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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 683) Index

(p. 683) Index

Page numbers followed by t and f indicate a table or figure on the designated page

Page numbers followed by “n” and an additional number indicate a note on the designated page

Abramoff, Jack, 563
Academic fraud, misconduct, 143, 175
Accounting fraud
at Ahold, 445, 591
Arthur Andersen scandal, 35, 48, 288, 334, 469, 563
by corporate executives, 4
during economic booms, 338
at Enron Corporation, 10, 35, 48, 259
by large corporations, 202
WorldCom scandal, 35, 48, 468, 482
Accounting scandals (2002), 48
Addictions leading to white-collar crime, 114, 158–59, 208
Adelphia Communications, 35
Adler, Freda, 203–4
Adolescents. See also Delinquency
conformity in, 247
middle-class, 217–19, 222–24, 226–29, 233
onset of risk-taking behaviors, 222–23
as precursor to white-collar crime, 217–34
school cheating scandals, 229, 231f–232f
self-actualization, 225, 234
self-efficacy/self-actualization in, 219, 225, 234
self-esteem in, 223, 225
self-reported delinquency, 221
status-generating desires and, 226–27
transitional/formative structure of, 217, 222–23
upper-class, 218–19, 222–27, 230, 233
Advice and persuasion, in regulatory compliance, 510–12, 511f
Affordable Home Modification Program, 488
African Americans
increased punitive punishment recommendations, 664–65
proportional overrepresentation in arrests, 109
street-crime overrepresentation, 109, 267
subprime predatory lending to, 285
2005-2011, sentencing data, 151t
Age/ageing. See also Adolescents; Developmental/life-course criminology; Life-course perspective
age-graded stages, 254
imprisonment-related rules, 590
middle-age offenders, 259
motivation to crime and, 419
of onset of career offending, 258
white-collar crime victimization and, 68–69
of white-collar offenders, 107–8, 258
Age-graded theory of informal social control (Sampson and Laub), 260
Agency theory, 438
Agents, shaping behavior of, 438
Aggregate analysis, of crime rates, 542–43
Aggression, 203–4, 589
Aggression-frustration complex, 50
Aging out, by white-collar offenders, 258–59
Agnew, Robert, 444
Ahn-Redding, Heather, 205
Ahold, accounting fraud, 445, 591
Albanese, Jay, 206
Alcohol use
drivers of, 158–59
drug-related crimes, 328
economic expansions and, 329 (p. 684)
by occupational offenders, 115
types of crimes related to, 328
use by street offenders, 114
by white-collar offenders, 119, 158
Alwin, Duane, 226
American Economics Association, 28
American International Group (AIG), 36, 51, 286–87, 596
American Sociological Society, 28
Anand, Vikas, 467
Ancient Egypt, 26
Anderman, Eric M., 233
Anderson, D. A., 79, 94, 96
Anderson, K. B., 94
Andreae, Jan, 591
Anger
by business owners, managers, 7
at fear of exposure, 606
from pay dissatisfaction/strain, 418
reintegrative shaming and, 524–25, 534
small-scale financial crimes and, 336
of victims, 66
Animal poaching, 393
Annan, Kofi, 586
Anomie/strain theory, 327, 328, 329–30, 333f , 354, 417, 444, 469
Antar, Sam E., 617
Anti-Phishing Alliance of China, 181
Antisocial behavior
criminal involvement and, 245
from feelings of strain, 417
life-course theory and, 248, 265
Moffitt’s research focus on, 245, 247
offending patterns and, 255
as personality subtype, 117, 255
surveys of, 72
white-collar offending and, 267
Anti-Spam Action Plan (Canada), 550
Antitrust violations, 90, 138, 172, 626
Arendt, Hannah, 466–67
Arlen, Jennifer, 677
Arrogance of white-collar offenders, 160, 257, 399, 630
Arthur Andersen LLP, accounting scandal, 35, 48, 288, 334, 469, 563
Arvanites, Thomas M., 328
Ash, Solomon, 467–68
Ashforth, Blake E., 467
Assault
cost factors, 675
at Ford Motor Company strike, 31
“real crime” statistics on, 66
seriousness ranking, 667t
in street crimes, 89, 151t , 385, 395
UCR data, 666
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), 91, 416
Association of Registered Bank Holding Companies, 314
Association of Reserve City Bankers, 314
Attribution theory, 676, 679
Australia
age-related victimization risk factors, 68–69
consumer fraud report, 63
corporate deviance analysis, 436
regulation approaches, 509
regulatory noncompliance in, 442
rogue traders sentencing, 586t
surveys of white-collar crime, 61
Austria
costs of middle-class crime in, 186
crime rate, 192
crimes of everyday life rate, 185t
middle-class crime rate, 192
victimization rate, 192
Automobile industry
Ford Pinto car deaths, 63
links to criminal misconduct, 138
Avakian, Stephanos, 472
Avoidance behaviors, 14, 79, 83, 84t
Ayres, Ian, 512, 513, 527. See also Enforcement pyramid
B. F. Goodrich Co., faulty brake pad manufacturing, 131t , 138
“Bad apples,” 319, 463–66, 472, 516
“Bad barrels,” 463–66, 472
Bail and pretrial matters, 562, 572
Baldwin, Robert, 528–29
Bales, William D., 592
Bangladesh, production factory fires, 532
Bank Holding Company Act (1956), 307
Bank of America, 36, 44, 52, 492
(p. 685) Bank of Commerce and Credit International (BCCI), 493
Bankers Roundtable, 314
Banking industry. See also Financial crisis (2008); Savings and loan debacles; Shadow banking system; Subprime lending fraud
embezzlement by tellers, 4, 172
financial fraud, 202
misappropriation by bank presidents, 4
teller embezzlement, 4
Third World banking systems manipulations, 142
Barclays, 587
Baucus, Melissa S., 335–36, 445
Baughn, Chris, 354
Bauman, Zygmunt, 468
Baumgartner, M. P., 226
Baxter, Clifford, 606
Bear Stearns, 36, 51, 286, 287, 319, 489
Beck, Ulrich, 532
Belfort, Jordan, 612
Belgium, cultural values studies, 348
Benefits, to organizations, of crime commission. See Cost-benefit analysis
Benson, Michael L., 395, 455
on causes of strain, 444
Expansion Era research by, 132t , 141, 143–44
on identity effects of white-collar offenders, 613
interviews with white-collar inmates, 615
on life-course perspective, 247
on media’s degradation of white-collar offenders, 608
on sentencing, 594
on white-collar offender characteristics, 248
Berk, Richard A., 671, 675
Bernard, Thomas J., 442
“Best Countries for Business” (Forbes, 2011), 355–56, 356t
Better Business Bureau, 27
Bharara, Preet, 289–90, 586
Bhopal poisoning, 63
Biderman, Albert, 36
Black, Conrad, 612
Black, Julia, 528–29
Blagojevich, Rod, 613
Blair, Tony (Blair Labour government), 508
Blankenship, Michael, 630
Blickle, Gerhard, 116
Blue-collar workers/working-class families, 104, 120, 160, 226, 466, 603–4
Boba, Rachel L., 455
Bode, Nancy, 588, 592, 594
Boesky, Ivan, 583
Bonger, Willem A., 11
Bookkeepers, financial fraud by, 202
Booms, economic. See Economic booms
Borck, Jonathan C., 443
“Born criminals,” 2
Botchkovar, Ekaterina V., 525–26
Bowling for Columbine documentary (Moore), 43
BP Deepwater Horizon spill, 90
Braithwaite, John, 3, 45, 48, 442, 527. See also Enforcement pyramid
argument for restorative justice procedures, 652
coal-mining industry study, 451
on effectiveness of reintegrative shaming, 525
examination of effects of sanctions threats, 627
Expansion Era research by, 131t , 140
literature review by, 127–28
Responsive Regulation, 512, 513
on shaming, 597
Brazil, middle-class growth in, 174
Brent Spar platform, sinking, 532
Breuer, Lanny, 487, 489–90
Bribe Payers Index (Transparency International), 353
Bribery
in ancient Egypt, 26
characteristics of sentenced individuals, 151t
cultural values and, 348, 353–54
cultural variation in, 349
economic costs of, 101
gender and, 209
lobbying as, 29
as middle-class crime, 172
1973-1978 data, 243 (p. 686)
in the Old Testament, 26
studies of, 353–54
Yale group focus on, 34
Bribery Act (UK, 2010), 471
British Crime Survey (2001), 186
British Office of Fair Trading (OFT), 61, 63, 65
Broad, William, 129
Broadhurst, Roderic, 182
Broidy, Lisa, 203
Brooks, Clem, 676
Brown, Darryl, 656
Browner, Carol, 510
Bucy, Pamela, 118
Buell, Samuel W., 592
Buffalo Creek flood disaster, 129
Bureaucratic processes, psychological effects of, 607
Burglary
age-related consideration, 258
blameworthy considerations, 645–46
during booms/recessions, 327
costs of, 186
decision-making factors, 635
drivers of, 158
opportunity to commit, 385, 395
sentencing factors, 591
seriousness ranking, 667t
2005–2011, U.S. data, 151t
white-collar crime comparison, 79, 101, 107, 128, 186, 259
Burrows, John, 71
Bush, George H. W., 314
Bush, George W., 486, 649
Business Roundtable, 305
Calavita, Kitty, 132t , 143
California Personality Inventory (CPI), 116
California Public Employees' Retirement System, 319
Calloway, Mark T., 608
Calvo, Minor Vargas, 585
Canada
Anti-Spam Action Plan, 550
Criminal Code, 546, 548
Criminal Code, amendments, 550, 551f , 552, 554n2, 554n3
Criminal Intelligence Analysis Unit, 547
life course studies, 238
oversight, analysis and results, 550–52
oversight, data sources, 546–47
oversight, indicators of credibility, 547–50
regulation approaches, 509
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 547
Uniform Crime Reports, 546–47, 553
women in white-collar occupations, 206
Canada Anti-Fraud Center (CAFC), 546, 547, 549, 551, 553
Cantor, David, 328
Cao, Liqun, 338
Capital transfer tax, 302, 304, 320–21
Capitalism
cost externalization and, 487
cyclic characteristics of, 298
moral climate created by, 11, 326
offenders’ actions and, 289
political-legal arrangements and, 299
state intervention support for, 523
Cassano, Joseph, 287
Cateora, Philip, 349
Caucasians (whites)
middle-aged men offenders, 102, 118–19
overrepresentation in white-collar crimes, 262
social identification as, 670
Cautious Era (mid-1960s-mid-1970s), of research, 130, 131t , 133, 137–38
Challenger space shuttle catastrophe, 132t , 143, 436
Chambliss, William J., 224
Charging white-collar criminals, 570–72
Cheating, by adolescents, in New Hampshire, 229
CHEERS criteria, for crime prevention, 390
Chemical disasters, 71
Chevigny, Paul, 2
Chicago Mercantile Exchange, 314
Chiesi, Danielle, 586
Child sexual abuse, 403
Children
in China, pressures to succeed, 156
fraud victims and, 66
incarceration of parents and, 67, 86, 603
parental expectations of, 223 (p. 687)
parental false tax claims and, 386–87
risk factors and crime, 113
social class and, 159–62, 160, 218, 224–25
victimization of, 68, 72, 73
China
Anti-Phishing Alliance, 181
Corruption Perception Index of, 355t
costs of middle-class crime in, 187
cultural values studies of, 348
guanxi, 346, 355–58, 598
high power distance in, 352
middle-class crime in, 182
middle-class growth in, 174
milk case deaths, 63–64, 68
Choice (in committing white-collar crimes), 6–8, 9. See also Rational choice theory
Chu-Yao, Huang, 632
Citicorp, 307
Citigroup, 307, 319, 487–88
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010), 487
Clarke, Ronald V., 387
Class-action lawsuits, 85, 544
Clean Water Act, 653–54
Clinard, Marshall, 104–5, 128, 136
corporate misconduct research, 130, 139–40
Expansion Era research by, 131t
Formative Era research by, 131t
