indicators of, 372–373
bodies-minds-natures framework of, 12, 373–374
criticism of reform efforts, 3, 36, 61n2
emergence of concerns regarding, 26–29
in factory farms, 282, 370
in food animal production, 12, 283, 284, 293, 371–375
Animal Welfare Act amendment of 1985, 360
Animal welfare science
anacrhonism of applying findings from, 275n32
criticism of, 58
ethics in, 372
in historical animal studies, 8, 262, 266, 267, 272
Animism, 467, 468
Animot, 156, 158, 160–161
Antarctica, extreme animal tourism in, 18–19, 509, 516–518, 517f
Anthropocene epoch, 16, 508, 529, 557
Anthropocentrism. See also Human exceptionalism
cultural alternatives to, 16, 281
defined, 192
in ethics, 159
in naturalistic paradigm, 16
transcendence of, 162
in zoo species selection, 403
Anthropodenial, 162
Anthropomorphism, 59–60, 269, 459–460, 573–574
Anti-cruelty laws
duties of care under, 67, 73
history of, 38, 68, 102
influences on adoption of, 101–102
justice and, 71
Martin’s Act, 38, 102, 281
utilitarian nature of, 29, 38–39
Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (Hofstadter), 345
Apartheid of species, 47–48, 50
Aponoian paradigm, 10, 320, 325, 331, 333, 339
Appleby, Mike, 373
Applied ethics, 412
Aquariums
ecological education from, 403, 404
funding for, 399
negative perceptions of, 397
objectification of animals by, 11
positive perceptions of, 397
Arachnophobia, 140
Archaeogenetics, 477
Archaeozoology, 475–488
cattle studies in, 481–484
defined, 17, 476
dog studies in, 17, 479–481
domesticated animals and, 17, 478–481
ethology and, 17, 485
history of, 475–476
on human-animal settlement patterns, 17, 482–483, 484–485
as multidisciplinary science, 476, 477, 484
Neolithic lake dwellings in Switzerland and, 477–479, 481–482
pig studies in, 17, 478–479
scientific components of, 17, 476–477, 481, 482
Arctic melting, 192
ARC Wildlife Overpass Competition, 20, 551
Argument analysis, 13–14, 414–422, 423
Aristotle
on animals as subjects of inquiry, 489–490
on chain of being, 161, 490, 497
on citizenship, 52, 57
classifications of nature by, 241, 489–490, 491
on eternal nature of species, 497
on humans as political animals, 44, 45
on linguistic agency as precondition for political status, 45, 49, 51–52
on slaves, 194
Arluke, Arnold, 4–5, 99, 105, 113, 289, 290, 384, 385
Artistic use of animals, 433–455
abuse and degradation in, 15, 433, 446, 447–448
censorship of, 15, 440–442, 443–444, 451
criticism of, 450
dead animals, 15, 434–436
dehumanization of art as influence on, 444–446, 449, 451
exploitation in, 440
freedom of expression in, 15, 446, 448, 450, 451
institutional oversight mechanisms for, 450–451
live animals, 436–439
in Middle Ages, 14–15, 143
misothery in, 142–144
moral issues of, 15, 441–442
motivation of artists in, 15, 445
objectification in, 15
overview, 433–434
in Paleolithic era, 14
by primal peoples, 137
in Roman period, 14
sensationalism in, 15, 446–447, 451
taxidermy, 15, 434–436
value of, 442
ASDs (autism spectrum disorders), 88
Asilomar Accords, 105–106
ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals), 102, 103
Assistance dogs, 309, 310, 312, 313, 316
Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 398, 403
Atema, Kate, 4–5, 113
Atheistical humanism, 20, 574, 576
Attentive love, 212, 217
Attribution holism, 326–327
Aubrey, John, 476
Augustine (saint), 43, 149
Australia
animal research protections in, 361
commensal species in, 528, 533, 535
dingoes of, 480–481
International Social Science Survey in, 86
pet ownership in, 86
sheep industry in, 365
totemism in, 467
working animals in, 545
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), 88
Autonoetic consciousness, 235
Autonomy. See also Agency
denial of, 10
mechanisms of, 338
moral agency and, 337
preference autonomy, 33, 37
sovereignty rights and, 54, 55, 57, 58
Avian species. See Birds
Avianus (fabulist), 459
Aviary systems for egg production, 367
Awakening to the presence of others, 21
Ayer, A. J., 347
Baboons, 89, 213–214
Babrius (fabulist), 457
Back-breeding, 499, 501
Bahamas
gender differences in dog ownership in, 116
neutering in, 124, 133n120
roaming dogs in, 115, 118, 119–120, 122, 124, 125
Baker, Steve, 445, 452
Balcombe, Jonathan, 49
Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940, 73
Bali
rabies epidemic in, 118, 123
transition from foraging to farming in, 141
Barry, Brian, 45
Barth, Karl, 579
Barzun, Jacques, 433
Basic vs. acquired rights, 34
Bataille, George, 448
Bats, interspecies dialogue with, 211
Batson, C. D., 333
Battery cages, 283, 367
Beast fables, 16, 457, 458–461
Beastly Folklore (Clark), 135
Beavers, production activities of, 306, 307
Beck, Alan, 114, 545
Beck, Sharon, 427n42
Bees, production activities of, 306, 307
Behaviorism, 209, 218, 219, 358
Behnke, Elizabeth, 159
Bekoff, Marc, 495
Beliefs
anchoring argument of, 327
attribution holism and, 326–327
comparison with emotion, 329
making/tracking confusion and, 10, 326–329
premature meta-articulation and, 324–325
social invention of, 140
theory of mind and, 7
Benga, Ota, 402
(p. 596) Benjamin, Walter, 264
Benson, Etienne, 276n45
Bentham, Jeremy, 27–29, 31, 32, 41n19, 49, 281
Berechiah ha-Nakdan (fabulist), 459
Berger, John, 401, 550
Bergh, Henry, 102
Bern Convention of 1979, 494, 498
Berns, Gregory, 223–224n71
Berry, Thomas, 184–185
Beschta, Robert L., 494–495, 499
Best, Steve, 195–196
Best Friends Animal Society, 104
Bestiality, 148
Beston, Henry, 582–583
Beuys, Joseph, 436–437
Beyond Boundaries (Noske), 192–193
Bhutan, roaming dogs in, 122, 125
Bigfoot, 16, 466
Big Garden Birdwatch, 19, 528
Bill Gates Foundation, 304
Biodiversity
agriculture and, 197–198
avian, 3
climate change and, 191
conservation of, 184
in Yellowstone ecosystem, 18
Biomedical research, 350, 386, 387, 389
Biotechnology, 202, 303–304
Bird-David, Nurit, 241
Birds
biodiversity among, 3
building design considerations for, 549, 551
as companion animals, 81, 82
emotional expressions in, 329
in food animal production, 367, 374
living property status for, 70–71
mental continuity in, 32
prophetic significance of, 456
taxidermy and, 434
in zoos, 398
Birke, Lynda, 292–293, 384, 386
Bischur, Daniel, 391
Bison, 481, 482
