- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of White-Collar Crime
- Core Themes in the Study of White-Collar Crime
- The Roots and Variant Definitions of the Concept of “White-Collar Crime”
- Theoretical, Empirical, and Policy Implications of Alternative Definitions of “White-Collar Crime”: “Trivializing the Lunatic Crime Rate”
- What Is Known and What Should Be Known About White-Collar Crime Victimization?
- The Costs of White-Collar Crime
- Who Commits White-Collar Crime, and What Do We Know About Them?
- White-Collar Criminals: Ethnographic Portraits of Their Identities and Decision Making
- The Pool of Potential White-Collar Criminals: Whence?
- Middle-Class Crime: Moral Economies Between Crime in the Streets and Crime in the Suites
- Gender Constructions
- Adolescent Precursors of White-Collar Crime
- White-Collar Criminal Participation and the Life Course
- Developmental Perspectives on White-Collar Criminality
- White-Collar Crimes of the Financial Crisis
- Organizational Political Economy and White-Collar Crime
- Economic Fluctuations and Crises
- Cultural Variation
- Criminal Decision Making in Organizational Contexts
- Opportunities for White-Collar Crime
- Employee Theft
- Criminogenic Organizational Properties and Dynamics
- Organizational Self-Restraint
- Oversight and Rule Making as Political Conflict
- Regulation: From Traditional to Cooperative
- Comparing Assumptions Underlying Regulatory Inspection Strategies: Implications for Oversight Policy
- The Credibility of Oversight and Aggregate Rates of White-Collar Crime
- Investigating and Prosecuting White-Collar Criminals
- Sentencing Respectable Offenders
- Effects on White-Collar Defendants of Criminal Justice Attention and Sanctions
- White-Collar Crime and Perceptual Deterrence
- The Practical Challenges of Responding to Corporate Crime
- Public Opinion and Public Policy on White-Collar Crime
Abstract and Keywords
Middle-class crime is a more recent development added to the conceptual framework of white-collar crime. This chapter addresses the increase in fraud committed by “ordinary people” from the middle classes, often in a gray zone between illegality and immorality. Due to changes in consumption, finances, and banking, and foremost the Internet, they are both offenders and targets and victims of crime, resulting in a considerable overlap between offending and victimization. These contemporary developments are analyzed against the backdrop of a globally growing middle class and the profound changes in which its members work, consume, and own property. Europe, with its established and large middle classes, is representative of these changes and the typical fraudulent practices and middle-class fraudsters they generate. These crimes of everyday life constitute the criminality of the middle classes and illuminate their “inner moral life” and moral commitments, both as consumers and as citizens.
Keywords: middle-class crime, crimes of everyday life, moral economy, rise of the middle classes, consumer crime, consumer victimization, tax evasion, benefit fraud, fairness in markets, greed and need
Susanne Karstedt, PhD, is Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Australia.
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