1970s manufacturing company data, 336
on sentencing, 588
on strains of financial success, 445
on types of white-collar crime, 435
Clinton, Bill, 263, 278, 314, 508–9, 592, 649–50
Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 40, 486
Cloward, Richard, 444, 546
Code of Hammurabi, 26
Coercion-cooperation dichotomy, 505
Coercive use of authority, 15, 261, 527
Coffey, Glenn S., 161
Coglianese, Cary, 443
Cohen, Albert K., 227
Cohen, Mark A., 82, 88, 94, 632–33, 671, 675
Cohen, Ron, 618
Coleman, James W., 439, 446, 453–54
Collateralized debt obligation (CDO)
description, 280
ease in committing fraud with, 11
limited oversight of, 515
origins of, 12
Collins, Judith M., 116, 117
Colonial American statutes, 26–27
Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), 314, 321, 479, 488
Commodity Exchange Act, 314
Commodity Futures Modernization Act (2000), 278, 308, 310–12, 315, 321
Communities
analysis of crime, delinquency by, 546
in Australia, costs of fraud, 63
Clinton on America’s commitment to, 508
employee theft impact on, 410
environmental crimes in, 70
offender ties to, 102, 113, 119, 159, 224–25
predatory lending in, 285
regulatory process in, 509
reintegrative shaming process and, 524–25, 534
socioeconomic factors, 230, 234, 281
spillover effects of crime on, 71, 82, 88, 89t
targeted interventions for, 390
victimization’s impact on, 59
Community service, 584, 590, 615, 616
Comparative criminology, 346
Con artists, 221
Concept (of white-collar crime), 2–4
Conformity
in adolescence, 247
group, 467–68
life-course perspective, 247, 260
middle-class and, 181
social, 466, 467–68, 472
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines and, 585
Consolidated Appropriations Act (FY 2001), 315
Consumer education campaigns, 14, 83
Consumer fraud
Australia Bureau of Statistics report, 63
costs of, 94
elderly victimization and, 69
FTC survey findings, 65, 94
opportunities for committing, 262–63
origins of, 7
U.S. victim costs, 91t
Van Slyke’s Florida survey, 668–70
(p. 688) Consumer products, deaths from, 63–64
Consumer Protection Act (2010), 323n11, 483, 490–91, 654
Consumer protection agencies, 14
Context (of white-collar crimes), 11–13
Contingency model of organizational crime (Finney and Lesieur), 332
Control (of white-collar crimes), 15–17
Copes, Heith, 208, 597
Corporate crime
anomie-strain theory and, 329–30
Barnett’s study of Superfund abuses, 143
Braithwaite’s research on, 140
causation variables, 446, 449, 543, 676
challenges of responding to, 643–57
Clinard’s research on, 130, 136, 139
Clinard’s writings on, 136
conditions for flourishing of, 12
cost estimates, 13
Cressey’s research on, 104
criminalization of, 524
death/disease/injury toll from, 63, 67
economic conditions and, 327, 338, 339, 340n2, 444–45
event-history analysis of, 335–36
Geis’s research on, 134, 138
gender gap in, 262
gender-related research, 205, 208, 210
individual/societal threats from, 15
institutional enforcement limits, 647–50
legal enforcement limits, 654–56
male overrepresentation in, 230
methods for combating, 387
Moynihan’s focus on, 39
nonpunitive handling of, 523
omission and, 439
organizational actors in, 437–39
organizational enforcement limits, 650–54
organizational ethical culture and, 453–54
organizational structure and, 446–47
“pressure for profits” motive, 442, 443
prevention challenges, 53
race gap in, 262
rational choice theory and, 330–33
recessions, boom periods, and, 334
regulatory curbing of, 503–18
shaping agent behavior in, 438
spillover effect of, 71
Sutherland’s research on, 128, 130, 133–35, 465
theoretical maneuvering, 50–51
trivialization of, 42
underlying beneficial aspects, 87
U.S. Attorney’s Office pursuit of, 491
Vaughan’s studies of, 132t
by women, 207
women’s involvement in, 261
Yeager’s research on, 139
Corporate Crime and Governmental Deviance (Ermann and Lundman), 129
Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, 453
Corporate Fraud Task Force (U.S.), 491
Corporate structures, redefining, 302–4, 303f
Corruption
in the banking system, 481
in Chinese cultures, 355–57
costs to U.S. businesses, 101
cross-national variation in, 156
demand-pull hypothesis and, 354
Ernst and Young report, 71
European sentencing guidelines, 589–90
in federal systems, 561
flourishing, in modern corporations, 370
fraudulent benefit claims and, 190f
of government, government officials, 134, 170, 346
identity effects and, 611
national levels of, 352–53
in Netherlands, 454
relationship-oriented culture and, 349
“respectable offenders” and, 592
risk factors for society, 657, 666
in Roman Empire, 26
Russia’s targeting of, 589
self-expression values and, 350–51
shadow economy and, 190
small-scale, street-level, 169, 175, 176
societal values and, 348
software piracy, 352
in state systems, 561, 571
tax compliance and, 189f
Tayoun’s conviction, sentencing, 617
2008, Ernst and Young report, 71
UK sentencing guidelines, 588–89 (p. 689)
in U.S. cities, 27
whistleblowing and, 352
Corruption Perception Index (CPI), 353, 355, 355t
Cost-benefit analysis, 78, 80
best practices, description, 83
bias, in regulatory matters, 648
development of, 368
employee theft and, 413
by Enron executives, 370
by organizations, 369t , 370–75
punitive enforcement and, 526
rational choice theory and, 443
social perspective, 81–82
by white-collar offenders, 289, 368–69, 465, 628
Costs of white-collar crime, 62–64, 71
anticipation of crime, 83, 84t
avoidance behaviors, 14, 79, 83, 84t
challenges in determining, 13–14
consequences of crime, 83, 84t , 85–86
consumer fraud, 94
consumer security, viruses, 94
counterfeit products, piracy, 92
death, disease, injury, 63–64
definitions, 81–82
employee fraud, 91, 91t , 96
estimation complications, 13–14, 42
estimation methods, 87–90, 89t
external costs, 82, 95, 496
financial, securities, mortgage fraud, 94–95
identity theft costs, 79, 83, 89t , 93–94
insurance fraud, 93
justice costs, 84t , 86–87
loss of public confidence, 85–86
moral costs, 7
net reward calculations, 6–7
occupational theft, 91, 91t , 96
offender costs, 84t , 86, 89
over-deterrence costs, 84t , 86–87
per capital, U.S., 79
regulatory offenses, 95–96
reputational costs, 7
response to crime, 84t , 86–87
retail fraud, 93
social costs, 53, 71, 82, 86, 90
tax evasion, 91–92
taxonomy of, 83, 84t , 85–87
“top down”/“bottom-up” estimates, 88
UK, mis-selling of pensions, 63
U.S., savings and loan debacle, 63
victim costs, 84t , 85, 90t
willingness to pay (WTP) studies, 88–89
Counterfeit products, 92
Countrywide Financial, 35, 36, 44, 51, 282, 286
Credit Suisse bank, 286, 319
Cressey, Donald
corporate misconduct review by, 130
focus on “trust violating behavior,” 104, 135
interviews with embezzlers, 128, 136
neutralization studies, 467
on occupation crimes, 104
Other People’s Money, 135
research on embezzlers, 131t
on “riotous living” by white-collar criminals, 114
Crime pattern theory, 382, 383, 390, 392, 396, 401
Crime rates
costs of/tracking, 13
decreasing, for street crimes, 101, 149
Durkheim/“normal,” 41
economic fluctuations and, 326, 327–29
financial crash/recession’s impact, 326
increasing, for white-collar crime, 101
lower, for women, 201
lunatic white-collar crime rate, 40
“trivializing the lunatic crime rate,” 41, 42–44
variables influencing, 155
Crime science theories (environmental criminology)
applications to white-collar crime, 395–99
crime pattern theory, 382, 383, 390, 392, 396, 401
crime-specific prevention approach, 400
future research directions, 402–4
routine activity theory, 327, 382, 391, 391f , 393, 396, 401
situational crime prevention, 382, 383, 390, 393, 394t
structured research/prevention focus, 401
Crime-as-choice theory, 178, 369, 389, 390
(p. 690) Crimes of everyday life
description of, 173, 176
Europe data, 185t
income relation to, 192
middle-classes and, 170, 193–94
UK data, 191
victim characteristics, 169
white-collar vs. street-crime, 185
Crimes of the Middle Classes (Weisburd, Wheeler, Waring, and Bode), 34, 46, 582
Criminal career paradigm, 239–40
Criminal careers. See also Life-course perspective
California offender retrospective analysis, 243–44
description, 257–60
Forst/Rhodes study of, 243
future research directions, 249–50
gaps in extant research of, 240
life course range of, 102–3, 217
lifestyle choices and, 113–15
limited longitudinal data on, 257–58
mixed-type offenders, 250n3
of organizational offenders, 250n1
Philadelphia Birth Cohort Studies analysis, 238
recidivism studies, 241–42
studies, limitations, 240
studies, theoretical applications, 244–49
trajectory analysis of offending patterns, 242
of white-collar offenders, 240, 241–44
Yale studies findings, 143–44, 241, 242–43
Criminal Intelligence Analysis Unit (Canada), 547
Criminal justice attention and sanctions, 603–19
alternative sanction effects, 615–16
financial effects, 610–11
identity effects, 611–13
incarceration effects, 613–15
overcoming effects of, 616–18
psychological effects, of bureaucratic practices, 607
psychological effects, of manifest strategies, 607–8
psychological effects, of stress, 606
relationship effects, 608–9
Criminalizing corporate noncompliance, 522–24. See also Regulatory noncompliance
“Criminaloids,” 2, 25, 27, 265
Criminogenic organization properties
organizational actors, 437–38
organizational incompetence to comply, 439–41
shaping behavior of agents, 438
Criminological typology, 105, 246
Criminology
anomie theory and, 354
comparative criminology, 346
Cullen on, 253
dearth of literature on, 627
environmental criminology, 383, 390
financial wrongdoing and, 296
historical background, 2, 4
legitimacy struggles of, 127, 144
life-course criminology, 6, 244, 246, 253, 254–56, 455
limitations of, 120
1970s/1980s scholarship on, 139
organizational culture and, 451, 454
Piquero/Benson’s work in, 246
rational choice theory and, 624, 636
Samson/Laub’s work in, 245
Sutherland on, 44, 50, 127, 170–71
white-collar offenders and, 253
Croall, Hazel, 206
d'Cruz, Joseph, 608
Cullen, Francis T., 36, 253, 444, 453
caution on street criminals' studies, 635
interviews with white-collar inmates, 615
on sentencing, 594
Cullen, John, 354
Cultural values
bribery and, 348, 353–54
functions of, 346
geographic clustering of, 348 (p. 691)
influences of, 349
intellectual property fraud and, 346, 351–53
Culture Conflict and Crime (Sellin), 49
Culture/cultural variation, 347–54
crime-facilitative culture, 156–57
cross-national studies of, 347–49
defined, 345–46
GLOBE project dimensions of, 349–50
guanxi and, 346, 355–58, 598
influence on markets, 299
lower-class delinquent culture, 227
“macho” culture, 69
NASA’s criminogenic culture, 128
requirements for invocation of, 348
social class economic opportunities, 162
variance in opportunities, 261, 266
working-class cultures, 171
Curses, of ancient Egypt, 26
Cybercrime, 178
Daddy, Why Are You Going to Jail: A True Story of a Father’s Descent into White-Collar Crime and His Amazing Restoration (Lawson), 609