Black Beauty (Sewell), 169
Black Death, 530
Blackfish (documentary), 13, 398, 407
Blame shifting, 145
Blue-footed boobies, 18, 514–515, 515f
Blumenberg, Hans, 458
Bodies-minds-natures framework of animal welfare, 12, 373–374
Body image, 233
Bökönyi, Sándor, 280
The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism among the Primates (de Waal), 169
Boomgaard, Peter, 265, 266
Bounty system, 4, 101, 107
Bovine somatotropin (BST), 351
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 283
Bowles, David, 283
Boyle, Paul, 404
Bradshaw, G. A., 208
Braidotti, Rosi, 161
Brain size and structure, 228–229
Brambell, F. W. Rogers, 371
Brambell Committee, 12, 282, 371, 373
Branzi, Andrea, 550
Braverman, Irus, 401, 403
Brazil
cattle in, 192
companion animals in, 81
exploitation of workers in, 200, 201
Brer Rabbit (fable character), 460–461
Britain. See United Kingdom
British War Dogs (Richardson), 249
Brobjer, Thomas H., 273n6
Broiler birds, 367
Broken windows concept, 126
Brophy, Brigid, 31
Brown, Nik, 385
Brunvand, Jan, 465
BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), 283
BST (bovine somatotropin), 351
Buber, Martin, 215
Bubonic plague, 530
Buckland, Frank, 476, 477
Buddhism, views of animals in, 571, 580, 582
Budiansky, Stephen, 280
Buffon, Comte de (Georges-Louis Leclerc), 491–492
Built environment of urban ecosystems, 543, 548, 549–550
Bullen, Anna, 559
(p. 597) Bullfighting, 11
Burchell, Robert, 476
Burials with companion animals, 81–82
Burnham, Daniel, 549
Burt, Jonathan, 244
Byre-face workers, 298n67. See also Stockpeople
Callicott, J. Baird, 495
Cambodia, roaming dogs in, 117, 118
Camm, Tara, 283
Campbell, Joseph, 137
Canada, animal research protections in, 361
Canines. See Dogs
A Cannibal in Vancouver (Gibson), 438
Capability ethics, 49
Capitalism
defined, 211
ecology and, 399
in human-animal relationships, 306
negative constraints of, 194
Captive Animals’ Protection Society (CAPS), 398
Captive breeding programs, 13, 397–398
Capuchin monkeys, emotional expressions by, 329–330, 331, 332
Carasik, Lauren, 200
Carbon dioxide emissions, 192
Cardano, Girolamo, 213
Care ethics, 49
Care theory. See Feminist care theory
Caring-killing paradox, 99, 290, 291
Carnism, 304
Carruthers, Peter, 353–354
Carter, Bob, 243, 251
Cartmill, Matt, 11
The Case for Animal Experimentation (Fox), 351
The Case for Animal Rights (Regan), 33
Cashell, Kieran, 448
Cassidy, Rebecca, 507
Castells, Manuel, 547
Castree, Noel, 243
Cats
agency of, 248
costs associated with, 83
emotional value of, 4
encephalization quotient for, 228
impact of human cultural and economic change on, 277n66
predation on wild bird species, 3
prevalence as pets, 81
in urban ecosystems, 544, 545
Cattle
archaeozoological studies of, 481–484
at auctions, 289
commercial production of, 287–288
domestication of, 137, 280
dominant-submission system of, 280
global populations of, 192
housing in food animal production, 367–368
human relationships with, 270–271, 290
social needs of, 76
tail-docking of, 368
veal production and, 189, 203n2
viewpoint of cows headed for slaughter, 211
Cavendish, Margaret, 209–210, 212
Censorship, 15, 440–442, 443–444, 451
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 90, 123
Cetacean cognition, 227–239
body image and, 233
brain structure and, 228–229
communal sense of self and, 7, 235–236
cultural transmission of learned traditions and, 237
encephalization quotient and, 228
at group level, 229, 235–237
at individual level, 229–235
innovation and imitation, 232–233, 234
language and, 230–231
memory and, 232, 234
metacognition, 234, 235
neocortex in, 228–229
overview, 227
pointing and referencing, 231
reflexive thought and, 7, 227, 231, 237
self-awareness and, 7, 37, 231–232
self-recognition and, 231, 233–234
social complexity and networking, 236–237
(p. 598) Chain of being, 161, 490, 497
Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 260
Chambre, Marin Cureau de la, 212
Charismatic megafauna, 400, 403, 495, 497, 503n22
Charles, Nickie, 243, 251
Charlton, Anna E., 2, 9, 25
Charon, Pierre, 212
Chase, Malcolm, 260
Chauvet cave, 14
Chickens, communication among, 213
Children
dog bites among, 90
human exceptionalism, impact on attitudes toward nature, 181
labor exploitation of, 200
legal duties toward, 67
political rights of, 52–53, 57, 63n33
roaming dogs as concern for, 118
Chimpanzees
cognitive abilities of, 183, 248
legal status of, 72, 182
research involving, 277n60, 387
self-recognition by, 234
China
analogism in, 467
pet ownership in, 86
Chomsky, Noam, 230
Christianity, views of animals in, 571, 573–577
Chrysippus, 583
Chupacabra, 16, 466
Church, George, 500
Circuses, 11, 312, 313
CITES agreement (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), 498
Cities. See Urban ecosystems
Citizen science, 19, 528
Citizenship
capacity requirements for, 58
for domesticated animals, 51–53, 56, 57, 58
obligations in, 56
political theory on, 43, 45, 46, 47, 57
City Beautiful movement, 549
Civil suits for abuse, 74
Clark, J. G. D., 480
Clark, Joseph, 135
Clark, Kenneth, 143
Clark, Stephen R. L., 20–21, 571
Clarke, Adele E., 388
Clement of Alexandria, 148–149
Clements, Frederic, 493
Climate change
biodiversity and, 191
global warming, 16, 198, 401
habitat destruction due to, 192
husbandry systems impacted by, 17
urban ecosystems impacted by, 558
Clinical approach to work, 307–308, 314
Cloning, 500–501
Clutton-Brock, Juliet, ix, 17, 475, 478, 480
Cochrane, Alasdair, 38
Cockfighting, 141
Code of Hammurabi, 174
Code of Justinian, 174
Cognition. See also Reflexive thought; Sentience
agency and, 248
animals as legal subjects and, 182, 183
cetacean. See Cetacean cognition
memory and, 232, 234
metacognition, 234, 235, 325, 337, 338
personhood and, 183
theory of mind and, 7, 332
Cognitive ethology
criticisms of, 58
defined, 215
interspecies dialogue and, 208, 213, 215–217
origins of, 405
research topics in, 192, 218
Cognitive inferiority, 27
Cohen, Carl, 352, 353
Collaboration in human-animal relationships, 270–271
College Arts Association (CAA), 441–442, 443, 446, 450, 454n39
Collingwood, R. G., 247
Colony systems for egg production, 367
Commensal animals, 525–541. See also Urban ecosystems
adaptations of, 19, 525, 526–527
behavioral coevolution between humans and, 19, 527, 537
benefits of, 19–20, 525, 526
(p. 599) defined, 19, 525, 526
food sources for, 526–527
foxes, 19, 529, 533–534, 535, 536
history of, 529
human relationships with, 19, 529, 537–538
mice, 19, 529, 532–533, 535
parakeets, 536–537
physical environment considerations for, 527
pigeons, 19, 528, 534–535, 536
research on, 527–528
technological responses to, 537
translocation of, 529–531, 532–533
zoonotic diseases from, 536
in zoos, 535–536
The Common Law (Holmes), 174
Common law systems, 66, 67–68, 69, 70
Communication. See also Interspecies dialogue; Language; Speech
nonverbal, 212
of pain and suffering, 216
with working animals, 311
Community dog-keeping, 115
Companion animals. See also specific animals
burials with, 81–82
costs associated with, 83
in divorce, 3, 69, 78
as legal subjects, 182, 183
prevalence of, 4, 81
property status of, 65, 66, 67–69, 175
relationships with. See Human-animal relationships
terminology considerations, 298n51
therapeutic uses of, 83, 87–88
in urban ecosystems, 101, 117–118, 544–545, 550
wild animals as, 82
Comparative osteology, 17, 476
Concealment strategies, 145
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
bodies-minds-natures framework applied to, 12, 374
in egg production, 367
negative consequences of, 198, 546
protests against, 370
unions in, 200
Conceptual art, 445
Consciousness
autonoetic, 235
creature vs. state, 322
evidence for animal consciousness, 405–406
higher-order thought model of, 322–324, 337–338, 340n8
phenomenal, 232, 322
premature meta-articulation of, 323–324
reflexive thought and, 322–324
skepticism regarding ability to study, 11
transitive vs. intransitive, 322, 323
Consent. See Informed consent
Constant paradox of human-animal relationships, 290, 294
Constitution, US
First Amendment, 201
Fourteenth Amendment, 70
Fourth Amendment, 72
property categories under, 71–72
Consumer testing research, 351
Contest literature, 16, 457, 458–459
Continental European ethics, 152–166
context and import of, 158–163
dismissive attitudes toward, 158–159
existential phenomenology and, 152–154, 158, 159
mental phenomena of interaction in, 153–154, 163n3
poststructural hermeneutics and deconstruction in, 155–158, 159
on trans-human morality, 159
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES agreement), 498
Convery, Ian, 292
Cook, James, 531
Cooperation vs. coordination, 312–313
Coral reef fish, mutualistic relationship with wrasse, 84
Corson, Samuel and Elizabeth, 87
Cortisol, 85
Cosmology, 155, 588n65
Cosmopolitics, 60–61, 547
(p. 600) Cost-benefit analysis, 10–11, 12, 356, 389–390
Cowperthwaite, Gabriela, 398
Cows. See Cattle
Creature consciousness, 322
Crichton, Michael, 500
Critical animal studies (CAS), 189–207
on agriculture, 196–201
feminism and, 196
growth of, 190
justice and, 190, 191
need for, 190–193
practicing, 196–202
principles of, 6, 190, 193
research methodology for, 201
on sentience, 193
sources of, 193–196
on veganism, 6, 193, 196
Critical thinking skills, 423
Crosby, Alfred, 137
Cultural encounters, 506
Cultural feminism, 219
Cultural transmission of learned traditions, 237
Curiosity cabinets, 491
Cuvier, Georges, 492, 497
Cyborg manifesto, 243
Cyclops, legend of, 475
Damages awarded for abuse, 68–69, 74
D’Angelo, Mike, 398
Dangerous-dog laws, 74
Danto, Arthur, 446–447
Daoism, 581–582
Darwin, Charles
on animals as slaves, 144
evolutionary theory of, 83–84, 242–243, 492–493, 573
on extinction, 497
implications of work of, 266
on interspecies dialogue, 208–209, 213, 215–217, 219
on natural selection, 83–84
“Darwin in the Monkey Cage” (Hochadel), 402
Daubenton, Louis-Jean-Marie, 491–492
Davidson, Donald, 324–325, 326, 328, 368
Davies, Gail, 388, 391–392
Davis, Brian, 404
Dayaratne, Ranjith, 118
Dead Certainties (Schama), 274n26
De animalibus (Albertus Magnus), 490–491
de Certeau, Michel, 250, 251
Declaration of Independence, US, 177
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (United Nations), 54
Deductive research, 305
Deer, 411, 412, 416, 419, 421
De-extinction, 18, 489, 500–502
Deforestation, 191, 192, 197
Degerbøl, Magnus, 480
Dehumanization of art, 444–446, 449, 451
Deleuze, Gilles, 155–156
Demetrius of Phaleron, 457
Denizens and denizenship, 51, 55–56, 57
Deodands, law of, 265
Derrida, Jacques, 156–158, 159, 160–161
Descartes, René
dualistic ontology of, 209
as founder of human exceptionalism, 254n20
on interspecies dialogue, 212, 220
mechanistic view of animals by, 242, 248, 281, 322
on sentience of animals, 26–27, 340n5
on separation between humans and animals, 368
Descola, Philippe, 241, 467, 468
Desmond, Jane C., 18–19, 506
Despret, Vinciane, 9, 269–270, 271, 277n60, 277n70, 391
Detachment strategies, 144–145, 284
de Vignemont, F., 332–333
de Waal, Frans, 162, 169, 336
Dhavalikar, M. K., 484
Dialectic of Enlightenment (Horkheimer & Adorno), 209
Diamond, Jared, 137
Dickens, Charles, 100
Dickens, Peter, 306
Didymus of Alexandria, 459
Dietetic approach to food animal production, 12, 364, 365, 368–370
“Dirty work,” 284, 294, 298n56
Disabled persons, political rights of, 52, 53, 57, 63n33
Discordant Harmonies (Botkin), 555
Discourse on Method (Descartes), 242
Diseases. See Zoonotic diseases
Dispositionalist higher-order thought, 340n8
Divorce, companion animals in, 3, 69, 78
Dixon, B. A., 333–334
Djoghlaf, Ahmed, 191
Dogs
agency of, 241, 249–250, 251–252
archaeozoological studies of, 17, 479–481
assistance dogs, 309, 310, 312, 313, 316
bounty system for catching, 4, 101, 107
cognitive abilities of, 248
costs associated with, 83
dangerous-dog laws, 74
dog bites as public-health problem, 3, 90, 118–119
domestication of, 17, 243
emotional expressions by, 216, 218, 223–224n71, 321, 325
evolution from wolves, 47
food consumption by, 90
greyhound racing, 75–76
incorporation into human society, 47
legislative protections for, 73
mapping brain activity of, 223n71
militarized, 249–250, 310, 313
prevalence as pets, 4, 81
psychological effect of work on, 318n41
puppy mills, 40, 103
purebred, 4
roaming. See Roaming dogs
scenting abilities, 267
training for, 310