Daly, Kathleen, 34, 172, 192, 202
Davidson, Robert H., 334–35
Decay-exploration research, 298
Decision making
community participation in, 509
in competitive environments, 156
complexity of, 7
cost-benefit analysis by offenders, 289, 368–69, 465, 628
cost-benefit calculations, 443
early research, 144n2
in the industrial sector, 305
informal costs of, 7
in juvenile courts, 224
motivational factors, 439
offender characteristics and, 398–99, 442–43
opportunity factors, 389
organizational factors, 369–75, 436, 449
policy implications, 375–78
“rational,” 368, 399
risk factors, 300
role of “lure” in, 332
structures and processes, 450
white-collar crime and, 368–69
Declaration of Independence (U.S.), 643
Defina, Robert H., 328
“Defining Deviancy Down” (Moynihan), 40–41
Definitional trivialization, of white-collar crime definitions, 39–40, 44–45, 48
Delaney, John Thomas, 376
Delinquency
acts of crime vs., 221–22
conditions conducive to, 222–23
description, 218–22
group context of, 218
middle-class adolescents and, 217–19, 222–24, 226–29, 233
parenting style and, 223, 225–26
Pontell/Rosoff on, 221
school cheating scandals, 229, 231f232f
social class and, 223–26, 227
status-generating desires and, 226–27
survey data on, 229, 230f231f, 233
Denzin, Norman, 131t , 138
Deregulation of financial markets
Calavita/Pontell/Tillman’s studies of, 132t
criminal opportunities created by, 284, 289
of mortgage-backed securities, 276–68, 280
perverse effects of, 12, 263, 264
role in white-collar crime, 12
shadow institutions and, 282
victimization and, 181
Derivative instruments, 278, 290n1, 296, 311–15, 317–19, 321, 484–85, 488, 494, 515
Desistance
age-related, 240, 241, 242–43, 248, 258
causes of, 258–59
life-course offending patterns, 238
persistence vs., 247–48
predictors of, 245
social bonds leading to, 257
triggers of, 248
Deterrence
costs of, 152, 368
effects on violators, 152, 163
fines as, 548
global financial crisis and, 504
limitations of, 504 (p. 692)
perceptual, 622–36
and rules, in regulatory compliance, 510–12
sentencing and, 593, 595–97
strategies on criminal justice practice, 289
studies of, 399
Deutsche Bank, 319, 587
Developmental/life-course Criminology, 6, 244–49, 246, 253. See also Life-course perspective
Differential association theory
description, 453
group context of adolescent delinquency and, 218
Sutherland’s development of, 29, 134, 136, 371, 383, 453
Differential sentencing patterns, 584, 589
Disaster fund fraud, 153
Ditton, Jason, 131t , 137
Doctors, harmful medical procedures by, 143
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010), 483, 490–92, 494, 654
Dodge, Mary, 128, 132t
Drew, Daniel, 33
Drivers of white-collar crime, 466–68, 470f
Drug dealing, 395, 403
Drug use/abuse
by adolescents, 222
California arrest data, 243
by nurses, 142
pharmaceutical industry fraud, 136, 140
by pharmacists, 143
street-crime offenders and, 114–15
white-collar offenders and, 103, 119, 159
Drug-dispensing violations, by pharmacists, 136
Drug-related disorders, of white-collar offenders, 158
Durkheim, Emile, 41, 296, 326
Dutch Financial Market Authority, 532
Dutch rule transgressions, 440
Ebbers, Bernard, 482, 585
Eck, John E., 455
Economic booms. See also Financial crisis (2008)
as cause of anomie, 326
corporate crime and, 12, 154, 327, 328, 333–36
increasing regulatory oversight during, 339
rational choice theory and, 330–31
street crimes and, 332
Economic Crime Package (U.S.), 493
Economic cycles and fluctuations
corporate crimes and, 329–36, 333f
economic indicators, 337
outcomes measured, 337–38
recording by regulatory agencies, 339
sampling issues, 338
simultaneity issues, 339
street crimes and, 327–29
temporal considerations, 338–39
Economic recessions. See also Financial crisis (2008)
corporate crimes and, 330–34, 335–36, 339, 340n7
crime rates influenced by, 326
as driver of offending, 339
early 1980s, back-to-back, 302
early 1990s, Federal Reserve actions, 301
global influences, 294, 479
influence on motivations, opportunities, 12–13
strains felt during, 337
street crimes and, 327–29
Economic Recovery Tax Act (1981), 305
Edelhertz, Herbert, 34–35, 104
Edicts, of ancient Egypt, 26
Education
adolescents and, 221, 223–25, 227, 234
consumer education campaigns, 14, 83
contribution to crime, 27, 69–70
DLC focus on, 245, 247–48
for effecting social change, 617
as fraud prevention component, 549–50, 553
as limited protective factor, 69–70, 102, 622
middle classes and, 174, 191
opportunities and lack of, 108
parental expectations, 159, 223–25, 227
of police officers, 612
of prospective jurors, 574
Sampson/Laub on, 260 (p. 693)
“suite” vs. “street” offenders, 398–99
2005–2011, U.S. sentencing data, 151
variables of white-collar offenders, 27, 112
Educational variables, of white-collar offenders, 112
Elder, Glenn H., Jr., 245
Elis, Lori, 627
Elkind, Peter, 471
Elliot, Rebecca T., 117, 469
Embezzlement/embezzlers
by bank tellers, 5
Cressey’s interviews with, 128, 136
description/characteristics, 161–62
long-term perpetration of, 258
postal embezzlement, 243
by women, 5, 109–10, 131t , 141–42, 202, 210
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (2008), 482
Employee fraud, 91, 91t , 96
Employee theft, 409–27
ambiguity related to, 414
causes of, 416–22
combating, 422–26
criminal justice system responses, 425–26
extent of, 415–16
financial impact, 409–10
individual motivations for, 417–20
Kolz’s study of, 115–16
nonfinancial impact, 410
offender characteristics, 411
organizational theorists on, 409–10
overview of, 411–13
owner/manager responses, 423–25
prevention of, 387
role of opportunity, 421–22
types of theft, 414–15, 416
varieties of, 413–15
victimization rates, 415–16
Employment variables, of white-collar offenders, 112
The End of Normal (Mack), 610
Endangered species, illegal sales of, 403
Enforcement pyramid
compliance assumptions of, 521, 522, 534
description, 513–14, 513f , 526–28, 527f , 534, 535n2
implementation, implementation challenges, 513, 527–28, 530
importance of escalating up, 515
responsive regulation and, 513
risk-based regulation comparison, 528
Tombs/Whyte on, 515–16
England
common law of, 26–27
fraud sentencing, 589, 596
moral commitment impact, 194n3
rogue traders sentencing, 586t
Enron Corporation
accounting frauds, 10, 35, 48, 259
bankruptcy/collapse of, 62, 312–13, 319
Code of Ethics of, 372
corporate structure map, 309f
creation of, 311, 316–17, 463, 467
employee devastation at, 14, 63
FBI website “Famous Cases” listing, 42
financing of Gas Bank at, 315–17
Lay’s wrongdoings, 33, 101–2
Mariner Energy acquired by, 321
multilayer-subsidiary form organization, 312
off-balance-sheets used by, 309f , 316–19
pressured employee illegal actions by, 8
shadow banking at, 315–17
Skilling’s business model transformation, 311–12
SPEs at, 316–17
2002 accounting scandal, 48, 288
Enron Finance, 316
Enron Gas Marketing, 316
Enron Loophole, 315
Enron Task Force, 482
Entitlement of white-collar offenders, 6, 160–62, 224, 257, 265, 399
Environmental crimes, 91t , 95, 334, 338
Environmental criminology. See Crime science theories
Environmental disasters, 71
Environmental regulations, 61, 70
Equal Rights Amendment, 203
Ermann, M. David, 129, 450
Ernst and Young, corruption report, 71
Escherichia coli food poisoning, 63
Ethical Climate Questionnaire, 453
(p. 694) Ethical distance, 466, 468–69, 470f , 472
Ethnographic portraits, of white-collar criminals, 127–44
Euribor investigation, 587
Europe. See also specific countries
corporate deviance analysis, 436
costs of middle-class crime in, 186–87
insurance fraud, 182, 183t
Internet sales scams, 182
middle-class growth in, 174
middle-class victimization in, 170, 181–86, 183t , 185t
moral economy of, 193
sentencing in, 589–91
European Commission, 587
European Social Survey (2004), 182, 183t185t, 194n1
Evidence, collecting and preservation, 568
Expansion Era (late 1970s-1980s), of research, 130, 131t132t, 133, 139–42
External costs of white-collar crime, 82, 95, 496
Extramarital affairs, 135
False statements, 562
Families
adolescent offender risk factors, 218, 226–27
anomie theory and, 330
childrearing practices, 6
Chinese social networks, 355
crime costs to, 84t , 85–86
crime opportunities related to, 384, 414
incarceration impact on, 613
negative impact of crime on, 605, 608–10
offender characteristics in, 113, 119, 150
predicting criminal behavior in, 217
risk factors for crime in, 161–62, 205, 208, 246, 260–61
sanctions' effects on, 625
social class factors, 159–60, 226
ties to communities, 102
2008 financial crisis impact on, 63, 66–67
upper class, 51
“Famous Cases” website page (FBI), 42
Farkas, Lee B., 286
Farrall, Stephen, 173, 176–77, 178, 185–86
Fastow, Andrew, 316, 318–19, 482, 585
Fayol, Henry, 448–49
Fear-of-falling motivation, 446
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
antipiracy warning seals on films, 387
computer security breaches report, 94
definition of white-collar crime, 542
excessive arrests of African Americans, 109
“Famous Cases” website page, 42
health insurance fraud findings, 93
mortgage/lending law fraud findings, 101, 264, 490
Operation Malicious Mortgage, 286
role in trivialization of white-collar crime, 42
Uniform Crime Report, 109, 133, 210, 328, 546
white-collar crime, definition, 542
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), 479, 481
regulatory powers of, 479
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 310–11
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), 277, 490
Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), 277
Federal Reserve Bank
energy companies reporting freedom, 314
financial regulation role of, 484
grants provided by, 487
inflation control efforts, 305
lending program of, 488
neoliberal ideology embraced by, 307
1990s interest rate reductions, 301
regulation enactment by, 479
regulatory powers of, 479
2008 financial crisis and, 283, 483
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 488
Federal Trade Commission
consumer fraud survey, 65, 94
fraud, identity theft, criminal complaints report, 577n1
identity theft victim surveys, 88
risky purchasing practices findings, 192
theft victim surveys, 88
use of modest sanctions, 653
(p. 695) Feeley, Malcolm, 603–4, 619
Felson, Marcus, 387, 455
Females
addictions leading to crime by, 208
arrest statistics, 205
asset misappropriation by, 109
California retrospective study findings, 243–44
corporate crime by, 207, 261
corporate leadership by, 209
crime-related statistics, 205
embezzlement by, 5, 109–10, 131t , 141–42, 202, 210
exploitation of, in low paid jobs, 69
family reasons for committing crime, 142
Five-Factor Inventory findings, 115–16
gender gap in crime commission, 200–201, 210, 261–62
growth of crimes by, 5, 109–10, 119
limited crime commission by, 201
no-win workplace situations for, 205
pink-collar crime by, 202
reasons for committing crimes, 142, 172, 203–5