in urban ecosystems, 101, 117–118, 544–545, 550
Dolly Mixtures (Franklin), 365
Dolnicar, Sara, 122
“The Dolphin Papers” (Rodman), 140
Dolphins. See also Cetacean cognition
body image and, 233
communal sense of self in, 7, 235–236
language-comprehension studies of, 230–231
mass strandings and, 235–236
mental continuity in, 32
psychological welfare in captivity, 237
self-awareness in, 7, 37, 231–232
as therapy animals, 88
Domesticated (Stein), 435
Domesticated animals. See also Companion animals; specific animals
abolitionist paradigm on, 2, 9, 304
agency of, 243
archaeozoological studies of, 17, 478–481
attributes of, 280
categorizations influencing perceptions of, 286
citizenship rights for, 51–53, 56, 57, 58
history of, 136, 137–138, 279–280
human-directed emphasis on, 280–281
legal classification of, 3, 5
misothery and, 5, 137–138
Paleolithic representations of, 14
political theory of animal rights for, 51–53
property status of, 65, 66, 72–73
Donald, Diana, 261
Donaldson, Sue, 2–3, 38, 43, 559
Donlan, Josh, 498, 499, 500, 501
Donor-controlled food webs, 527
Donovan, Josephine, 6, 208
Drug development research, 350
Dualism of legal persons vs. things, 178–179, 182
Duffy, John, 100
Durkheim, Emile, 574
Durrington Walls site, 482–483
Duty of care laws, 76–77
Duvin, Ed, 104
E. Coli, 199, 283
Eagleton, Terry, 264
Echolocation, 211, 230, 235
Ecocriticism, 161
Ecofeminism, 49, 196, 213
Ecological education, 397, 403–404
Ecological Imperialism (Crosby), 137
(p. 602) Ecological science, 489–505
de-extinction and, 18, 489, 500–502
defined, 493
evolution from natural history, 489–493
extinction and, 497–498
fish and, 18, 496–497
long-term research projects, 552
research in, 17, 493, 494, 496–497
restoration ecology, 555
rewilding and, 498–500, 501, 555
road ecology, 554
urban animal ecology, 20, 543, 552
wolves and, 17–18, 493–495
Ecological urbanism, 550–552
Ecology of Stray Dogs (Beck), 114
Ecosystem health, 19, 413, 415, 416
Ecotourism, 506, 507, 521n8
Educational research, 350
Education and training
in animal studies, 1, 171–172
on critical thinking skills, 423
ecological, 397, 403–404
on humane research practices, 360
on interspecies dialogue, 311
of working animals, 310
Egg production, 367, 374
Eisnitz, Gail, 199
Electrofishing, 496
Elephants
brain size of, 228
in circuses, 312, 313
dwarf elephants, 475
historical studies of, 262
mental continuity in, 32
outcast, 545
resistance behaviors by, 250
self-awareness in, 37
in zoos, 405
Ellis, Colter, 284
Elton, Charles, 493
Embodied empathy, 277n70
Emotion
cognitivist account of, 330
comparison with beliefs, 329
expressions of, 215–217, 218, 223–224n71
making/tracking confusion and, 330–331
misplaced or misguided, 330–331, 334
reflexive thought and, 329–331
Emotional contagion, 333, 341n35
Empathy
defined, 332
embodied, 277n70
feminist care theory on, 213
in historical animal studies, 268, 269–270
making/tracking confusion and, 334–335
mind-reading abilities and, 332, 333, 341n25, 341n29
minimal moral, 333, 335, 336
misplaced or misguided, 334
reflexive thought and, 332–338
of stockpeople for livestock, 285, 289
theory of mind and, 332
The Empathy Exams (Jamison), 332
Empedocles, 581
Encephalization quotient (EQ), 228
Endangered Species Act of 1973, 412, 416, 426n27, 427n42, 494, 498
Enframing, 202
English, Peter, 285
Enkidu (mythic figure), 141–142
Enlightenment, 82, 220, 242, 461
Environmental concerns
Arctic melting, 192
climate. See Climate change
greenhouse gases, 192, 198
habitats. See Habitat destruction
pollution, 4, 90, 556
Epistemic cultures, 380
Epoques de la nature (Leclerc), 492
EQ (encephalization quotient), 228
Equal consideration principle, 28, 29, 31, 33
Equines. See Horses
Ethical arguments, 7, 10–11, 369, 412, 414–415, 434
Ethical veganism, 364
Ethical vegetarianism, 364, 369–370
Ethics
animal rights. See Animal rights
in animal welfare science, 372
anthropocentrism in, 159
applied, 412
of artistic use of animals, 15, 439–442, 451, 452
(p. 603) Continental European. See Continental European ethics
of cost constraints, 375–377
of de-extinction, 501
feminist care theory and, 208, 210, 219
of food animal production, 12, 364–365
in human-animal relationships, 4, 90–91, 157
of hunting, 13, 411, 424n2
interspecies morality, 5
metaethics, 5, 159, 162, 165n32
normative, 5, 159, 162
on pain and suffering, 28, 32
in political theory of animal rights, 49
in research, 11
transformations in, 155
in urban ecosystems, 20, 549
Ethnography, 305, 547
Ethnophoresy, 529–531, 532–533
Ethology
archaeozoology and, 17, 485
cognitive. See Cognitive ethology
comparative, 201
hierarchical scandal in, 269
historical animal studies and, 8, 262, 266, 267, 269, 272
on interspecies dialogue, 209
Etymologia (Isidore of Seville), 490
Eukaryotes, 20, 571–572
European Union (EU), 81, 376–377
Euthanasia
in animal shelters, 104, 105, 106
as convenience, 175, 187n13
defined, 99
failed human-animal relationships resulting in, 4, 90
of roaming dogs, 114
of working animals, 314, 315
Evaristti, Marco, 437, 441, 447
Evelyn, John, 491
Evolutionary theory, 83–84, 242–243, 492–493, 573
Exceptionalism. See Human exceptionalism
Existential phenomenology, 5, 152–154, 158, 159
Exotic animal trade, 4, 90–91, 191–192
Experimental animals. See Animal research; Scientific animal objects
Exploitation
abuse and, 156
in artistic use of animals, 440
consequences of, 5
institutionalized, 34, 35
rationalization of, 50
in zoos, 13, 403
Exposición No. 1 (Vargas), 437
Expression, freedom of, 15, 26, 446, 448, 450, 451
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (Darwin), 215–217
Extinction
de-extinction, 18, 489, 500–502
habitat destruction and, 191, 197, 501
human role in, 16, 497
mass extinctions, 497
rates of, 191
Sixth Great Extinction, 191, 497
Extreme animal tourism, 506–524
in Antarctica, 18–19, 509, 516–518, 517f
elements of, 518–519
future research directions, 522n16
in Galapagos Islands, 18, 509–516, 513f, 515f
gorilla safaris, 508
growth of, 520
human-animal relationships in, 508–509
ideological framework for, 507–508
objectives of, 18, 506, 521n8
“The Fable of the Fox” (unknown author), 458–459
Fables, 16, 456–461
Fabricus, Hieronymus, 212–213
Factory farms
ag-gag laws and, 220
critical animal studies on, 196–201
detachment in, 145
suffering in, 48, 211
welfare concerns in, 282, 370
Fairy tales, 16, 461–463, 464
Farbe-Vassus, Claudine, 463
Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC), 378n16
Farming. See Agriculture
Favre, David, 3, 5, 65
Fear, expression by dogs, 321
(p. 604) Federal Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act of 2006, 201
Feedlots, 5, 368
Felines. See Cats
Females. See Women
Feminism
cultural feminism, 219
ecofeminism, 49, 196, 213
as source of critical animal studies, 196
Feminist care theory
epistemology and, 214
ethics and, 208, 210, 219
on interspecies dialogue, 6, 208, 210–211, 214–215, 219
origins of, 210, 219
political nature of, 219
Fielding, William, 119, 125
Finch, Anne, 209
First Amendment, 201
Fish
as companion animals, 81, 82
ecological study of, 18, 496–497
in food animal production, 190, 197, 366
in mutualistic relationships, 84
Five Freedoms for food animals, 12, 75, 371–372, 373
Flexible vegans, 31
Flight distance, 295n15
Flinders, Matthew, 261
Floor systems for egg production, 367
Fogle, Bruce, 103
Folklore, 456–472
Aesopian fables, 16, 457–458, 459
animal proverbs and, 457, 458–459
anthropomorphism in, 459–460
beast fables, 16, 457, 458–461
contemporary, 16, 464–466
contest literature and, 16, 457, 458–459
as cultural alternative to modern views of animals, 469
decline of, 468
Grimm fairy tales, 16, 461–463, 464
origins of, 15–16, 456–457
science and, 465
urban legends, 16, 465
Food and fiber research, 350–351
Food animal production, 364–379. See also Factory farms; Livestock; Meat consumption; Meatpacking plants; Slaughterhouses
animal welfare in, 12, 283, 284, 293, 371–375
annual deaths due to, 35, 190, 198
caring-killing paradox in, 290, 291
contemporary features of, 366–368
contradictory nature of, 9, 287, 290, 294
cost constraints in, 375–377
dietetic approach to, 12, 364, 365, 368–370
distancing devices in, 145–146, 284
division of labor within, 291
ethics of, 12, 364–365
Five Freedoms for food animals, 12, 75, 371–372, 373
global leaders in meat production, 205n45
health concerns regarding, 199, 283
housing in, 366–368, 374, 375
McDonaldization of, 282–283
productivist approach to, 12, 282, 364–365, 370–373, 377
Food webs, 526, 527
Foose, Tom, 403
Foot and mouth disease, 291
Foreman, David, 498, 555
Forman, Richard, 554
Foucault, Michel, 159, 408n9
Foundation for Biomedical Research, 346
Fourteenth Amendment, 70
Fourth Amendment, 72
Fox, Michael A., 351
Foxes
as commensal species, 19, 529, 533–534, 535, 536
in folklore, 16, 457, 458–459, 460
human relationships with, 81
hunting of, 276n46
France
militarization of horses in, 245, 255n37
river-rescue-dog program in, 251–252
roaming dogs in, 240
Francione, Gary L., 2, 9, 25, 281–282, 283
Francis of Assisi (saint), 218, 538
Frankfurt School, 194–195
Franklin, Adrian, 293
Franklin, Sarah, 365
(p. 605) Fraser, David, 285, 373
Fraser, F. C., 480
Freedom of expression, 15, 26, 446, 448, 450, 451
Freedom of speech, 26
Freud, Sigmund, 248
Frey, R. G., 354–355
Freyfogle, Eric, 184
Friedmann, Erika, 85
Friese, Carrie, 388
Fudge, Erica, 8, 242, 244, 258
Fukuda, Kaoru, 287
Funding for animal shelters, 98–99
Galapagos Islands tourism, 509–516
contours of, 510–512
demographic characteristics of visitors, 511
legal restrictions on, 512–513, 523n24
overview, 509–510
preservation and protection efforts, 515–516
wildlife in, 18, 513, 513f, 514–515, 515f
Galen, 490
Galloway, Anne, 552
Gallup, Gordon, 234
Game Management (Leopold), 494
Gandhi, Mahatma, 30
Garner, Robert, 38, 283
Gassendi, Pierre, 212
Gazelles, social behavior of, 280
GDP (gross domestic product), 198
Gender differences. See also Women
in dog ownership, 116
in emotional division of labor, 219
Generation of Animals (Aristotle), 489
Genetic engineering, 6, 201–202, 361, 501
Genomic technologies, 500–501
Gentrification, 544, 546, 550, 558
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), 550
Germany
militarization of horses in, 245, 255n37
pet ownership in, 86
Socioeconomic Panel in, 86
Germonpré, Mietje, 479
Gessner, Conrad, 490, 491
GFP Bunny (Kac), 438
GHGs (greenhouse gases), 192, 198
Gibson, Rick, 437–438, 438f, 441, 443, 447
Gigliotti, Carol, 6, 189, 442
Gilgamesh (poem), 5, 141–142
Gilligan, Carol, 210
Gir Forest, lions of, 8, 266
GIS (Geographic Information Systems), 550
Global warming, 16, 198, 401
Goats
domestication of, 137
housing in food animal production, 367–368
roaming dogs as danger to, 123
Goble, Dale D., 184
Godlovitch, Roslind and Stanley, 31
The Golden Calf (Hirst), 435
Gompertz, Lewis, 30
Goodall, Jane, 277n60
Gorilla safaris, 508
Grandin, Temple, 211, 283–284, 368
The Great Ape Project: Equality beyond Humanity (Cavalieri & Singer), 32
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Epizootic (1872), 244–245
Greaves, John, 475–476
Greely, Henry, 501
Greene, Harry W., 498
Greenhouse gases (GHGs), 192, 198
Greyhound racing, 75–76
Griffin, Donald R., 144, 208–209, 215, 218–219, 405
Griffiths, Huw, 544
Grigson, Caroline, 479
Grimm fairy tales, 16, 461–463, 464
Gross domestic product (GDP), 198
Grünfeld, Thomas, 435
Guatemala, dog bites in, 118
Guattari, Félix, 155–156
Guerrini, Anita, 17–18, 489
Guo-Ciang, Cai, 436
Habitat destruction
agriculture and, 191, 192, 197
climate change and, 192
extinction and, 191, 197, 501
insects and, 19
wild animals and, 54
Haeckel, Ernst, 493
Haeg, Fritz, 552
(p. 606) Hagenbeck, Carl, 402
Halloy, Arnaud, 510
Hammerschlag, Neil, 496
Hampson, Katie, 121
Hampton Creek Food, 304, 317n9
Hanotte, Olivier, 483
“Happy meat” ethic, 370
Haraway, Donna, 7, 243, 244, 252, 267, 270, 302, 305
Harding, Sandra, 209
Harris, Angela, 547
Harris, Joel Chandler, 460
Harris, John, 31
Harrison, Peter, 353
Harrison, Ruth, 282, 370–371
Hart, James, 154
Hartshorne, Charles, 217
Harvard Law School, 171–172
Harvey, David, 547
Hasler, Barbara, 115
Hauser, M., 334, 335
Head On (Guo-Ciang), 436
Health
human-animal relationships and, 3, 84–85, 86
stress and, 89
veganism and, 35
Health Research Extension Act of 1985, 360–361
Hearne, Vicki, 267
Hegel, Georg, 348, 448