victimization of, 69, 72
white-collar crime research, 206–7
workplace behavior differences, 204
Yale study findings, 34, 51
Fernandes, Nuno, 335
Fertility clinic fraud, 142
Final Solution of Nazi Germany, 466
Financial Conduct Authority (UK, FSA), 587
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FCEN), 264
Financial crisis (2008), 275–90, 479. See also Madoff, Bernie
aftermath, 285–89
defendants' status, resources, connections, 288
definitional trivialization influence, 39, 51–52
difficulties of criminal convictions, 287
factors leading up to, 11–12, 14, 51–52, 72, 482–83
FBI’s Operation Malicious Mortgage, 286
Federal Reserve Bank role, 283, 483
global impact of, 63, 70, 186–87, 194n1, 294
mortgage-backed securities and, 276–78, 280, 282–84, 295
negative socioeconomic consequences, 288–89
post-crisis homicide rates, 326
risk ratings, fallacies and frauds, 281–84
SEC’s noncriminal charges, 285–86
subprime mortgages, 12, 36, 43, 48, 51, 278, 280–81, 284–85
TARP bailout, 482–83
U.S. role in creating, 276–80
Financial effects, of white-collar defendants, 610–11
Financial fraud
characteristics of offenders, 202
costs of, 94–95
Financial Industry Regulation Authority (U.S.), 587
Financial Services Authority (UK), 587
Financial Services Modernization Act (1999), 263, 487
Financial Services Roundtable, 315
Financial wrongdoing
corporate opportunities for engaging in, 297, 299, 300, 302, 306, 313–15, 321–22
defined, 296, 322n2
Enron corporation, 312–13, 319
Financialization
Commodity Futures Modernization Act, 278, 308, 310–12, 315, 321
conditions for engaging in, 295–96
defined/examples, 294–95, 296
Enron, financial wrongdoing, 312–13, 315–17
facilitation of, 295
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, 278, 282, 307–8
industrial sector and, 305–7
market fundamentalism and, 307
neoliberal ideology and, 307
off-balance-sheet partnerships, 305–6, 309f , 316–19, 321
organizational structure facilitation of, 307
pipeline companies, energy trading, 313–15
political capitalism and new forms of, 305–19
political-legal arrangements and, 296, 297
redefining corporate structures, 302–4
shadow banking expansion, 315–17 (p. 696)
socializing capital, 300–302
state facilitation of, 295
Finland, 183t , 184t , 185t , 189f , 657n2
Fischer, Ronald, 350
Five-factor personality trait model (“The Big Five”), 103, 115–19, 419–20
Fligstein, Neil, 283
Food product deaths, 63–64
Forbes, “Best Countries for Business” (2011), 355–56, 356t
Ford Motor Company, 31, 63, 141, 307, 320
Ford Pinto scandal, 63, 141, 374, 436, 450
Formal social control, 275, 276
Formative Era (1940s-early 1960s), of research, 130, 131t , 133–37, 144n3
Fornango, Robert, 337, 340n4
Forst, Brian, 243
Fourth Amendment (U.S. Constitution), 566
France, 586t
Frank-Dodd Wall Street Reform, 323n11
Frantz, Michael, 617–18
Fraud. See also Accounting fraud; Consumer fraud; Medicaid fraud; Mortgage industry fraud; Securities fraud; Subprime lending fraud
academic fraud, 175
age-related risks, 68–69
Canada Anti-Fraud Center, 546, 547, 549, 551, 553
Department of Justice investigations, 34, 261, 489, 571
disaster fund fraud, 153
fertility clinic fraud, 142
historical background, 2
investment, 62
land-flip frauds, 372
lending-institution fraud, 172
mail fraud, 243
mass-marketing fraud, 547, 549–50, 551f
middle-class crime and, 177–78
personal, 62
postal fraud, 34
real-estate industry, 454
retail fraud, 91t , 93, 144
Russia’s targeting of, 589
sentencing in Europe, 589–90
Serious Fraud Office, UK, 588
telemarketing fraud, 36, 65, 105, 107, 142, 161, 175, 549
types of fraudsters, 4
wire fraud, 34
Fraud Act (2006, Great Britain), 596
Fraud Discovery Institute, 617
Fraudsters
charges against, 290n4
high status vs. low status, 594
high-status, 594
high-status vs. low-status, 594
middle class, 150
punitive attitudes towards, 673t , 674t
regulatory sanctions against, 597
seasoned, 178
sentencing considerations, 595
slippery-slope, 585
small time, 4
social security, 594
specialist, 595
telemarketing, 36, 107, 161
UK, SFO-convicted, 588
unemployed, 111
varied criminal careers of, 599
Friedman, Meyer, 117
Friedrichs, David O., 71, 105–6, 451
Frustration-aggression complex, 50
Gabor, Thomas, 176
Galanter, Marc, 646
Galleon, insider-trading case, 583, 585
Garrett, Brandon, 592
Gates, Bill, 586
Geis, Gilbert, 3, 49, 128
analysis of Moeves Plumbing Company, 129
Cautious Era research by, 131t , 137
Expansion Era research by, 139
Formative Era research by, 133
Modern Era research by, 132t
report on antitrust cases, 138
Geithner, Timothy, 487, 488
Gender, 1, 6. See also Females
aggregate-level crime patterns, 203
expansion of offenders, 6 (p. 697)
and life-course perspective, 261
male vs. females, similarities, differences, 207–8
men vs. women crime data, 109–10
offender demographics, 102
socioeconomic status and, 69–70
victimization and, 69, 72
of white-collar offenders, 109–10
workplace inequalities, 204–5
Gender egalitarianism, 349
General Electric, 307, 316–17, 320
General Motors, 50, 209, 307, 320
Gerber, Jurg, 129
Gerhart, Barry, 370
Germany
costs of middle-class crime in, 186
fraudulent benefit claims, corruption in, 190f
middle-class crime rate, 182, 192
offender crime rate, 192
sentencing in, 590
Getz, Kathleen, 353
Geyer, Matthew D., 266
Gibbons, Don C., 671
Gibbs, Carole, 632–33
Gilbert, Michael, 53
Giuliani, Rudy, 608
Glass-Steagall Act (1933), 278, 307, 481, 506
GlaxoSmithKline, 655
Global Economic Crime Survey (PricewaterhouseCoopers), 552
Global inequalities, 70–71, 173–74
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE), 349–50
Global trade networks, 262–63
Global-Tech Appliances, Inc. et. al. v. SEB S. A. (2011), 575–76
Goff, Colin, 49, 133
Goldman Sachs, 173, 283, 284, 286, 487, 488, 585
Goldstein, Adam, 283
Goldstraw-White, Janice, 207
Gore, Al, 508–9
Gottfredson, Michael R., 51, 116–17, 265, 625–26. See also Self-control theory
Gottschalk, Peter, 206
Governmental National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), 277
Grabosky, Peter, 178
Graham, John L., 349
Gramm, Phil, 314–15
Gramm, Wendy, 314
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act (1999), 278, 282, 307–8
Grand juries
investigatory powers of, 565–66
lying to, 572
Granovetter, Mark, 179
Great Britain
asbestos deaths, 53, 61
Association of British Insurers, 186
consumer revolts against banks, 181
costs of middle-class crime in, 186–87
18th-century moral economies, 170, 179, 193
Families Against Corporate Killers, 67
Fraud Act, 596
moral economy of, 179
National Consumer Council, 70
Office of Fair Trading (OFT), 61, 63, 65
phone hacking conviction, 597
plea bargaining with offending networks, 583
post-imprisonment employment study, 597
regulation approaches, 508
risk-based systems study, 529
sentencing levels, 584
sentencing study, 597
sources of victimization knowledge, 61
2001, Crime Survey, 186
2009 expenses scandal, 173
2015, bank fines, 587
Great Depression, 278, 300, 302, 481, 485
Great Society initiative, 277
Green, Penny, 60
Green, Pincus, 592
Greenpeace, 532
Greenspan, Alan, 515
Group conformity, 467–68
Guanxi (Chinese cultural practice), 346, 355–58, 598
Guedes, Jose, 335
Gupta, Raj, 585, 586
Guthrie, Woody, 622–23
(p. 698) Haantz, Sally, 206
Hagan, John L., 11–12, 221, 224, 594
Hartung, Frank, 104, 131t , 137
Harvard, student cheating scandal, 229
Hazardous waste dumping, 258
Headworth, Spencer, 11–12
Health insurance fraud, 91t , 93
Health insurance industry abuses, 143
Hedge fund manipulations, 36
Henderson, Charles Richmond, 27
Hirschi, Travis, 51, 115, 116–17, 265, 625–26. See also Self-control theory
Hispanics/Latinos
street-crime overrepresentation, 109
2005-2011, sentencing data, 151t
Hobbs, Dick, 161
Hochstetler, Andy, 53, 109
on absence of credible oversight, 545
“generative worlds” notion, 136
on inter-/intra-organizational cultures, 452
on the lure of crime, 331, 368, 369
on perceived costs of criminalization, 371
on rational choice, 465
rational choice perspective review, 629–30
white-collar crime, definition, 150–52
on why adults commit crime, 225
Hoelter, Herb, 612
Hofstede, Gerstedt, 351, 352, 353, 357
Holder, Eric, 286, 487, 489–90
Hollinger, Richard C., 414
Holtfreter, Kristy, 191–92, 336, 445, 448, 670
Home Depot scandal, 11
Homicide, 63, 243, 326
Hong Kong, Corruption Perception Index, 355t
Horning, Donald M., 131t , 137
Horton, Henry P., 11
House arrest, 572, 590, 615
Houston Natural Gas, 310–11
How They Got Away with It: White Collar Criminals and the Financial Meltdown (Will, Brotherton, Handelman), 582
HSBC, 493, 587, 596
Huisman, Wim, 440
Human trafficking, 403, 595
Hurricane Katrina, disaster fund fraud, 153
Hyman, David A., 93
Identity effects, of white-collar defendants, 611–13
Identity theft
avoidance behavior and, 14
costs of, 79, 83, 89t , 93–94
FTC surveys of, 88
Internet’s role in, 11
Lexis-Nexis survey findings, 93–94
survey findings, 65
2007 costs, 89t
by women, 5
Imprecations, of ancient Egypt, 26
Incarceration
age-related risk factors, 259
Collins'/Schmidt’s study of, 116
cost considerations, 15, 84t
as crime prevention intervention, 390
dangers of, 614
effects on white-collar offenders, 613–15
increasing rates of, 16
Klenowski’s work on, 128
loss of rights due to, 614–15
lost wages due to, 86
sentencing variables, 593
women’s data, 206
Index of Consumer Sentiment, 340n4
Index of Tax Compliance (Schneider), 189f , 190, 190f
India
Bangladesh production factory fires, 532
Bhopal poisoning, 63
cultural values studies of, 348
middle-class growth in, 174
Indonesia, 348, 352
Inequality. See also Socioeconomic status
cross-national variation in, 156
economic, as causal factor, 149, 155–56, 188
middle class, globalization, and, 173–74
social, as causal factor, 50, 155–56
Inferno (Dante), 2
Informal social control, 144, 248, 258–59, 260, 267
Inglehart, Ronald, 350
In-group collectivism, 349
Insider trading, 81, 141, 142
Institute for People with Criminal Records, 616–17
(p. 699) Institutional architecture of the United States (U.S.), 647–48
Institutional collectivism, 349, 350
Insurance fraud
Association of British Insurers findings, 186
consumer reasons for, 181
Europe, 182, 183t184t
false claims, 169, 176
FBI survey findings, 93
health insurance industry, 91t , 93, 143
inflated claims, 179
non-healthcare, 91t
United Kingdom, 182
Intellectual property fraud, 346, 351, 589
Internal Revenue Service, “tax gap” estimates, 91–92
Internet
“anticipation of crime” behavior, 83
banking crimes, 11, 181
crime characteristics, 178
cyberfraud opportunities, 181–82
fraud, 72, 81
middle-class crimes, 175, 178
phishing e-mail scams, 182, 388
victimization scams, 65, 68, 175, 182, 191–92, 202
Interrogation practices, 607
Investigating white-collar criminals. See also Enron Corporation; Federal Bureau of Investigation; Prosecuting white-collar criminals; Savings and loan debacles; Yale White-Collar Crime Project
of BCCI, 493
in Canada, 546–50
by the CFTC, 479
city-specific investigations, 238
complexities/challenges, 15, 286, 491, 562
of Countrywide/Mozilo, 286
ethics codes as cornerstones of, 376
Euribor investigation, 587
evidence, collecting and preservation, 568
by the FDIC, 479
by the Federal Reserve, 479
by GLOBE program, 349
by the government, 564–66
government funding of, 81, 339
grand juries role in, 565–66, 570, 572
individuals and organizations, 566–68
of Merrill Lynch, 489
of mortgage/lending fraud, 101, 490
of Prudential Insurance, 374
search warrants, 565–66
by the SEC, 141, 318–19, 479
specialized methods for, 250n2
Upjohn warnings, 567–68
by U.S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, 481
weighting of offenses, 151
Investment banking industry fraud (2000-2008), 11, 12, 14
Jail Time Consulting, 617–18
Jail Time: What You Need to Know…Before You Go to Federal Prison (Frantz), 617
Japan, 289, 349
Jefferson, Thomas, 643
Jenkins, Anne, 442
Jensen, Eric L., 129
Jesilow, Paul, 108–9
Jóhannesson, Jón Ásgeir, 589
Johnson, David, 46–47
Johnson, George E. Q., Jr., 27
Johnson, Lyndon, 277
Joshi, Mahendra, 467
Jou, Susyan, 359
Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 129
Joynt, Jack, 606
JPMorgan Chase, 487
Julius Caesar (Shakespeare), 26
Kagan, Robert A., 439–40, 512
Kane, John, 670
Karstedt, Susanne, 173, 176–77, 178, 185–86
Kay, Fiona, 221
Keane, Carl, 449, 465
Keating, Charles, 482
Kennedy, Robert, 40
Kenner, Hurnard J., 27
Kerley, Kent, 597
Keynesian economics, 277
Kinder, Richard, 311–12, 313, 315, 316
Klenowski, Paul, 110, 128, 208
Klingemann, Harold, 350
Koinis, Gerry, 337, 340n4
(p. 700) Kolz, Arno R., 115–16, 117
KPMG, 587, 596
Kracauer, Sigfried, 171
Kramer, Ronald C., 442, 449
Kreuger, Ivar, 29, 33
Kruger, Niclas A., 328–29
Labeling theory, 604–5
Land, Kenneth C., 328
Land-flip frauds, 372
Lareau, Annete, 160
Laub, John H., 245, 248, 255, 260
Lawson, Stephen, 609
Lay, Kenneth, 33, 101–2, 205, 308–11, 318–19, 482, 486, 585
Learning theories, 136, 635
Lee, Matthew T., 450
Legal enforcement limits, on corporate crime, 654–56
Lehman Brothers
bankruptcy/downfall of, 482, 637n4
corporate fraud/no indictments, 51
energy trading operation, 319
loan origination tactics, 281
Lending-institution fraud, 172
Leo, Richard, 46–47
Leonard, William N., 138
Lesieur, Henry R., 332. See also Contingency model of organizational crime
Levi, Michael, 71, 339, 340n4
Levine, Dennis, 583
Levine, Larry, 618
Levitt, Arthur, 491
Lewis, Roy V., 243–44
Lexis-Nexis survey, 93–94
Li, Ling, 356–57
LIBOR rate-fixing scandal, 90, 95, 290, 587–88
Life-course perspective. See also Adolescents; Age/ageing; Children; Criminal careers; Developmental/life-course criminology
adolescent precursors, 217–34
behavioral patterns, 6
Cullen on, 253
demographic factors, 262
description, 6, 254–56, 265–67
Elder/life-course definition, 245
fixed vs. malleable tendencies, 257
focus of theories on, 255–56
gender and, 261
global studies of, 238
longitudinal patterns of, 239
longitudinal studies, 120
offending patterns and, 255
Philadelphia Birth Cohort Studies, 238
on role of the individual, 261
social change and, 262–64
Lifestyles of white-collar offenders, 114–15
Listwan, Shelley J., 117
Litchenwald, Terrance G., 202
Lombroso, Cesare, 2
Lundman, Richard J., 129
Lybarger, Jeff, 110
Mack, Stephanie, 610
Mackey, William, 150–52
Madensen, Tamara D., 455
Madoff, Bernard
adolescence and, 227–29, 233–34
evasion of detection by, 651
impact of case on global economy, 101
mens rea and, 287
Ponzi scheme fraud of, 10, 14, 259, 651
reasons for committing fraud, 218
sentencing of, 228, 584
Mail fraud, 243
Makkai, Toni, 525, 627
Management-based regulation, 424, 506, 509, 516
Managers, low-level, financial fraud by, 202
Manifest criminal justice strategies, psychological effects of, 607–8
Manson, Donald A., 206
Manza, Jeff, 676
Mariner Energy, 321
Marital rape, 41
Marital status variables, of white-collar offenders, 113
Market economy, 289, 326, 496, 646
Market fundamentalism
emergence as guide to public policy, 296
Enron’s minimal impact on, 313
financialization and, 307
neoliberal ideology and, 299–300
(p. 701) Marriage
DLC focus on, 248
drug use and, 242
extramarital affairs, 135
fraud by spouse, 66–67
influence on offending, 260
and movement away from crime, 248
reaction to spouse’s crime, 610
social control’s attention to, 248
spousal privilege, 609
in white-collar offenders profile, 102, 113, 119, 239, 248, 250, 257, 669
Martin, John P., 597
Martin, Kelly D., 445
Mason, Karen A., 610
Mass-marketing fraud, 547, 549–50, 551f
Matza, David, 138, 208, 221, 467
McCain, John, 486
McCarthy hearings (McCarthyism), 130, 137
McCarthyism, 130
McEnroe, John E., 634
McGurrin, Danielle, 71
McKendall, Marie A., 334, 447
McKinsey & Company, 311, 315–16, 585, 586
McLean, Bethany, 471
Medicaid fraud
doctors who commit, 112
lax oversight implication, 152–53
punitive attitudes towards, 671, 672t , 673t
risk factors for committing, 153
Vaughan’s research of, 131t , 140–41
Medicare fraud, 153
Mens rea
legal requirements for, 78–79, 441, 574–75
for street vs. corporate crimes, 87
substantiation difficulties, 287
Mental illness, of white-collar offenders, 158
Merrill Lynch, 36, 52, 319, 489
Merton, Robert K., 44–45, 136–37, 329, 444. See also Anomie/strain theory
Messner, Steven F., 330, 646
Meta-regulation, 509–10, 511t , 516
Middle-age offenders, 259
Middle-class adolescents, 217–19, 222–24, 226–29, 233
Middle-class crime, 168–95
academic fraud as, 175
choice, opportunity, moral constraints, and, 177–80
conceptual frameworks of, 169
contemporary offenders and victims, 174–75
costs of, 186–87
as crimes of everyday life, 193
defined, 176–77
Farrall/Karstedt on, 173, 176–77, 185–86
Gabor on, 176
historical background, 170–73
Internet-related, 175
Kracauer’s observations of, 171
major types of, 177–78
monetary losses of, 169–70
moral economy of, 177–80, 180f
Newman on, 171
role of technology, 175
scope of, 181–87
technology’s role in, 168, 175
victimization and transgression, 181–86, 183t185t
Weisburd on, 172–73
white-collar crime vs., 177
Middle-class offenders
characteristics of, 174–75
as main offenders, 34, 53, 102, 119
types of offenses, 47
upbringing, 6
Middle-classes (and families)
childrearing style of, 161, 162
crimes of everyday life and, 170, 193–94
Lareau’s study of, 160
morality/need, greed, lure, 191–92
Riesman’s description of, 227
social/cultural conditions of, 162
Milgram, Stanley, 373, 466
Military contracting crimes, 83–84, 95–96, 153
Milk case deaths (China), 63–64, 68
Milken, Michael, 583
Milkovich, George, 370
Milner, Murray, 227
Minamata disease, 63
Minkow, Barry, 617
Mintz, Joel A., 649
Misappropration of money
by bank presidents, 4
cost to U.S. businesses, 101 (p. 702)
by Crundwell, Rita, 102
lax oversight role in, 152–53
lower-level status of, 109
in Mainland China, 356
in military contracting crimes, 153
as occupational crime, 151
Mitchelson, William R., 608
Modern Era (1990s-Present), of research, 132t , 133
Moffitt, Terrie E., 245
Mokhiber, Russell, 129
Moore, Michael, 43
Moral economy and middle-class crime
choice, opportunity, moral constraints, 177–80
consumers and business, 187–88
democracy/citizens and governments, 188–91
dimensions of, 180, 180f
in Europe, 192
factors shaping, 170
Morality
Durkheim’s conception of, 296
“generalized morality,” 170, 179, 180, 188, 193
gray zone of, 173, 176
Judge Rakoff’s stand for, 52
“market-embedded morality,” 181
middle-class, 191–92, 193
shaping of via unfair practices, 170
weakened effect on offenders, 7
Morgan, J. P., 29
Mortgage industry fraud. See also Subprime lending fraud
consumer lying and, 72
costs of, 80, 86, 90, 94–95
economic meltdown from, 35–36
FCEN report, 264
Financial Services Modernization Act and, 263–64
fraud risk factors, 68
impact on older people, 68
1997-2005 data, 264
NWCCC study, 65
socioeconomic status and, 69
2000-2008 data, 11, 12, 14
2007-2011 data, 101
UK losses, 63
victimization prevention, 80–81
Mortgage-backed securities (MBS), 276–78, 280, 282–84, 295
Motivations for white-collar crimes. See also Opportunities for white-collar crimes
anomie-strain theory and, 330
booms and recessions, 12, 331, 333, 336
coupling with opportunity, 389, 545–46
Cressey’s Other People’s Money on, 135
criminological studies of, 543, 545–46
cultural factors, 359
defensive motivations, 261
economic considerations, 327–28
fear/threat of loss, 262
of females, 203
gender and, 1, 141–42
greed factors, 191–92
individuals' contexts, 468–69, 503, 543–44, 597, 624
industry factors, 334
inequality factors, 155–56
institutional/cultural contexts, 11
neutralization and, 284
organizational context, 417–20, 437, 441, 656
qualitative research on, 130, 132
strain theory and, 444
victimization factors, 175
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick
on “a lot of behavior that’s not good for us,” 53
street-crime focus of, 42
on “trivializing the lunatic crime rate,” 39, 40–42, 53
Mozilo, Angelo, 35, 44, 282, 284, 286. See also Countrywide Financial
Muckrakers, 25, 27, 29. See also Norris, Frank; Sinclair, Upton; Tarbell, Ida
Mueller, Robert, 286
Mukasey, Michael B., 489
Mullins, Christopher W., 208
Multilayer-subsidiary form, 303, 303f , 312
Murdock, Tamera Burton, 233
Nagin, Daniel S., 625
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
(p. 703) Challenger space shuttle catastrophe, 132t , 143, 436
studies of criminogenic culture at, 128
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 285
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), 33
National Public Survey on White-Collar Crime (U.S.), 61, 577n1
National White-Collar Crime Center (NWCCC), 61, 543
Natural Gas Clearinghouse, 311
Near, Janet P., 335, 445
Nelson, Margaret, 223, 225
NEO Five-Factor Inventory, 115–17
Neoliberal ideology
financialization and, 307
impact on public policy, 296
market fundamentalism and, 299–300
premises of, 297, 299–300
promised benefits of, 277–78
UK, growth of, 181
U.S., growth of, 181, 277
Netherlands
fraudulent benefit claims, corruption in, 190f
immoral, illegal behavior in, 184t
middle-class crime rate, 192
offender rate, 192
real-estate industry fraud case, 454
sentencing in, 591
tax compliance and corruption in, 189f
victimization in, 183t
waste-processing industry study, 451
Neutralizations, 162, 208, 467, 469, 470f , 472, 543, 598
New Deal legislation, 302, 481, 510
New Hampshire, student cheating scandal, 229
New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Co. v. United States (1909), 563
New York Stock Exchange, 489
New Zealand, life course studies, 238
Newman, Donald, 171
Newman, Jerry M., 370
Nielsen, Vibeke Lehmann, 515
1929 stock market crash, 471
Non-whites, 5, 109. See also African Americans; Hispanics/Latinos
Norris, Frank, 27
Norway
crimes of everyday life rate, 185t , 192
female white-collar criminals, 206–7
fraudulent benefit claims, corruption in, 190f