Heidegger, Martin, 159, 202, 447
Helena (Evaristti), 437, 447
Heritage, John, 286
Herman, Lou, 230, 233, 236
Hermeneutic approach to ethics, 5, 155–158, 159
Herzog, Hal, 466–467
Higher-order thought (HOT), 322–324, 337–338, 340n8
Hirst, Damien, 435, 446
Histoire naturelle (Leclerc & Daubenton), 491–492
Historiae animalium (Gessner), 490
Historical animal studies, 258–278
agency in, 262–264, 266, 270
of agriculture, 8, 261
animal welfare science and, 8, 262, 266, 267, 272, 275n32
archives and, 265, 267
barriers to, 268–269
contradictory relationships in, 258
cultural and biological differences as influence on, 268, 276n51
documentary sources in, 260, 261–262, 264–265, 271
empathy in, 268, 269–270
ethology and, 8, 262, 266, 267, 269, 272
human representations in, 260–261
itstory proposal for, 8–9, 268, 270
motivations for, 260
Nietzsche on destructive potential of, 258–259
trends in, 259
of wild animals, 265, 276n45, 276n49
History of Animals (Aristotle), 489
The History of Four-Footed Beasts, Serpents, and Insects (Topsell & Moffet), 459
Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Universe (Adams), 380–381
Hoarding, 78
Hochadel, Oliver, 402
Hofstadter, Richard, 345
Holmberg, Tora, 384
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 174
Homeless animals. See Animal shelters; Roaming dogs
Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 582, 583
Horkheimer, Max, 194–195, 209
Hornaday, William, 402
Horowitz, Alexandra, 169
Horses
domestication of, 137
economic role of, 244–245
emotional expressions by, 216
militarized, 245, 246–247, 246f, 255n37
as therapy animals, 88
on Thiaucourt memorial, 245, 246, 246f, 247
as working animals, 316n4, 545
Housing. See also Animal shelters
in animal research, 349, 357, 358, 384
(p. 607) in food animal production, 366–368, 374, 375
Howard, Ebenezer, 549
Howl (Stein), 435, 436f
Hribal, Jason, 250–251, 277n66
Human-animal relationships, 81–97. See also Animals; Humans
alienation and detachment in, 5, 144–145, 284
capitalism in, 306
collaboration in, 270–271
commensal species and, 19, 529, 537–538
constant paradox of, 290, 294
economic benefits of, 85–86
ethics in, 4, 90–91, 157
in extreme animal tourism, 508–509
failures and negative impact of, 3–4, 90
health benefits of, 3, 84–85, 86
historical and cultural perspectives on, 81–83, 274n21
in indigenous communities, 241
justice in, 2, 6
legal rights in, 3
livestock and, 282–283, 292, 545–546
mutualism in, 3, 84, 526
overview, 81
prehistoric, 5
scientific animal objects and, 385, 392
settlement patterns and, 17
social parasitism hypothesis and, 84
social support from, 88–90
therapeutic uses of, 83, 87–88
in urban ecosystems, 20, 543–544, 545–546, 559
value of, 83–84
Human carnivorism, 211
Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, 39, 199
Humane Society of the United States, 39–40, 98
Human exceptionalism. See also Anthropocentrism
challenges to, 5, 8, 176–177, 179, 181–182, 240, 247, 253
defined, 175, 192, 399
features of, 7
founder of, 254n20
ideology of, 176–178
negative consequences of, 176, 179, 180–181, 185
in public policy, 176, 179
values as driving force of, 183
zoos as promotion of, 13
Humanism. See also Posthumanism
atheistical, 20, 574, 576
deconstruction of, 156
histories in tradition of, 260, 269, 273n15
limitations of, 208
triumphalist, 20, 21, 573–577, 583
on urban ecosystems, 547–548
Humans. See also Human-animal relationships; Human exceptionalism
acknowledgment of corporeal similarity to animals, 5
coexistence with animals, 1, 16
comparison with working animals, 315
deficient human experimentation, 349, 354–355
encephalization quotient for, 228
evolution of attitudes toward nature, 137
rejection of animality in, 5, 9, 147–148
role in extinction, 16, 497
somatic awareness of, 152–153
zoo displays of, 402–403
Hume, David, 217, 573
Hunting
conservation argument for, 418–420
defenses of, 276n46
ethics of, 13, 411, 424n2
factors impacting success in, 417
incidental values of, 428n50
objectification of animals in, 11
as predator control, 145, 146f, 423, 424n4
recreation and tradition argument for, 420–422
respect for animals in, 419–420
ungulate populations and, 13, 414, 415–418
of wolves, 13–14, 413–422
Husbandry. See also Livestock
advantages and disadvantages of, 12
altruism and, 21
in animal research, 358
climate as impact on, 17
defined, 139
industrialization of, 304, 366
origins of, 139
(p. 608) Husserl, Edmund, 154
Hutchinson, G. Evelyn, 493
Hydatid disease, 123
Hyperprivileged animal tourism, 18
Hypothetical-deductive research, 305
IAATO (International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators), 516
ICAM (International Companion Animal Management Coalition), 123, 124
ICAZ (International Council of Archaeozoology), 476–477
Iguanas, 18, 513, 513f
Iliad (Homer), 456
I Like America and America Likes Me (Beuys), 436–437
ILO (International Labor Organization), 199, 200
Imitation behavior, 232–233, 234
Imperato, Ferrante, 491
The Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living (Hirst), 435
In a Different Voice (Gilligan), 210
“In Defense of Raymond Sebond” (Montaigne), 212
India
cattle in, 192
commensal species in, 535, 538
Gir Forest in, 8, 266
roaming dogs in, 113–114, 118, 124, 125, 545
Indigenous communities
animism in, 467
human-animal relationships in, 241
political rights of, 54–55, 57
recognition of more-than-human community by, 180
Indignation, expressions of, 329–331, 332
Inductive research, 305
Informed consent, 11, 53, 349
Ingham, John, 170–171
Ingold, Tim, 248, 306, 307, 547
Innovation studies, 232–233
Insects, 19, 216, 217, 500, 528
Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know (Horowitz), 169
Institute for Critical Animal Studies, 190, 195
Institute for Social Research, 194
Intentionality-based agency, 7, 8, 247–250, 253
International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), 516
International Companion Animal Management Coalition (ICAM), 123, 124
International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ), 476–477
International Labor Organization (ILO), 199, 200
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), 498
Interspecies dialogue, 208–224