immoral, illegal behavior rate, 184t
media reports, 206
victimization rate, 183t
Obama, Barack, 486–88, 489
Obstruction of justice, 562, 568
Occupational crimes. See also Embezzlement; Employee theft; specific occupational crimes
Clinard/Quinney on, 435
costs of, 91, 91t , 96
Cressey’s work on, 104, 114
defined, 105, 151, 435, 436
employee theft as, 409
Friedrichs on, 105
offender characteristics, 104
organizational context in, 454
2004, ACFE survey, 114
2012, U.S. economic losses data, 151
women’s participation in, 200, 208–9
Occupational opportunity, 110, 248–49
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 506
O'Connor, Seini, 350
Odom, Marcus D., 634
Off-balance-sheet partnerships, 305–6, 309f , 316–19, 321
Offender costs of white-collar crime, 84t , 86, 89
Offender search theory, 392
Offense-/offender-based definitions, of white-collar crime
advantages of, 256, 664
characteristics of offenders, 4, 5
crime-specific approach to, 400
definition/description, 13–14, 256
dissensus over relative merits of, 25
of Edelhertz, 3–4
employee theft as, 409
focus on social characteristics of offenders, 14 (p. 704)
of Geis and Pontell, 3–4
as “low-hanging fruit” approach, 137–38
offender-based vs., 14, 121, 150, 400
offense-based vs., 14, 121, 150, 400
popularity of, 671
specific definition of, 664
Sutherland’s preference for, 33, 256, 409
types of, 4, 150
types of offense-based crimes, 13–14
Ohlin, Lloyd, 444, 546
On Duties (Cicero), 2
“One-shot” offenders, 258
Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), 547
Ontogenic factors in criminal offending patterns, 255, 260
Operational trivialization of white-collar crime, 45, 46
Opportunities for street crimes, 9, 382, 385
Opportunities for white-collar crimes, 9–11, 382–404. See also Motivations for white-collar crimes
action spaces, 392, 401
age-related, 258
alternate assumptions of theories of, 388–90
antisocial behavior and, 245
attitudinal characteristics of offenders, 159
causal factors, 9–13, 116, 133–34, 152–54
causative for other opportunities, 385–86
CHEERS criteria for prevention, 390
consumer fraud, 262–63
coupling with motivation, 389, 545–46
crime pattern theory and, 382, 383, 390, 392, 396, 401
“crime-as-choice” theory and, 178
cultural influences, 157
deregulation’s impact on, 284, 289
during economic booms, 336, 338
employee theft and, 421–22
everyday movements of activity and, 385
gender roles and, 261
life-course perspective, 247, 254
in management positions, 1
market deregulation and, 181
mechanisms of causing crime, 384
middle-class crime and, 168, 169, 174–76, 178, 180f , 191–92, 194n1
modus operandi and, 396–97
multiple stages in, 397–98
nodes, 392, 392f , 401
organizational role in shaping, 438
paths, 260, 332, 392, 395, 401
place (situation context) and, 395–96
political-legal arrangements role, 297
principles (10) of, 384–88
product influences on, 386
rational choice theory and, 332–33
role of, 383–90
routine activity theory, 327, 382, 391, 391f , 393, 396, 401
seizing vs. avoiding, 163
Shover/Hochstetler on, 136
situational crime prevention and, 382, 383, 390, 393, 394t
social change and, 386
social status and, 256
social/technical changes and, 386
specificity of, 384–85, 389
strategies for reducing, 386–88
“street” vs. “suite” offenders, 9–10, 398–99
time/space concentration of, 385
types of, 171–72
Wang/Holtfreter’s examination of, 336
by women, 203, 207, 209–10
work-related facilitation of, 260, 261, 463
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 310
Organizational actors, 437–38
Organizational criminogenic properties
actors, 437–38
incompetence to comply, 439–41
shaping behavior of agents, 438
Organizational culture
“bad apples,” 319, 463–66, 472, 516
“bad barrels,” 463–66, 472
benefits analysis of crime commission, 369t , 370–71
Challenger explosion and, 143
challenges of investigations in, 15
constructs used in defining, 358
corporate crime and, 453–54 (p. 705)
cost analysis of crime commission, 369t , 371–75
enforcement mechanisms, 368, 376, 377, 644, 650–54
ethics codes, 368, 376–77
ethics training, 368, 376, 629
facilitation of offending behaviors, 260, 261, 463
functions of, 371, 452
NASA Challenger explosion and, 143
perceived benefits analysis of criminality, 369t
perceived costs analysis of criminality, 369t , 371–72, 376–77
top management support, 368, 376
Organizational ethnography, 128–29, 134, 137
Organizational incompetence to comply, 439–41
Organizational self-restraint, 463–73
drivers of white-collar crime, 466–68
facilitating factors, 468–70
prevention strategies, 470f
Organizational strategy
criminogenic dispositions, 438
goals and means, 441–43
strain, 443–46
Organizational structure
autonomy and responsibility, 448–50
benefits analysis in criminalization, 369t
centralization, 368, 372–73, 377, 449
costs analysis in criminalization, 369t , 372–75, 377–78
decision-making structures, processes, 450
defined, 372
departmentalization, 368, 372–75, 377
Enron scandal and, 313, 316
financialization facilitated by, 307
horizontal/vertical differentiation, 447–48
internal oversight, 450–51
management control of, 111
political-legal arrangements and, 298
size and complexity, 447–48
unintended consequences of, 9
Vaughan’s Medicare fraud study, 131t , 141
Other People’s Money (Cressey), 135
Ott, Steven J., 358
Outsiders, 182–83, 187
Over-deterrence costs of white-collar crime, 84t , 86–87
Oversight and rule making. See Regulatory oversight and rule making
Padgett, Kathy, 676
Pandit, Vikram, 488
Parables, of ancient Egypt, 26
Paradigms
crime science, 400
criminal career, 239–40
decision making, 367
DLC, 249
organizational, 440
Parker, Christine, 515, 594
Passas, Nikos, 132t , 329
Paternoster, Raymond, 331, 625, 628–29. See also Rational choice theory
Patterson, Mark, 488
Paulson, Henry, 488
Payoffs of white-collar crime, 152–54
Pecora, Ferdinand, 481
Peers/peer-groups
of adolescents, 221, 223, 227
in China, 357
loss of approval by, 204
motivation for offending and, 417
neutralizing pressure in, 394t
in prisons, 614
support for unethical behavior by, 399, 468
younger vs. older, longer tenured, 419
Peer-to-peer file-sharing services, 396
Penney, Lisa M., 420
Perceptual deterrence, 622–36
general studies, 627–33
implications, future research directions, 635
perceived sanction threats, studies, 627–34
Sarbanes-Oxley Act and, 633–34
theoretical perceptions of white-collar crime, 624–27
Perjury, 35, 562, 571–72, 574, 590
Perp walk, 572, 608
Perri, Frank S., 202
Pharmaceutical industry, 136, 140
Philadelphia Birth Cohort Studies (1945, 1958), 238
Phishing e-mail scams, 182, 388
(p. 706) Pink-collar crime, by women, 202, 206
Piquero, Alex R., 88, 444
Piquero, Nicole Leeper, 143–44
gender differences in decisions study, 631–32
MBA student study findings, 630–31
organization theory testing by, 628
price fixing by students study, 632
Piracy
scope of products, 92
software, 351–53
victim costs, U.S., 91t , 92
Pitt, Harvey, 488–89
Place management
combating employee theft with, 422–23
influences of, 383
proprietary places, 395
renewal of focus on, 403
required changes in, 395
Place managers
role in preventing crime, 391, 423, 424
utilization of, 394t
Plato, 465
Plea agreements
bargaining for, 570, 572–73, 597
data on trials vs., 562, 578n20
in Great Britain, 583
in Italy, 591
for misappropriation of funds, 102
nonprosecution agreements vs., 288
as superficial enforcement, 492
Poaching, of animals, 393
Police
calls-for-service data fluctuations, 385
of Canada, 547
CHEERS criteria and, 390
corruption by, 175, 182
criminal justice system role, 86, 425–27, 503
in Europe and Nigeria, 589–90
government funding of, 81
lower-class youth and, 224, 234
media depiction of, 43
obtaining data from, 543
recessionary influences on, 331
research inclusion, 202
self-policing, 484, 495
taxonomy of crime costs, 84t
victimization reporting to, 550
Police states, 471
Political capitalism, 297, 298, 299, 305–19
Political necessity of regulation, 480–83
Political-legal arrangements
conflicts of interest created by, 307–8
Enron implosion and, 322
evolution of, 13
financial wrongdoing and, 295–97, 300, 308, 321–22
financialization and, 294–301, 304, 306, 308, 310
illegal opportunities created by, 297, 300
implications of, 304, 306
Ken Lay, pipeline industry, and, 308–10
political capitalism and, 320
Pontell, Henry N., 3–4, 132t , 143, 221
Ponzi, Charles, 563
Ponzi schemes, 90, 94, 202, 259, 489, 584. See also Madoff, Bernard
Postal embezzlement, 243
Postal fraud, 34
Power distance, 348, 349, 352–54
Power-control theory (Hagan), 224
Powerful offenders, 2, 69, 652
Pratt, Travis C., 191–92
Prescription violations by pharmacists, 136
Presidential Address to the American Sociological Society (Sutherland), 3
Presser, Lois, 130
Pretrial motions, 562, 572
“Pretty Boy Floyd” (Guthrie), 622–23
Price fixing, 7, 61, 87, 139, 170, 187, 372, 398, 402, 626–28, 632
Principles of Federal Prosecution of Business Organizations, 568–70
Principles (10) of opportunities for white-collar crimes, 384–88
Prison coaching/consulting groups, 617–18
Private oversight of white-collar crime, 544–45. See also Class-action lawsuits; Whistleblowing
Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (1995), 495
The Process Is the Punishment (Feeley), 603–4, 619
(p. 707) Project on Government Oversight report (2011), 489
Project PhoneBusters (anti-telemarketing fraud), 549
Property crimes
deception/concealment methods, 400
economy-crime relationship index of, 338
FBI UCR index of, 328
fraud rate comparison, 169–70, 177–78, 186
personality traits of offenders, 438
“pure” property crimes, 285
recessions influence on, 327
rise of, 128
serious rating, 666
two wrongs of, 286
Proprietary places, 395
Pros and Cons, speaker agency, 618
Prosecuting white-collar criminals. See also Investigating white-collar criminals; Sentencing white-collar criminals
absence of, in financial crisis, 52, 275, 286, 483
age-related data, 108
bail and pretrial matters, 562, 572
Bucy’s interviews with experts, prosecutors, 118
charging phase, 570–72
civil vs. criminal, 289
complexities/challenges, 15, 43, 52, 169, 289, 562, 563–64
cost factors, 84t , 152
employee theft, 412
establishing guilt, 33, 169
failure to obtain convictions, 286
global oversight reliance on, 53
government funding of, 86
grand juries, role of, 565
gray zone of crimes, 169, 177
high-status vs. low-status offenders, 288
individuals and organizations, 287, 563–64
inspectors' gradual disinclination for, 523
labeling of incidents, 95
mens rea and, 78–79, 87, 287, 441, 574–75
occupational status and, 229
offense selection latitude, 562
pleas and other agreements, 102, 288, 492, 562, 570, 572–73, 578n20, 597
Ponzi schemers, 290n4
pre-indictment case presentation, 568–70
sentencing, 576
“shortcut” offenses, 562
social status and, 171, 177
trials, 288, 492, 562, 572–75
unreliability of related data, 61
by U.S. Justice Department, 482, 486, 489, 490, 492–93, 495
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines and, 493
Yale Study and, 35
Provident Capital Indemnity (PCI) Ltd., 585
Prudential Insurance, illegal “churning” by employees, 374–75
Psychological/emotional effects of criminal justice attention and sanctions, 605–8
Public good, enlisting efforts toward, 493–96
eliminating “too big to fail,” 494
enhanced financed industry regulation, 494
enhanced limits on revolving door, 495
meaningful enforcement, 495–96
Public opinion on white-collar crime, 16, 30, 289, 645, 647, 662–68, 677–79
Public policy
Enron’s efforts at changing, 314
multinational corporation’s influences, 643
neoliberal ideology and, 296
New Deal legislation, 302, 481, 510
public opinion and, 663, 677–78
smart regulation and, 511
socializing capital and, 300
Sweig’s career in, 616–17
transitioning of, 303
Punch, Maurice, 129, 440
Punishment. See also Sanctions; Sentencing white-collar criminals
of adolescents, 218
alternatives to prison, 86
booms/recessions and, 331
in Canada, 552
corporal, by parents, 160
cost considerations, 86, 369t , 371
effects from, 613–16
formal/informal, 159
for fraud, 548
limitations in use of, 2, 15–16, 177, 286, 368, 372, 374, 378 (p. 708)
Milgram’s studies of, 373
Sarbanes-Oxley Act influence on, 493, 654
social status influence on, 171, 224
U.S. citizen’s favoring of, 289
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, 493
victim harm focus of, 79
Punitive attitudes toward white-collar criminals
correlates and causes, 671, 675–76
directions for research, 678–79
research findings summary, 672t674t
trends and patterns, 671
Pyramid schemes. See Ponzi schemes
Quasi-criminals, 2, 60
Quinn, Robert E., 452
Quinney, Earl R., 104–5
corporate misconduct review by, 130
Formative Era research by, 131t
on prescription violations by pharmacists, 136
on types of white-collar crime, 435
Race/ethnicity
importance in some offenses, 68
jury selection rules and, 574
modern era research, 132t
social inequality and, 72
socioeconomic status relation, 70, 108–9
street-crime correlation, 262, 679
2005–2011, U.S. sentencing data, 151t
of white-collar offenders, 108–9
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO), 571
Rajaratnam, Raj, 585, 586
Rakoff, Jed, 492, 586
Ramdani, Dendi, 444, 445, 448
Rape
depiction in inmate’s biography, 614
fraud comparison to, 67
marital, 41
public perceptions of, 622, 666
statutory, 30
Rational choice theory, 1, 130
attribution theory and, 676
bad-apples perspective and, 465
corporate malfeasance and, 633–34
cost-benefit analysis and, 443
crime sciences theories grounding in, 390, 435
criminal justice attention, sanctions, and, 604
criminal motivation theorists drawing upon, 328
criminology and, 624, 636
criticisms of, 440, 636
description, 330–31, 624
deterrence and, 628, 631
economic booms and, 330–31
empirical support for, 329
fear-of-falling motivation and, 446
focus of, 330–31
focus on offenders' choices, 73
limitations of, 504
MBS holdings and, 283–84
modern versions of, 443
moral component of, 637n8
NASA Challenger explosion and, 143, 436
opportunity and, 332–33
Shover/Hochstetler’s review of, 629
Rational decision making, white-collar crime as, 625–27
Reagan, Ronald, 277, 305, 408, 650
Rebovich, Donald J., 670
Recessions. See Economic recessions
Recidivism
of career criminals, 242
cost factors, 86
Gottfredson/Hirschi study, 51
personality traits relation to, 117
reduction strategies, 260
Weisburd/Waring’s study, 242
white-collar offending rates, 114, 117, 244
Red-collar crime, 202
Reddit, 589
Regulation, 503–18. See also Regulatory compliance; Regulatory flexibility; Regulatory governance; Regulatory inspection; Regulatory noncompliance; Regulatory oversight and rule making; Regulatory retreat; Responsive regulation
advice and persuasion, 510–12, 511f
banking and insurance, 307 (p. 709)
Calavita/Pontell/Tillman’s studies, 132t
Clinton-Gore approaches to, 508–9
compliance and enforcement, 189, 510–16
conduct regulation, 403
debates about, 16–17, 505
designing, 506–10
environmental, 61, 443
Gallup public survey of, 289
global inequalities, 70–71
government-imposed restrictions, 506–7
Great Britain approaches to, 508
ignoring, by corporate executives, 6
importance in curbing white-collar crime, 503
internal oversight, 450–51
management-based, 424, 506, 509, 516
meta-regulation, 509–10, 511t , 516
moral economy and, 187
of mortgage-backed securities, 278, 283
new, public demand for, 11
political necessity of, 480–83
prevention limitations, 471
of regulatory agencies, 398
risk-based, 511t , 521–22, 528–30, 534
role in organizational failure, 440
rules and deterrence, 510, 511, 512
safety-regulation compliance, 451
self-regulation, 276, 443
shadow banks avoidance of, 282
smart regulation, 511t , 517
by social institutions, 2330
strategies/models, 511f
UK, violation of, 63
undermining, savings and loan institutions, 263
upperworld offenders' view of, 162
wartime, Hartung’s investigations, 104
Regulatory compliance
anger/defiance vs., 7
corruption and, 170, 189t
deterrence-based vs. cooperative style, 504, 506, 507–8
economics issues, 507
enforcement, 510–16, 513f
ethics in businesses and, 157, 159, 471
factors contributing to, 188–89, 189f , 331, 332, 338
fostering of, 2
Index of Tax Compliance, 189f , 190, 190f , 195n4
“macho” culture response to, 69
motivation, opportunity, and, 439
organizational variance in, 441, 442–43, 447–51
role of organizational structure, 374, 436, 440, 509
techniques of situational prevention, 394t
whistleblowing and, 464, 472
Regulatory flexibility, 506, 509, 516, 517
Regulatory governance
movement towards, 17, 442
polycentric view characteristic of, 521, 522
responsive regulation and, 530–34
Regulatory inspection, 521–35
conflicting policy ideas on, 17
criminalizing corporate noncompliance, 522–24
enforcement pyramid, 513–16, 521–22, 526–28, 530, 534, 535n2
polycentric view on, 521
reintegrative shaming strategy, 521, 522, 524–26, 528, 534, 535n1
responsive regulation, 17, 506, 511t , 512, 514–15, 517, 521–22, 530–34
risk-based regulation, 511t , 521–22, 528–30, 534
Regulatory noncompliance
in Australia, 442
as category of wrongdoing, 139
crime-facilitative culture and, 156
criminalizing, 522–24
decision making and, 449
environmental factors, 456
firm size correlation with, 448
motivation, opportunity, and, 439, 441–42, 443
negative societal impact, 522–23
organizational incompetence and, 439–40
organizational structure and, 447, 449–50
perceived benefits of, 331
rules, deterrence, and, 510
(p. 710) Regulatory oversight and rule making, 479–96. See also Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; Sarbanes-Oxley Act
analysis and results, 550–52
anti-fraud programs, 549–50
campaign financing, 486–87
by the CFTC, 314
choice theories and, 169
credibility of, 369t , 371–75, 547–50
data sources, 546–47
day-to-day, 16
financial wrongdoing and, 296
formal/informal, taxation of, 332
gender and, 207
global-level, 53
government agencies, 279, 306, 321–22, 385
internal, 450–51
IRS abolishment of, 304
laxness in, 9, 10–11, 16, 152–53, 385, 398
legislative changes, 548–49
in low-income areas, 109
managerial, 424–25
middle-class crime and, 169, 178–80
of money laundering, 404
need for, in prevention, 10
off-balance-sheet financing and, 318
private oversight, 544–45
public good, enlisting efforts toward, 493–96
Ramirez’s study of inadequacies, 16
reregulation of financial markets, 315
rollbacks, in financial practices, 278
shadow banks' avoidance of, 282
state oversight, 545, 630
superficial enforcement of, 492–93
transnational (offshore) oversight, 545
undermining methods, 486–93
white-collar crime and, 543–46
withholding resources from, 490–91
Regulatory retreat, 483–85
Reintegrative shaming, 521, 522, 524–26, 528, 534, 535n1
Reisig, Michael D., 191–92
Relationship effects, of white-collar defendants, 608–10
Ren, Ling, 338
Reregulation of markets, 300, 308–9, 311, 314–15
Research on white-collar crime (four eras)
Cautious Era (mid-1960s-mid-1970s), 130, 131t , 133, 137–38
Expansion Era (late 1970s-1980s), 130, 131t132t, 133, 139–42
Formative Era (1940s-early 1960s), 130, 131t , 133–37, 144n3
Modern Era (1990s-Present), 132t , 133, 142–44
Respectable offenders, 15–16
Responsive regulation
description, 511t , 512, 514
effects on behavior vs. attitudes, 515
enforcement pyramid component, 535
movements towards, 17
polycentric view characteristic of, 521, 522
regulatory governance and, 530–34
virtues of, 17, 506, 517
Responsive Regulation (Ayres and Braithwaite), 512
Retail fraud, 91t , 93, 144
Rhodes, William, 243
Rich, Marc, 592
The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison (Reiman and Leighton), 582
Richtel, Matt, 617
Riesman, David, 227
Risk-based regulation, 511t , 521–22, 528–30, 534
Rivers and Harbors Appropriations Act (Refuse Act), 575
Robber barons, 25, 27, 29, 265
Roberts, Joanne, 472
“Robo-signings,” 490, 623
Roche, Michael, 202, 207
Rockefeller, John D., 33
Roman Empire, 26
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 308
Rorie, Melissa, 632–33
Rosenfeld, Richard, 330, 337, 340n4, 646
Rosoff, Stephen M., 221
Ross, Edward A., 2, 27, 265
Rossi, Peter H., 671, 675
(p. 711) Routine activity theory
as crime science component, 382, 383, 390–91
description, 327, 391, 396, 401
offender search theory and, 392–93
Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), 290, 587
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), 547
Rubin, Robert, 488
Russell, Steve, 53
Russia
blat social network in, 355
middle-class growth in, 174
software piracy in, 352
targeting of fraud, corruption, 589
Rust, Roland T., 671
Samanta, Subama, 353, 354
Sampson, Robert J., 225, 245, 248, 255, 260
Sanctions. See also Criminal justice attention and sanctions
administrative, 513, 523, 623
affluence vs. delinquent youths and, 234
alternative sanctions effects, 615–16
certainty of, 550
criminal justice attention and, 603–19
cultural norms and, 589
failures at imposing, 486
financial effects, 610–13
formal legal/informal, 331, 623, 625, 627–29
Greenspan, Alan, and, 515
noncriminal, 285
non-incarcerative, 86, 582
organizational culture and, 371
perceived threats to, empirical studies, 627–34
potential impact on crime rate, 550
price fixing and risk of, 632
psychological/emotional effects, 605–10
regulatory, 334, 515, 517, 595, 597, 623
regulatory offenses resulting in, 95–96
rehabilitative, 587
University of Wisconsin study, 648–49
U.S. Sentencing Commission and, 596
wariness in using to control crime, 15
Sandholtz, Wayne, 350
Sanyal, Rajib, 353, 354
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002)
description, 11, 482, 633–34, 654
Dodd-Frank Act’s expansion of, 490–92
impact on business organizations, 471
punishments strengthened by, 493, 654
research on deterrent effects, 633–34
Sarna, David, 129
Saurwain, Florian, 531