attentiveness in, 214–215, 217, 221
cognitive ethology and, 208, 213, 215–217
dismissive attitudes toward, 209, 220
dynamics of, 214
education and training on, 311
emotional expressions in, 215–217, 223–224n71
evidence for, 208–209, 220
feminist care theory on, 6, 208, 210–211, 214–215, 219
languages used by animals in, 212–213, 218
limitations of, 211–212
nonverbal, 212
sympathetic openness to, 217–218
Intransitive consciousness, 322, 323
“Intriguing Habitats, and Careful Discussions of Climate Change” (Kaufman), 404
Intrinsic moral status, 46–47, 62n10
An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Bentham), 27
Intuition, 573, 574, 586n9
Invasive species, 192, 501, 523n25, 554
In-vitro meat, 302, 304, 558
Irigaray, Luce, 159
Irvine, Leslie, 4, 98, 298n51
Islam, views of animals in, 577, 580, 588n70
Isotope analysis, 17, 476, 482
Italy, roaming dogs in, 117
Itstory, 8–9, 268, 270
IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), 498
Jakatas (fables), 459
Jamison, Leslie, 332
Japan, xenotransplantation in, 390
Jeremijenko, Natalie, 552
Jewett, Sarah Orne, 212
Johnson, Walter, 241
Josselin, Ralph, 263–264
“The Juniper Tree” (Runge), 463, 464
Jurassic Park (film), 500
Justice
critical animal studies and, 190, 191
in human-animal relationships, 2, 6
in political theory of animal rights, 2, 3, 47, 52, 60
principles of, 423
Kac, Eduardo, 15, 438–439
Kalof, Linda, 1
Kant, Immanuel, 27, 34, 337, 429n59
Karp, Daniel, 197
Kaufman, Leslie, 404
Kean, Hilda, 261
Keller, Ferdinand, 478
Kellert, Steven, 543–544, 546
Kelling, G., 126
Kemmerer, Lisa, 196
Kenya, dog-keeping practices in, 116
Keystone predators, 494, 495
Khalila wa Dimna (al-Muqaffa), 459
Khazanov, A. M., 484
Kheel, Marti, 219
Killer (orca) whales, 13, 229, 407
Kim, Myeongbeom, 435
Kimbell, Lucy, 446
King, J., 480
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 196, 359, 420
Kitchell, Ralph, 357
Klingender, Francis, 142, 143–144
Knight, A., 387
Knorr, Karen, 435
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 210
Kolbert, Elizabeth, 500
Kopytoff, Igor, 287
Korsgaard, Christine, 336–337
Kristof, Nicholas, 407
Krugman, Paul, 199
Krylov, Ivan, 459
Kuznets, Simon, 198
Kymlicka, Will, 2–3, 38, 43, 559
Labor unions, 199–200
Lafontaine, Jean de, 459
Laissez-faire intuition, 47–48, 53–54
Language. See also Speech
cetacean cognition and, 230–231
defined, 230
in interspecies dialogue, 212–213, 218
negativity toward animals in, 135–136
Language, Truth, and Logic (Ayer), 347
Last Child in the Woods (Louv), 181
Latour, Bruno, 7, 243, 244, 252, 254n23, 559
Laurance, William F., 192
Law, John, 268–269
The Law of Animals (Ingham), 170–171
Leang Timpuseng cave, 14
Lease, Mary Ellen, 177
Leclerc, Georges-Louis (Comte de Buffon), 491–492
Lee, J. E., 478
Lefebvre, Henri, 547
Legal persons, defined, 167–168. See also Animals as legal subjects
Lenski, Jean and Gerhard, 138
Leonardo da Vinci, 15
Leonardo’s Choice: Genetic Technologies and Animals (Gigliotti), 201–202
Leopold, Aldo, 494, 549
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 459
Lethal control measures, 14, 419, 428n55
Levinas, Emmanuel, 154, 157, 159
Levinson, Boris, 87
Lewinsohn, Richard, 137
Libby, Willard, 482
Light pollution, 557
Liminal animals, 51, 53, 55–57
Lindblad, Lars-Eric, 516, 522n21
Linguistic agency, 44, 45, 46, 49, 51–53, 61n4
Linnaeus, Carolus, 491
“The Lion, the Ass, and the Fox” (fable), 458
Lions, 8, 77, 266
(p. 610) Livestock. See also Food animal production; Husbandry; specific animals
agency of, 8
animal shelters for, 100
categorizations influencing perceptions of, 286, 293
contradictory status of, 9, 287, 290, 294
factors influencing relationships with, 299n82
genetic engineering of, 6, 201–202
history of control regulations for, 99–100
human relationships with, 282–283, 292, 545–546
objectification of, 279
sentience of, 9, 283, 287, 294
stockpeople’s perceptions of, 285, 286–290
in urban ecosystems, 100–101, 545–546, 549
wolves as threat to, 422, 428n52, 428n54
Living property status
advantages of, 71
capacity of ownership and, 77–78
categories of animals included in, 70–71
consequences of creating category of, 72–74
of domesticated animals, 66, 72–73
duty of care laws and, 76–77
legal rights provided by, 3, 74–78
living space requirements and, 77
prohibited uses of animals under, 75–76
Living space requirements, 77
Lizards, 70–71
Lloyd, Geneviève, 254n20
Loch Ness monster, 16, 466
Locke, John, 27, 83
Logical positivism, 11, 347, 445
London Zoo, 401–402
Long-term ecological research (LTER) projects, 552
Lopez, Barry Holstun, 135–136, 139
Lorenz, Konrad, 144–145, 215
Louv, Richard, 181
Lucretius, 585
Lukács, Georg, 210–211
Luke, Brian, 219–220
Lusk, Jayson, 376, 377
Lynch, Michael, 288, 382
MacCannell, Dean, 506
Macer, Darryl, 390
MacGregor, Arthur, 274n21
Machado, Luis, 200
MacKinnon, Catharine A., 208
Maddie’s Fund, 4, 104
Making/tracking confusion
beliefs and, 10, 326–329
defined, 10, 321
emotion and, 330–331
empathy and, 334–335
Malamud, Randy, 13, 397
Malinsky, Becky, 406
Mammals, living property status for, 70–71. See also specific mammals
Man and the Natural World (Thomas), 136, 260
Man Meets Dog (Lorenz), 144–145
Marcuse, Herbert, 194, 195
Margodt, Koen, 403, 404
Marie de France (fabulist), 459
Marino, Lori, 7, 227, 234
Married Women Acts, 70
Martin, Jennifer Adams, 253n4, 265–266
Martin’s Act of 1822, 38, 102, 281
Marx, Karl, 266, 306, 307, 444
Mason, James B. (Jim), 5, 9, 135
Mass animal tourism, 18, 506. See also Aquariums; Zoos
Masserman, J., 334, 335, 341n35
Mass extinctions, 497
Mass strandings, 235–236
Maternal Thinking (Ruddick), 219
Mather, Cotton, 147–148
Mayer, Emily, 445
McDonaldization of food animal production, 282–283
McKinley, Daniel, 147
Meat consumption
growth of, 198
historical debates regarding, 368–369
negative consequences of, 6
urbanization and, 20, 546
Meatpacking plants, 6, 100, 199–200
Mech, David, 495
Megafauna, 400, 403, 495, 497, 498, 503n22
Memory, 232, 234
Mengele, Josef, 355
(p. 611) Mental continuity, 32
Mental well-being, duty of care laws for, 76–77
Merillat, A., 357
Mesopotamia, artistic use of animals in, 5, 142–143, 144
Metacognition, 234, 235, 325, 337, 338
Metaethics, 5, 159, 162, 165n32
Metamemory, 232, 234
Metempsychosis, 21, 580–582
Methane emissions, 192
Mexico, roaming dogs in, 115, 117, 118, 122
Mice
as commensal species, 19, 529, 532–533, 535
in scientific research, 360, 381, 384, 386
standardization of, 386, 388
Michael, Mike, 12, 380, 384, 385, 388
Middle Ages
analogism in, 467
bestiality in, 148
cultural representations of animals in, 14–15, 143
wolves in, 493
Middle East
artistic use of animals in, 142–143
commensal animals in, 529, 534
domestication of animals in, 136, 137, 138, 478–479
elite class prohibitions against eating pork in, 17
mythologies of, 141–142
transition from foraging to farming in, 140
Mikhail, Alan, 262
Mill, John Stuart, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 41n17, 148
Mind-reading abilities, 332, 333, 341n25, 341n29
Minimal moral empathy, 333, 335, 336
Miracle of the meta, 323–324, 338, 340n10
Mirror self-recognition, 233–234
Misguided emotion/empathy, 330–331, 334
Misogyny, 140, 142
Misothery, 135–151
agrarian view of animals and, 139
in art, 142–144
cockfighting and, 141
cultural devices to cope with, 5, 144–146
defined, 139–140, 149
domesticated animals and, 5, 137–138
in mythology, 141–142
origins of, 136–139
repercussions of, 147–149
sexuality and, 148–149
speech expressions, negative associations with animals in, 135–136
Misplaced emotion/empathy, 330–331, 334
Misrepresentation strategies, 145
Mitchell, Sandra, 248
Mitchell, Timothy, 242, 247, 248
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), 477, 478, 481, 531
Mizelle, Brett, 261
Mokele-Mbeme, 466
Molecular biology, 17, 476, 481
Monbiot, George, 501
Monsó, Susana, 9–10, 319
Montaigne, Michel de, 212
Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes (Gompertz), 30
Moral motivation, 332–338
Moral psychology, 5, 153, 159–160, 162, 165n32, 355
More-than-human urban ecosystems, 20, 546–548
The Morphology of the Fairy Tale (Propp), 462
Morris, Elizabeth, 102
Morris Refuge Association for Homeless and Suffering Animals, 102
Morton, Timothy, 161
Mother and Daughter (Hirst), 435
Muir, John, 549
Mulesing, 368
Multispecies ethnography, 547
Munro, Jack, 551
Murphy, Patrick, 213
Murray, Mary, 306
Mutualism, 3, 84, 526
Nagel, Thomas, 211, 257n59
Nance, Susan, 262
nanoq: flat out and bluesome (Snæbjörnsdóttir & Wilson), 435
Nash, Linda, 247, 254n23
National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy, 107n2
National Society for Medical Research, 104
Nation-states, conceptualization of, 50–51
(p. 612) Natural History (Pliny), 490
Natural history, as field of study, 489–493
Naturalism, 16, 467–468
Natural selection, 83–84, 480
Nature-culture split, 241–242, 243
The Nature of Sympathy (Scheler), 217–218
Nature tourism, 506, 521n8
Nelson, Michael P., 13–14, 411
Neocortex, 228–229
Neolithic era
commensal animals in, 529
companion animals in, 82
human-animal relationships in, 3
lake dwellings in Switzerland during, 477–479, 481–482
Neural correlates, 216, 218, 219, 223n71
Neutering, 104, 105, 124, 133n120
Newcastle, Margaret, 209
New Guinea singing dogs (NGSD), 481
Newton, Isaac, 347
New welfarism, 40
New Zealand
animal research protections in, 361
roaming dogs in, 122
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 585
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 258–260, 262, 266, 270, 273n6
NIH Reauthorization Act of 1985, 360–361
Noe-Nygaard, N., 480
Noise pollution, 557
No-kill shelters, 4, 99, 104–107, 545
Nomadic pastoralism, 17, 484–485
Nomads and the Outside World (Khazanov), 484
Nondomesticated animals. See Liminal animals; Wild animals
Nonverbal communication, 212
Normative ethics, 5, 159, 162
Norwood, Bailey, 376, 377
Noske, Barbara, 192–193, 201
Nuer society, 140
Nussbaum, Martha, 50
Nyhart, Lynn, 492
Obeyesekere, N., 125
Objectification. See also Property status; Scientific animal objects
in agriculture, 10–11
in art, 15
defined, 10
history of, 279–280
ideological legitimization of, 220
of livestock, 279
in research, 10
in spectacles, 11, 13
in sport, 11
of wild animals, 11
in zoos, 11, 13
O’Connor, Terry, 19, 525
Odum, Eugene, 493
Odyssey (Homer), 475
Oliver, Kelly, 160
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 549
On the Language of Brutes (Fabricus), 212
Oostvaardersplassen park, 20, 499–500, 555
Open admission shelters, 105
OR-7 wolf, 18, 494–495
Orangutans, iPad use by, 406–407
Orca (killer) whales, 13, 229, 407
Ortega y Gasset, José, 444
Orwell, George, 579
Oskarsson, M. C. R., 481
Osteology, comparative, 17
Overintellectualization, 10
Owens, Marcus, 20, 542
Oxford Group, 31
Oxytocin, 85, 88, 89
Pagels, Elaine, 148
Pain and suffering. See also Abuse; Anti-cruelty laws
in animal research, 11, 349, 357–358
communication of, 216
ethical considerations regarding, 28, 32
in factory farms, 48, 211
legal protections against, 68–69, 74, 76
measures of, 297n39
methods for controlling, 357, 360
passive, 48–50
sentience as factor in, 157
Paleolithic era
commensal animals in, 529, 533
companion animals in, 82
cultural representations of animals in, 14
(p. 613) domesticated dogs from, 479
human-animal relationships in, 3
interspecies dialogue in, 214
Palmer, Clare, 47
Pálsson, Gísli, 242
Panchatantra (Vishnu Sharma), 459
Panksepp, Jaak, 329, 341n24
Panpsychism, 217
Parakeets, as commensal species, 536–537
Parasitism, 526
Parts of Animals (Aristotle), 489
Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, 496–497
Passive suffering, 48–50
Pasteur, Louis, 101
Pastoralism, 17, 137–138, 306, 484–485
Patriarchy, 140
Paul (saint), 148
Pearson, Chris, 7–8, 240, 267–268
Penguins, 18–19, 516–518, 517f
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), 40, 72
Pereira, Carlos, 311
Personal property status
in common law system, 66
of companion animals, 69
of domesticated animals, 3, 65
duties associated with, 66, 67, 68
limitations of, 71
Personhood
of animals, 3, 72, 169, 172, 180
cognition and, 183
human interests and protection of, 25
mentalistic, 154
of slaves, 70
PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), 40, 72
Pet-facilitated psychotherapy (PFP), 87
Phaedrus (fabulist), 457
Phenomenal consciousness, 232,