Savings and loan debacles, 35
Calavita/Pontell/Tillman’s studies of, 143
case studies, findings, 398
collective embezzlement, control fraud in, 48
deregulation and, 263, 481–82
land flip frauds, 372
1980s rules reformation, 263
1980s scandals, 14, 129, 143, 385, 398
1990s scandals, 385
1990s study, 132t
prosecutions resulting from, 47
Stewart’s expose on, 129
TARP bailout, 482–83
Tillman’s research on, 143
total estimated U.S. losses, 63
U.S. study findings, 43
Schein, Edgar H., 452
Schmidt, Frank L., 116, 117
Schneider, Friedrich, 189f , 190, 190f
Scholz, John T., 439–40
School cheating scandals, by adolescents, 229, 231f232f
Schroth, Richard J., 469
Schwartz, Jennifer, 202, 207, 376
Schwartz, Richard D., 604
Search warrants, 565–66
Sears, 307, 320, 370, 657n4
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Clinard/Yeager’s analysis of reports to, 139
Division of Enforcement, 587
fining of Mozilo, of Countrywide, 35
limited criminal prosecution authority, 490
negotiated settlement with Bank of America, 52
Office of Inspector General, 489
post-financial crisis actions, 285–86
Rakoff’s criticism of, 492
regulatory powers of, 479
whistleblowing to, 491, 564
(p. 712) Securities and Exchange Commission v. Bank of America (2009), 52
Securities Exchange Act (1934), 481–82
Securities fraud
complexity of, 626
costs of, 94–95
insider-trading, 81, 141, 142
prisoner’s personal remembrance, 616
Skilling’s prison sentence for, 319
Weisburd/Waring’s follow-up study, 241
white-collar status of, 25, 571
work-related opportunities for, 260
Yale group focus on, 34, 241
Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act (1998), 495
Self-actualization, in adolescents, 225, 234
Self-control
Blickle’s study of, 116–17
Collins'/Schmidt’s study of, 116
in con artists, 221
criminological theories of, 200
fraud victimization and, 191–92
limitations in white-collar offenders, 119
social class and, 193
in street vs. white-collar offenders, 158
Self-control theory (Gottfredson and Hirschi), 51, 115, 116–17, 265, 626, 628
Self-efficacy/self-actualization
in adolescents, 219, 223, 225, 234
Self-esteem
in adolescents, 223, 225
inflated, in narcissistic individuals, 116
victimization’s impact on, 67
Self-expression values, 350
Self-inflicted strain, 445
Self-interested behavior, 262, 296, 329, 370, 484, 490, 496, 516, 518n8
Self-policing, 484, 495
Self-regulation, 12, 276, 443, 480, 485, 506–8, 510
Self-reporting, 221, 240, 453, 454
Self-restraint, 169, 178, 180f. See also Organizational self-restraint
Self-serving actions, 12, 27, 219
Sellin, Thorsten, 49
Sentencing Commission (U.S.), 586, 589, 596, 662, 677, 679
Sentencing white-collar criminals, 582–99. See also Plea agreements
biases and variables in, 591–94
in Canada, 548–49
in Continental Europe, 589–91
decisions facing judges in, 15–16, 545, 562
differential patterns of, 584, 589
evaluating effectiveness, 595–98
Forst/Rhodes' study of patterns, 114
future employment considerations, 597–98
historical background, 588–91
levels of sentencing, 583–85
of Madoff, 228, 584
organizational cases, 586–87
pardons, 592–93
“prisoners’ dilemma” model, 597
rogue traders, 585, 586t
in the United Kingdom, 588–89
U.S. guidelines, 493, 545, 576, 585–86, 592, 596, 654–55, 662, 677
Serageldin, Kareem, 286
Serious Fraud Office (SFO, UK), 588
Sex offenders, 240
Sexual abuse/violence
against children, 68, 128, 393, 396
crime script analysis studies of, 403
Shadow banking system
Enron Corporation and, 315–17
Long Term Capital Management and, 485
regulatory recommendations, 494, 503–4
Shakespeare, William, 26
Shame, of being a white-collar defendant, 605–7, 609, 610, 616
Shapiro, Susan, 34, 44, 141, 582. See also Definitional trivialization
Shareholder value, 301–2, 307, 317–20
Shell, 532
“Shortcut” offenses, 562
Shover, Neal, 36, 53, 109
on absence of credible oversight, 545
caution on street-criminals studies, 635
crime-as-choice theory, 178
on ethnographic inquiry, 130
“generative worlds” notion, 136
on inter-/intra-organizational cultures, 452
on the lure of crime, 331, 368, 369
on perceived costs of criminalization, 371 (p. 713)
rational choice perspective review, 465, 629, 630
on telemarketing fraud, 161
on why adults commit crime, 225
Siegel, Martin, 583
Simmel, Georg, 226
Simon, Rita James, 203, 205
Simpson, Sally, 143–44, 178, 331, 336, 395. See also Rational choice theory
on causes of strain, 444
on decision-making structures, processes, 450
factorial survey administration by, 627
managers' decision-making study, 632
organization theory testing by, 628
study of effects of sanctions, 632–33
white-collar offending study, 629
Sin and Society (Ross), 27
Sinclair, Upton, 27
Situational crime prevention, 382, 383, 390, 393, 394t
Skilling, Jeffrey, 311–12, 315–16, 318–19, 467, 482, 563
Skolnick, Jerome H., 604
Slapper, Gary, 438
Slayton, Philip, 610
Slocum, Lee Ann, 632–33
Slora, Karen B., 414
Smart regulation, 511t , 517
Smith, N. Craig, 632
Social bonding, 205, 219, 222, 257, 259
Social change
crime opportunities and, 386
First Amendment and, 617
life-course perspective and, 262–64
Social class
addiction and, 158
adolescent delinquency and, 230, 233
Bonger/Horton, findings on, 11
children and, 159–62, 218, 224–25
delinquency and, 223–26, 227
as factor in victim surveys, 72
gender, race, and, 262
Henderson’s findings on, 27
Sutherland’s findings on, 48
variance in economic opportunities, 162
of white-collar offenders, 110, 111–12
Social compliance, 464, 471–72
Social conformity, 466–68, 467–68, 470f , 472
Social control
in adolescence, 222
agents/agency theory and, 141, 142, 438
of corporations, 645, 651
Durkheim on, 326
formal, 275, 276
gender differences in, 203
government-imposed restrictions, 507
informal, 144, 248, 258–59, 260, 267
networks, 141
social class and, 162, 226
U.S. efforts at, 275, 289
varied reactions to, 260
Social costs of white-collar crime, 53, 71, 82, 86, 90
Social development, 245
Social distribution of victimization
age, 68–69
gender, 69
global inequalities, 70–71
socioeconomic status, 69–70
Social learning theories, 453–54, 635
Social support, 338
Socializing capital, 300–302
Société Générale, 586t , 587
Socioeconomic status
Cressey’s findings on, 104
Sutherland’s definitional inclusion of, 28–29, 31, 103, 222
white-collar crime victimization and, 69–70
of white-collar offenders, 110–12
Sociogenic factors in criminal offending patterns, 255, 260
Sockell, Donna, 376
Software piracy, 351–52, 351–53
Soviet Union, 507, 526
Spain, cultural values studies, 348
Specialization in offending, 238, 240–41, 243, 248, 250n2
Special-purpose entities (SPEs), 305, 306, 316
Spector, Paul E., 420
Spitzer, Elliot, 489
Spousal privilege, 609
Stadler, William A., 613, 615
Stanford, Allen, 585
(p. 714) Stanford Ponzi scheme, 489
State oversight of white-collar crime, 545, 630
Stavisky, Serge Alexandre, 29
Steen, Sara, 671, 675
Steffensmeier, Darrell, 202, 203, 207
Stereotypes of white-collar offenders, 3, 114, 201, 203–5, 253, 258, 662
Stern, Gerald M., 129
Stewart, James B., 129
Stewart, Martha, 205, 563, 568
Stock-brokerage
insider trading, 81
swindling practices, 27
Stone, Christopher D., 439, 646, 651
Strain theory. See Anomie/strain theory
Street crime/criminals
age-related factors, 107–8
Caucasian perpetrators or, 670
causal role of opportunity in, 9, 328, 382, 385, 387
causes of desistance from, 258
characteristics of sentenced offenders, 151t
contexts of, 395
cost-benefit analysis, 96n1
crime science prevention studies, 393
crime science studies of, 393
crimes of every day life vs., 185
decreasing rates, 101, 149
economic costs of, 14, 79, 84t , 88, 89–90
economic fluctuations and, 326–29, 337, 340n2
facilitating factors, 9
favors asked in, 169, 176
forgery by, 150
gender-related data, 109–10
inequality and, 155
investigation methods, 287
Lewis’s comparative study of, 243–44
life-course study findings, 246
measurement strides in tracking, 13
mens rea association with, 87
Moynihan’s focus on, 42
opportunity’s role in committing, 382
police units dealing with, 426
predictive models, 338, 369
punishment/deterrence focus on, 2
race/socioeconomic correlation, 108, 110–11, 262
repeat offenses by, 114
types/locations of, 175
victimization costs, 79, 96
victims' reactions, 66
white-collar crime vs., 9–10, 14, 49, 79, 95, 107, 202, 204, 248, 257, 259, 369, 395, 398–99
Stress, of being a white-collar defendant, 606
Student cheating scandal, New Hampshire, 229
Subjective Expected Utility Theory, 628, 637n7
Subprime lending fraud
and 2008 financial crisis, 12, 36, 43, 48, 51, 278, 280–81, 284–85
Financial Services Modernization Act and, 263–64
global impact of, 35–36, 48
Substance abuse, 135, 158–59, 245, 246, 329, 505, 669. See also Alcohol use; Drug use/abuse
Substance-related crimes, 329
Suicide, 66, 589, 606, 610
Summers, Larry, 487
Sutherland, Edwin H.
American Sociological Society address, 127
challenges/critiques of, 25, 33–34, 45
corporate offending studies, 128, 130, 133–35, 435
on criminology, 44, 50, 127, 170–71
definitions of white-collar crime, 15, 28–32, 40, 48–49, 50–51, 60, 80, 103, 170, 176, 201, 218, 256, 463
differential association theory development, 29, 134, 136, 371, 383, 453
on differential social organization, 29, 297
firms exempted in research, 144n1
Formative Era research by, 131t
Henderson’s Ph.D. advisory for, 27
influence on Quinney’s work, 136
on occupation crimes, 104
published papers, lectures, controversy, 30–31
on regulatory oversight, 10
on “rippling effect” of victimization, 61
Toynbee Club talk (1948), 30–31 (p. 715)
White Collar Crime (1949), 31–32, 127
“White-Collar Criminality” (1939), 28–29
Swartz, Aaron, 589
Sweden, 238, 590
Sweig, Michael, 616–17
Switzerland, 186, 348
Sykes, Gresham, 138, 208, 467
Szockyj, Elizabeth, 132t
Taagepera, Rein, 350
Taiwan, 355t
Tanzi, Calisto, 591
Tappan, Paul W., 33–34, 46–47, 50
Tarbell, Ida, 27
Target scandal, 11
Tax evasion/tax fraud
Benson’s interview-based study, 141
by corporate executives, 4
costs of, 91–92
government-created incentives for, 178
greed as cause of, 175
incentives for, 178
intellectual property fraud and, 351
regression analysis method, 354
research findings summary, 672t
socioeconomic status and, 69
2012, IRS “tax gap” estimate, 91–92
types of schemes, 169, 172–74, 176
UK data, 186
underpayment vs., 389
U.S. sentencing data, 584
“victimless crime” status, 71
whistleblowing rewards for reporting, 564
Tax Reform Act (1986), 320
Taxonomy of costs of white-collar crime, 83, 84t , 85–87
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 448–49
Technology. See also Internet
role in middle-class crime, 168, 175
role in white-collar crime, 11, 135, 263, 440
vulnerability of children to, 68
Telemarketing fraud, 36, 65, 105, 107, 142, 161, 175, 549
Terris, William, 414
Thalidomide, 64
Thatcher, Margaret, 408
Theft. See Burglary
Third World banking systems manipulations,